Sarah P Thayer

Summary

Affiliation: Massachusetts General Hospital
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Hedgehog is an early and late mediator of pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis
    Sarah P Thayer
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nature 425:851-6. 2003
  2. pmc Pancreatic duct glands are distinct ductal compartments that react to chronic injury and mediate Shh-induced metaplasia
    Oliver Strobel
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Gastroenterology 138:1166-77. 2010
  3. pmc In vivo lineage tracing defines the role of acinar-to-ductal transdifferentiation in inflammatory ductal metaplasia
    Oliver Strobel
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Gastroenterology 133:1999-2009. 2007
  4. pmc Novel xenograft and cell line derived from an invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas give new insights into molecular mechanisms
    Stefan Fritz
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Pancreas 39:308-14. 2010
  5. pmc Implications of incidentally discovered, nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors: short-term and long-term patient outcomes
    Alex B Haynes
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Wang Ambulatory Care Center 460, 15 Parkman St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Surg 146:534-8. 2011
  6. pmc Current trends in pancreatic cystic neoplasms
    Cristina R Ferrone
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Surg 144:448-54. 2009
  7. pmc N0/N1, PNL, or LNR? The effect of lymph node number on accurate survival prediction in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    Nakul P Valsangkar
    Department of Surgery and Andrew L Warshaw, M D, Institute for Pancreatic Cancer Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 17:257-66. 2013
  8. pmc 851 resected cystic tumors of the pancreas: a 33-year experience at the Massachusetts General Hospital
    Nakul P Valsangkar
    General and GI Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Surgery 152:S4-12. 2012
  9. pmc Global genomic analysis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas reveals significant molecular differences compared to ductal adenocarcinoma
    Stefan Fritz
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Ann Surg 249:440-7. 2009
  10. pmc Quality of life in pancreatic cancer: analysis by stage and treatment
    Stefano Crippa
    Wang Ambulatory Care Center 460, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 12:783-93; discussion 793-4. 2008

Research Grants

  1. The Hedgehog Pathway and Pancreatic Neoplasia
    Sarah Thayer; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. The Hedgehog Pathway and Pancreatic Neoplasia
    Sarah Thayer; Fiscal Year: 2008

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. pmc Hedgehog is an early and late mediator of pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis
    Sarah P Thayer
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Nature 425:851-6. 2003
    ..These data suggest that this pathway may have an early and critical role in the genesis of this cancer, and that maintenance of hedgehog signalling is important for aberrant proliferation and tumorigenesis...
  2. pmc Pancreatic duct glands are distinct ductal compartments that react to chronic injury and mediate Shh-induced metaplasia
    Oliver Strobel
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Gastroenterology 138:1166-77. 2010
    ..A majority of PanIN are thought to arise from ducts. We identified a novel ductal compartment that is gathered in gland-like outpouches (pancreatic duct glands [PDG]) of major ducts and characterized its role in injury and metaplasia...
  3. pmc In vivo lineage tracing defines the role of acinar-to-ductal transdifferentiation in inflammatory ductal metaplasia
    Oliver Strobel
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Gastroenterology 133:1999-2009. 2007
    ..However, available studies are based on interpretation of static data rather than on direct evidence. Transdifferentiation from acinar to ductal cells has never been confirmed in the adult pancreas...
  4. pmc Novel xenograft and cell line derived from an invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas give new insights into molecular mechanisms
    Stefan Fritz
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Pancreas 39:308-14. 2010
    ..Little is known about the genetic signature of IPMC. In this study, we describe a novel xenograft model and cell culture created to biologically and genetically characterize these tumors...
  5. pmc Implications of incidentally discovered, nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors: short-term and long-term patient outcomes
    Alex B Haynes
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Wang Ambulatory Care Center 460, 15 Parkman St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Surg 146:534-8. 2011
    ..To describe the characteristics and outcomes after resection of incidentally discovered, nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs)...
  6. pmc Current trends in pancreatic cystic neoplasms
    Cristina R Ferrone
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Surg 144:448-54. 2009
    ..To define how patients with pancreatic cysts are being diagnosed and treated...
  7. pmc N0/N1, PNL, or LNR? The effect of lymph node number on accurate survival prediction in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    Nakul P Valsangkar
    Department of Surgery and Andrew L Warshaw, M D, Institute for Pancreatic Cancer Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 17:257-66. 2013
    ..We evaluated the prognostic accuracy of LN variables (N0/N1), numbers of positive lymph nodes (PLN), and lymph node ratio (LNR) in the context of the total number of examined lymph nodes (ELN)...
  8. pmc 851 resected cystic tumors of the pancreas: a 33-year experience at the Massachusetts General Hospital
    Nakul P Valsangkar
    General and GI Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Surgery 152:S4-12. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to identify trends in the diagnosis and treatment of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas using a retrospective review of patients from a surgical database at an academic referral center during a 33-year period...
  9. pmc Global genomic analysis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas reveals significant molecular differences compared to ductal adenocarcinoma
    Stefan Fritz
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Ann Surg 249:440-7. 2009
    ..To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)...
  10. pmc Quality of life in pancreatic cancer: analysis by stage and treatment
    Stefano Crippa
    Wang Ambulatory Care Center 460, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 12:783-93; discussion 793-4. 2008
    ..One-year survival was 74%, 30%, and 16% for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively (p=0.001). Pancreatic cancer prognosis is still dismal. In addition to long-term survival benefits, surgery impacts favorably quality of life...
  11. pmc Improved contemporary surgical management of insulinomas: a 25-year experience at the Massachusetts General Hospital
    Mehrdad Nikfarjam
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Ann Surg 247:165-72. 2008
    ..To determine changes in the management strategy of patients with insulinomas and identify critical factors in patient outcome...
  12. pmc Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: long-term survival does not equal cure
    Cristina R Ferrone
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Surgery 152:S43-9. 2012
    ..Our aim was to identify the prognostic factors for long-term survival after resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma related to patients, treatments, and tumor biology...
  13. pmc Incidental pancreatic cysts: do we really know what we are watching?
    Camilo Correa-Gallego
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Pancreatology 10:144-50. 2010
    ..Most cystic neoplasms of the pancreas (CNPs) are incidentally discovered. Their management continues to be debated and preoperative diagnosis is often inaccurate...
  14. pmc Preoperative platelet count and survival prognosis in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    Ismael Dominguez
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Wang Ambulatory Care Center 460, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    World J Surg 32:1051-6. 2008
    ..High platelet counts are associated with an adverse effect on survival in various neoplastic entities. The prognostic relevance of preoperative platelet count in pancreatic cancer has not been clarified...
  15. pmc Debridement and closed packing for sterile or infected necrotizing pancreatitis: insights into indications and outcomes in 167 patients
    J Ruben Rodriguez
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Ann Surg 247:294-9. 2008
    ..To examine the surgical indications and clinical outcomes of a large cohort of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis...
  16. pmc Branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: observations in 145 patients who underwent resection
    J Ruben Rodriguez
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Gastroenterology 133:72-9; quiz 309-10. 2007
    ..This study describes the combined experience of 2 tertiary centers with branch-duct IPMNs aiming to validate these recommendations...
  17. pmc Does the mechanism of lymph node invasion affect survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma?
    Ioannis T Konstantinidis
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 14:261-7. 2010
    ..Lymph node metastases are prognostically significant in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Little is known about the significance of direct lymph node invasion...
  18. pmc Implications and management of pancreatic fistulas following pancreaticoduodenectomy: the Massachusetts General Hospital experience
    Gregory Veillette
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 15 Parkman St, Wang Ambulatory Care Center 460, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Surg 143:476-81. 2008
    ..To describe the management and impact of pancreatic fistulas in a high-volume center...
  19. pmc Evolving patterns in the detection and outcomes of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: the Massachusetts General Hospital experience from 1977 to 2005
    Parsia A Vagefi
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Surg 142:347-54. 2007
    ..To assess changing patterns in the detection and outcomes of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs)...
  20. pmc Evolution of the Whipple procedure at the Massachusetts General Hospital
    Carlos Fernandez-del Castillo
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Surgery 152:S56-63. 2012
    ..The goal of this study was to investigate the evolution of pancreatoduodenectomy at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH)...
  21. pmc Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: does a family history of pancreatic cancer matter?
    Deepika Nehra
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA, USA
    Pancreatology 12:358-63. 2012
    ....
  22. pmc Metastatic tumors in the pancreas in the modern era
    Ioannis T Konstantinidis
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    J Am Coll Surg 211:749-53. 2010
    ..Our aim was to describe the clinicopathologic characteristics and patient outcomes in a modern series of patients who underwent metastasectomy, with an emphasis on RCC...
  23. pmc Prognosis of invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm depends on histological and precursor epithelial subtypes
    Mari Mino-Kenudson
    Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Gut 60:1712-20. 2011
    ..The authors investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and the impact on survival of both the invasive component and its background IPMN...
  24. pmc Targeting the MAGE A3 antigen in pancreatic cancer
    Alexandria P Cogdill
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Surgery 152:S13-8. 2012
    ..The results of these studies have important translational implications and provide the rationale for combined treatment with chromatin remodeling agents and immunotherapeutic approaches for pancreatic cancer...
  25. pmc Pancreatic fistula rates after 462 distal pancreatectomies: staplers do not decrease fistula rates
    Cristina R Ferrone
    Department of General Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 12:1691-7; discussion 1697-8. 2008
    ..Pancreatic fistula is a major source of morbidity after distal pancreatectomy (DP). We reviewed 462 consecutive patients undergoing DP to determine if the method of stump closure impacted fistula rates...
  26. pmc Plectin-1 as a novel biomarker for pancreatic cancer
    Dirk Bausch
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 2622, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 17:302-9. 2011
    ..Plectin-1 (Plec1) was recently identified as one such biomarker. However, its suitability as a specific biomarker for human pancreatic cancer, and its usability as an imaging target, remain to be assessed...
  27. pmc Identification of a novel kindred with familial pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer
    Jennifer LaFemina
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Pancreatology 9:273-9. 2009
    ..Multiple causative mutations have been identified. Here we describe a pancreatitis/pancreatic cancer (P/PC) family, which demonstrates pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer resulting from an uncharacterized mutation...
  28. pmc Distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation revisited
    J Ruben Rodriguez
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Surgery 141:619-25. 2007
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term implications of this operation, comparing it to the outcomes following distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy...
  29. pmc Perioperative CA19-9 levels can predict stage and survival in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma
    Cristina R Ferrone
    Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
    J Clin Oncol 24:2897-902. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether preoperative CA19-9 levels can predict stage of disease or survival and whether a change in preoperative to postoperative CA19-9 or the postoperative CA19-9 predicts overall survival...
  30. pmc Plectin-1 is a biomarker of malignant pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms
    Dirk Bausch
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 2622, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 13:1948-54; discussion 1954. 2009
    ..Improved detection of malignancy using novel biomarkers may therefore improve diagnostic accuracy. One such promising novel biomarker is Plectin-1 (Plec-1)...
  31. pmc FOLFIRINOX in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center experience
    Jason E Faris
    Department of Hematology Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Oncologist 18:543-8. 2013
    ..However, the recurrences following R0 resection in three of five patients and the toxicities observed with the use of this regimen raise important questions about how to best treat patients with LAPC...
  32. ncbi request reprint Understanding hospital readmissions after pancreaticoduodenectomy: can we prevent them?: a 10-year contemporary experience with 1,173 patients at the Massachusetts General Hospital
    Zhi Ven Fong
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, 02114 3117, MA, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 18:137-44; discussion 144-5. 2014
    ..We sought to delineate the natural history and predictive factors of readmissions after PD...
  33. pmc Implications and cost of pancreatic leak following distal pancreatic resection
    J Ruben Rodriguez
    Center for Clinical Effectiveness in Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
    Arch Surg 141:361-5; discussion 366. 2006
    ..We sought to provide an economic framework for potential interventions aimed at reducing its occurrence...
  34. pmc Magnetic resonance imaging monitors physiological changes with antihedgehog therapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenograft model
    Alexander R Guimaraes
    Department of Radiology, Center for Molecular Imaging Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Pancreas 37:440-4. 2008
    ..We tested whether magnetic resonance imaging measures of vascular volume fraction (VVF) using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are sensitive to the antiangiogenic effect of targeted Shh therapies in a PDAC xenograft model...
  35. pmc Beta cell transdifferentiation does not contribute to preneoplastic/metaplastic ductal lesions of the pancreas by genetic lineage tracing in vivo
    Oliver Strobel
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:4419-24. 2007
    ....
  36. pmc Management of mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the pancreas
    Stefan Fritz
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Oncologist 14:125-36. 2009
    ..The present work offers an overview of current and generally accepted clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of IPMNs and MCNs...
  37. pmc Validation of a postresection pancreatic adenocarcinoma nomogram for disease-specific survival
    Cristina R Ferrone
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, 1275 York Ave, Box 435, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Clin Oncol 23:7529-35. 2005
    ..A single US institution database was used to test the validity of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma nomogram established at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center...
  38. pmc Decreased inflammation and improved survival with recombinant human activated protein C treatment in experimental acute pancreatitis
    Guido Alsfasser
    Department of Surgery and Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Surg 141:670-6; discussion 676-7. 2006
    ..Drotrecogin alfa (activated), the pharmacologic form of activated protein C and the first Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for treatment of severe sepsis, is beneficial in experimental acute pancreatitis (AP)...
  39. ncbi request reprint Incidental pancreatic cysts: clinicopathologic characteristics and comparison with symptomatic patients
    Carlos Fernandez-del Castillo
    Department of Surgery and Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital ACC 336, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Surg 138:427-3; discussion 433-4. 2003
    ..Widespread use of computed tomography and ultrasound has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with asymptomatic cystic lesions of the pancreas...
  40. pmc Epithelial cell guidance by self-generated EGF gradients
    Cally Scherber
    Surgical Services and BioMEMS Resource Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Integr Biol (Camb) 4:259-69. 2012
    ..Better understanding of the UTC self-guidance strategy could eventually help devise new ways for modulating epithelial cell migration and delaying cancer cell invasion or accelerating wound healing...
  41. pmc Pancreaticoduodenectomy
    Andrew L Warshaw
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 2696, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 8:733-41. 2004
  42. pmc Imaging of acute mesenteric ischemia using multidetector CT and CT angiography in a porcine model
    David E Rosow
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 9:1262-74; discussion 1274-5. 2005
    ..These results indicate that M.D.CT-CTA holds great promise for the early detection necessary for successful treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia...
  43. pmc PTEN is a major tumor suppressor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and regulates an NF-κB-cytokine network
    Haoqiang Ying
    Belfer Institute for Applied Cancer Science, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cancer Discov 1:158-69. 2011
    ..Thus, PTEN/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway alteration is a common event in PDAC development and functions in part to strongly activate the NF-κB network, which may serve to shape the PDAC tumor microenvironment...
  44. ncbi request reprint Complete dorsal pancreatectomy with preservation of the ventral pancreas: a new surgical technique
    Sarah P Thayer
    Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Surgery 131:577-80. 2002
  45. pmc Added value of selected images embedded into radiology reports to referring clinicians
    Veena R Iyer
    Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Am Coll Radiol 7:205-10. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the added utility of embedding images for findings described in radiology text reports to referring clinicians...
  46. pmc Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain mutations in esophageal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas
    Eunice L Kwak
    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 12:4283-7. 2006
    ..Given recent reports of TKI-responsive cases of esophageal and pancreatic cancer, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of EGFR mutations in these gastrointestinal cancers...
  47. pmc Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas is not an aggressive entity: lessons from 163 resected patients
    Stefano Crippa
    Department of Surgery, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
    Ann Surg 247:571-9. 2008
    ..We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics, prevalence of cancer, and prognosis of a large series of well-characterized MCNs in 2 tertiary centers...
  48. pmc Main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: clinical predictors of malignancy and long-term survival following resection
    Roberto Salvia
    Department of Surgery, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
    Ann Surg 239:678-85; discussion 685-7. 2004
    ..To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of a large cohort of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas affecting the main pancreatic duct...
  49. pmc Middle pancreatectomy: indications, short- and long-term operative outcomes
    Stefano Crippa
    Department of Surgery, Policlinico GB Rossi, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
    Ann Surg 246:69-76. 2007
    ..To evaluate the indications, perioperative, and long-term outcomes of a large cohort of patients who underwent middle pancreatectomy (MP)...

Research Grants2

  1. The Hedgehog Pathway and Pancreatic Neoplasia
    Sarah Thayer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This will allow us to better understand the role of this pathway in human pancreatic cancer, so that it may be exploited for new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. The Hedgehog Pathway and Pancreatic Neoplasia
    Sarah Thayer; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..This will allow us to better understand the role of this pathway in human pancreatic cancer, so that it may be exploited for new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. [unreadable] [unreadable]..