Marc Gorelick

Summary

Affiliation: Medical College of Wisconsin
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Health-related quality of life for pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses: an evaluation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales
    Rakesh D Mistry
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 7:5. 2009
  2. ncbi request reprint Pediatric emergency assessment tool (PEAT): a risk-adjustment measure for pediatric emergency patients
    M H Gorelick
    Division of Emergency Medicine, A I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 8:156-62. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint The kappa statistic was representative of empirically observed inter-rater agreement for physical findings
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, and Children s Research Institute, P O Box 1997, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:859-61. 2006
  4. ncbi request reprint Bias arising from missing data in predictive models
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:1115-23. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Revised Pediatric Emergency Assessment Tool (RePEAT): a severity index for pediatric emergency care
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 14:316-23. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint Lack of agreement in pediatric emergency department discharge diagnoses from clinical and administrative data sources
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 14:646-52. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint The effect of in-room registration on emergency department length of stay
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 45:128-33. 2005
  8. doi request reprint Predicting need for hospitalization in acute pediatric asthma
    Marc Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin and Children s Research Institute, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 24:735-44. 2008
  9. doi request reprint Development and validation of a self-administered questionnaire to measure water exposures in children
    Marc H Gorelick
    Children s Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53201 1991, USA
    Ambul Pediatr 8:388-91. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Construct validity and responsiveness of the Child Health Questionnaire in children with acute asthma
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 90:622-8. 2003

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. pmc Health-related quality of life for pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses: an evaluation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales
    Rakesh D Mistry
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Health Qual Life Outcomes 7:5. 2009
    ..We sought to assess the validity and short-term responsiveness of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL) for febrile illnesses evaluated in the pediatric emergency department (ED)...
  2. ncbi request reprint Pediatric emergency assessment tool (PEAT): a risk-adjustment measure for pediatric emergency patients
    M H Gorelick
    Division of Emergency Medicine, A I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 8:156-62. 2001
    ..To develop a multivariable model predicting the level of care required by pediatric patients for use as a risk-adjustment tool in the evaluation of emergency medical services for children...
  3. ncbi request reprint The kappa statistic was representative of empirically observed inter-rater agreement for physical findings
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, and Children s Research Institute, P O Box 1997, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:859-61. 2006
    ..To determine empirically chance agreement between different clinicians evaluating physical examination findings in children with acute abdominal pain...
  4. ncbi request reprint Bias arising from missing data in predictive models
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:1115-23. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of three common approaches to handling missing data on the results of a predictive model...
  5. ncbi request reprint Revised Pediatric Emergency Assessment Tool (RePEAT): a severity index for pediatric emergency care
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 14:316-23. 2007
    ..To develop and validate a multivariable model, using information available at the time of patient triage, to predict the level of care provided to pediatric emergency patients for use as a severity of illness measure...
  6. ncbi request reprint Lack of agreement in pediatric emergency department discharge diagnoses from clinical and administrative data sources
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 14:646-52. 2007
    ..Diagnosis information from existing data sources is used commonly for epidemiologic, administrative, and research purposes. The quality of such data for emergency department (ED) visits is unknown...
  7. ncbi request reprint The effect of in-room registration on emergency department length of stay
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 45:128-33. 2005
    ..We determine the factors associated with ED length of stay and estimate the effect of an in-room registration process on throughput time...
  8. doi request reprint Predicting need for hospitalization in acute pediatric asthma
    Marc Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin and Children s Research Institute, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 24:735-44. 2008
    ..To develop and validate predictive models to determine the need for hospitalization in children treated for acute asthma in the emergency department (ED)...
  9. doi request reprint Development and validation of a self-administered questionnaire to measure water exposures in children
    Marc H Gorelick
    Children s Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53201 1991, USA
    Ambul Pediatr 8:388-91. 2008
    ..To develop and validate a questionnaire to measure water exposures in children...
  10. ncbi request reprint Construct validity and responsiveness of the Child Health Questionnaire in children with acute asthma
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 90:622-8. 2003
    ..To examine the validity and responsiveness of the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF28) in the context of acute exacerbation of asthma in children...
  11. ncbi request reprint Interobserver agreement in assessment of clinical variables in children with blunt head trauma
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 15:812-8. 2008
    ..The objective was to determine the interobserver agreement in the assessment of historical and physical examination findings of children undergoing emergency department (ED) evaluation for blunt head trauma...
  12. doi request reprint Water use and acute diarrhoeal illness in children in a United States metropolitan area
    M H Gorelick
    Department of Paediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Epidemiol Infect 139:295-301. 2011
    ..We conclude that well-water use and bottled-water use are associated with increased odds of ADI in children...
  13. ncbi request reprint Validation of a decision rule identifying febrile young girls at high risk for urinary tract infection
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 19:162-4. 2003
    ..To validate a previously published clinical decision rule to predict risk of urinary tract infection in febrile young girls...
  14. ncbi request reprint Emergency department management of sexually transmitted infections in US adolescents: results from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
    Kathleen R Beckmann
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 43:333-8. 2004
    ..Many of these adolescents present to the emergency department (ED) for their care. We describe the management of adolescent sexually transmitted infections in US EDs...
  15. doi request reprint The role of exhaled nitric oxide in evaluation of acute asthma in a pediatric emergency department
    Maria Y Kwok
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 16:21-8. 2009
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of a pediatric emergency medicine research network: the PECARN Core Data Project
    Elizabeth R Alpern
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 22:689-99. 2006
    ..To examine the epidemiology of pediatric patient visits to emergency departments (ED)...
  17. ncbi request reprint National Asthma Education and Prevention Program severity classification as a measure of disease burden in children with acute asthma
    Maria Y Kwok
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Pediatrics 117:S71-7. 2006
    ..To examine the association between the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) severity classification and other measures of burden of disease in children with acute asthma...
  18. doi request reprint Duration of illness in infants with bronchiolitis evaluated in the emergency department
    Frank D Petruzella
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Pediatrics 126:285-90. 2010
    ..To describe the duration of illness in infants with first-time bronchiolitis who present to an emergency department (ED) and assess the burden of the illness on caregivers and families...
  19. doi request reprint Current therapies in bronchiolitis
    Frank D Petruzella
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 26:302-7; quiz 308-11. 2010
    ..Included are studies evaluating bronchodilators, corticosteroids, positive pressure ventilation, as well as 3 newer therapies for bronchiolitis: heliox, mucolytics, and leukotriene receptor antagonists...
  20. ncbi request reprint Screening for poor short-term outcome in acute pediatric asthma
    Martha Molly W Stevens
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Children s Hospital of Wisconsin and Children s Research Institute, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 98:432-9. 2007
    ..Despite good initial treatment response, many children with acute asthma exacerbations have poor short-term outcomes...
  21. doi request reprint Primary care quality and subsequent emergency department utilization for children in Wisconsin Medicaid
    David C Brousseau
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin, 999 N 92nd Street, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Acad Pediatr 9:33-9. 2009
    ..Our goal was to determine the association between parent-reported primary care quality and subsequent ED utilization for children in Medicaid...
  22. ncbi request reprint Strategies to improve flow in the pediatric emergency department
    Kenneth Yen
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 23:745-9; quiz 750-1. 2007
    ....
  23. doi request reprint Derivation of the DIVA score: a clinical prediction rule for the identification of children with difficult intravenous access
    Kenneth Yen
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 24:143-7. 2008
    ..To develop a clinical prediction rule that would be easy to apply and be useful for predicting success or failure of peripheral intravenous line insertion in children...
  24. doi request reprint Time motion study in a pediatric emergency department before and after computer physician order entry
    Kenneth Yen
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 53:462-468.e1. 2009
    ..We seek to determine whether the increase in time by ED care providers on the computer will decrease time spent with patients...
  25. doi request reprint A randomized clinical trial of ibuprofen versus acetaminophen with codeine for acute pediatric arm fracture pain
    Amy L Drendel
    Pediatric Emergency Medicine Division, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 54:553-60. 2009
    ..We compare the treatment of pain in children with arm fractures by ibuprofen 10 mg/kg versus acetaminophen with codeine 1 mg/kg/dose (codeine component)...
  26. ncbi request reprint Validity and responsiveness of a brief, asthma-specific quality-of-life instrument in children with acute asthma
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 92:47-51. 2004
    ..To test the validity and short-term responsiveness to change of a pediatric, asthma-specific, health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) instrument...
  27. ncbi request reprint Interrater agreement in the clinical evaluation of acute pediatric asthma
    M W Stevens
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    J Asthma 40:311-5. 2003
    ..Support for use of a structured respiratory exam format or template in asthma guidelines was also shown...
  28. ncbi request reprint Association between infant continuity of care and pediatric emergency department utilization
    David C Brousseau
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Pediatrics 113:738-41. 2004
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Performance of a novel clinical score, the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), in the evaluation of acute asthma
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 11:10-8. 2004
    ..To evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of a new clinical asthma score, the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), in children aged 1 through 18 years in an acute clinical setting...
  30. ncbi request reprint The effect of prior interactions with a primary care provider on nonurgent pediatric emergency department use
    David C Brousseau
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 53226, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 158:78-82. 2004
    ..To determine the effect of parental reported difficulty getting care without long waits from a primary care provider (PCP) on nonurgent pediatric emergency department (ED) use...
  31. ncbi request reprint Comparability of acute asthma severity assessments by parents and respiratory therapists
    Marc H Gorelick
    Children s Hospital of Wisconsin, Mail Stop 677, 9000 W Wisconsin Ave, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156:1199-202. 2002
    ..To compare the assessments of parents and respiratory therapists (RTs) of acute asthma severity in children discharged after emergency department (ED) treatment...
  32. ncbi request reprint Interexaminer reliability in physical examination of pediatric patients with abdominal pain
    Kenneth Yen
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9000 W Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53224, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:373-6. 2005
    ..To test the interexaminer reliability of abdominal examinations performed by pediatric emergency medicine physicians and surgeons in an emergency department...
  33. ncbi request reprint Ultrasound applications for the pediatric emergency department: a review of the current literature
    Kenneth Yen
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 18:226-34. 2002
  34. ncbi request reprint Effect of ethnicity and race on the use of pain medications in children with long bone fractures in the emergency department
    Kenneth Yen
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9000 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Ann Emerg Med 42:41-7. 2003
    ..We characterize the use of analgesics among children of different race and ethnicity who had isolated long bone fractures that were treated in emergency departments (EDs) across the United States...
  35. ncbi request reprint A system for grouping presenting complaints: the pediatric emergency reason for visit clusters
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 12:723-31. 2005
    ..To develop a set of chief complaint groupings for pediatric emergency department (ED) visits that is comprehensive, parsimonious, clinically sensible, and evidence-based...
  36. ncbi request reprint Availability of pediatric emergency visit data from existing data sources
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin and Children s Research Institute MHG, Children s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 12:1195-200. 2005
    ..To determine the availability and completeness of selected data elements from administrative and clinical sources for emergency department (ED) visits in a national pediatric research network...
  37. ncbi request reprint Pain assessment for pediatric patients in the emergency department
    Amy L Drendel
    Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children s Hospital, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Pediatrics 117:1511-8. 2006
    ..To examine the relationship between pediatric patient visit characteristics and pain score documentation in the emergency department (ED) and determine whether documentation of a pain score is associated with increased analgesic use...
  38. ncbi request reprint Emergency department allies: a controlled trial of two emergency department-based follow-up interventions to improve asthma outcomes in children
    Marc H Gorelick
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Children s Hospital of Wisconsin and Children s Research Institute, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Pediatrics 117:S127-34. 2006
    ..We sought to study the impact of emergency department (ED)-based intensive primary care linkage and initiation of asthma case management on long-term, patient-oriented outcomes for children with an asthma exacerbation...
  39. ncbi request reprint Difficulty in obtaining peak expiratory flow measurements in children with acute asthma
    Marc H Gorelick
    Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 20:22-6. 2004
    ..To determine the frequency with which children >or=6 years with acute asthma can perform peak expiratory flow rate measurements (PEFR) in an emergency department (ED)...
  40. doi request reprint Asthma and pneumonia
    Lorin R Browne
    Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children s Hospital of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, Suite 550, 999 North 92nd Street, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Pediatr Clin North Am 57:1347-56. 2010
    ..The chest pain generally resolves along with the resolution of other respiratory symptoms...
  41. doi request reprint Pediatric interhospital transport: diagnostic discordance and hospital mortality
    Corey Philpot
    Medical College of Wisconsin Department of Pediatrics and Children s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 9:15-9. 2008
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Serum neuron-specific enolase as a predictor of short-term outcome in children with closed traumatic brain injury
    Subhankar Bandyopadhyay
    Department of Pediatrics, Emergency Medicine Division, Emory University School of Medicine, 1645 Tullie Circle, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 12:732-8. 2005
    ..However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the usefulness of NSE as a predictor of disability in children with cTBI has not been reported...
  43. doi request reprint A new diagnosis grouping system for child emergency department visits
    Evaline A Alessandrini
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Emergency Medicine, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 17:204-13. 2010
    ..The second objective was to assess the construct validity of the DGS by examining variation in the frequency of targeted groups of diagnoses within the concepts of season, age, sex, and hospital type...
  44. ncbi request reprint Intervention to improve interobserver agreement in the assessment of children with pharyngitis
    Duane M Jensen
    Department of Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 21:238-41. 2005
    ..The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention to improve interobserver reliability of clinical evaluation of children with pharyngitis...
  45. ncbi request reprint Pediatric emergency department directors' benchmarking survey: fiscal year 2001
    Kathy N Shaw
    Division of Emergency Medicine, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 19:143-7. 2003
    ..To answer basic questions, using precise definitions, regarding emergency department (ED) utilization, wait times, services, and attending physician staffing of representative pediatric EDs (PEDs)...
  46. ncbi request reprint Emergency Department Allies: a Web-based multihospital pediatric asthma tracking system
    Kevin J Kelly
    Division of Allergy Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Children s Hospital of Wisconsin and Children s Research Institute, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Pediatrics 117:S63-70. 2006
    ..To describe the development of a Web-based multihospital pediatric asthma tracking system and present results from the initial 18-month implementation of patient tracking experience...
  47. ncbi request reprint Short-term outcomes of pediatric emergency department febrile illnesses
    Rakesh D Mistry
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 23:617-23. 2007
    ..To describe short-term outcomes relevant to children and their caregivers after evaluation in the emergency department (ED) for febrile illnesses...
  48. ncbi request reprint Quality of primary care and subsequent pediatric emergency department utilization
    David C Brousseau
    Department of Pediatrics, Children s Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin, CCC 550, 999 N 92nd St, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Pediatrics 119:1131-8. 2007
    ..Our objective was to determine whether parent-reported, high-quality primary care was associated with decreased nonurgent pediatric emergency department utilization...
  49. doi request reprint Reliability and validity of child passenger safety restraint observations by community observers
    Suzanne N Brixey
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, and Children s Research Institute, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233, USA
    Traffic Inj Prev 11:573-7. 2010
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Pediatric emergency department visits for diarrheal illness increased after release of undertreated sewage
    Ryan L Redman
    Emergency Department, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
    Pediatrics 120:e1472-5. 2007
    ..The Environmental Protection Agency has recently reviewed regulatory standards for this practice. However, the health effects of these events have not been well studied...
  51. ncbi request reprint Evidence-based approach to the diagnosis of appendicitis in children
    Maria Y Kwok
    Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children s Hospital of New York Presbyterian, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Pediatr Emerg Care 20:690-8; quiz 699-701. 2004
  52. ncbi request reprint Severity of illness measures for pediatric emergency care: are we there yet?
    Marc H Gorelick
    Ann Emerg Med 41:639-43. 2003
  53. ncbi request reprint The decision to use topical anesthetic for intravenous insertion in the pediatric emergency department
    Joel A Fein
    Division of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 13:264-8. 2006
    ..A secondary objective was to evaluate whether the presence of the anesthetic cream placed in triage influenced the subsequent decision to place an IV and thus invalidate the prediction strategy...