Thomas J Spencer

Summary

Affiliation: Massachusetts General Hospital
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Functional genomics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk alleles on dopamine transporter binding in ADHD and healthy control subjects
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 74:84-9. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Understanding the central pharmacokinetics of spheroidal oral drug absorption system (SODAS) dexmethylphenidate: a positron emission tomography study of dopamine transporter receptor occupancy measured with C-11 altropane
    Thomas J Spencer
    The Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 73:346-52. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Importance of pharmacokinetic profile and timing of coadministration of short- and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate on patterns of subjective responses and abuse potential
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Postgrad Med 124:166-73. 2012
  4. ncbi request reprint Atomoxetine treatment of ADHD in children with comorbid Tourette syndrome
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 2696, USA
    J Atten Disord 11:470-81. 2008
  5. pmc Toward defining deficient emotional self-regulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using the Child Behavior Checklist: a controlled study
    Thomas J Spencer
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Postgrad Med 123:50-9. 2011
  6. doi request reprint A randomized, single-blind, substitution study of OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD adults receiving immediate release methylphenidate
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Atten Disord 15:286-94. 2011
  7. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (Adderall XR) in the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescent patients: a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study
    Thomas J Spencer
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Clin Ther 28:266-79. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint A large, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Thomas Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:456-63. 2005
  9. doi request reprint A positron emission tomography study examining the dopaminergic activity of armodafinil in adults using [¹¹C]altropane and [¹¹C]raclopride
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 68:964-70. 2010
  10. pmc Safety and effectiveness of coadministration of guanfacine extended release and psychostimulants in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Thomas J Spencer
    Clinical and Research Program, Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 19:501-10. 2009

Detail Information

Publications137 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Functional genomics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk alleles on dopamine transporter binding in ADHD and healthy control subjects
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 74:84-9. 2013
    ....
  2. doi request reprint Understanding the central pharmacokinetics of spheroidal oral drug absorption system (SODAS) dexmethylphenidate: a positron emission tomography study of dopamine transporter receptor occupancy measured with C-11 altropane
    Thomas J Spencer
    The Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 73:346-52. 2012
    ..However, there are no studies of central nervous system (CNS) dopamine transporter occupancies...
  3. doi request reprint Importance of pharmacokinetic profile and timing of coadministration of short- and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate on patterns of subjective responses and abuse potential
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Postgrad Med 124:166-73. 2012
    ..Greater subjective responses have been documented in formulations that are more rapidly absorbed. However, repeat dosing has not been examined...
  4. ncbi request reprint Atomoxetine treatment of ADHD in children with comorbid Tourette syndrome
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 2696, USA
    J Atten Disord 11:470-81. 2008
    ..This study examines changes in severity of tics and ADHD during atomoxetine treatment in ADHD patients with Tourette syndrome (TS)...
  5. pmc Toward defining deficient emotional self-regulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using the Child Behavior Checklist: a controlled study
    Thomas J Spencer
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Postgrad Med 123:50-9. 2011
    ..We examined whether a unique profile of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) would help identify DESR in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  6. doi request reprint A randomized, single-blind, substitution study of OROS methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD adults receiving immediate release methylphenidate
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Atten Disord 15:286-94. 2011
    ..The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH)...
  7. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (Adderall XR) in the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescent patients: a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study
    Thomas J Spencer
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Clin Ther 28:266-79. 2006
    ..The ability to recognize and diagnose attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in recent years. The persistence of ADHD symptoms puts adolescents with ADHD at risk for long-term adverse psychosocial outcomes...
  8. ncbi request reprint A large, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Thomas Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:456-63. 2005
    ..A previous, pilot study by our group suggested that these results were due to inadequate dosing...
  9. doi request reprint A positron emission tomography study examining the dopaminergic activity of armodafinil in adults using [¹¹C]altropane and [¹¹C]raclopride
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 68:964-70. 2010
    ..With positron emission tomography imaging, we determined DAT occupancy and changes in extracellular dopamine by armodafinil in vivo...
  10. pmc Safety and effectiveness of coadministration of guanfacine extended release and psychostimulants in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Thomas J Spencer
    Clinical and Research Program, Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 19:501-10. 2009
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (adderall XR) in the management of oppositional defiant disorder with or without comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children and adolescents: A 4-week, multicent
    Thomas J Spencer
    Clinical and Research Program, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Clin Ther 28:402-18. 2006
    ..Comorbid ODD is reportedly present in 40% to 70% of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  12. ncbi request reprint ADHD and comorbidity in childhood
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:27-31. 2006
    ..Investigation of these issues should help to clarify the etiology, course, and outcome of ADHD...
  13. ncbi request reprint A PET study examining pharmacokinetics and dopamine transporter occupancy of two long-acting formulations of methylphenidate in adults
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit ACC 725, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Int J Mol Med 25:261-5. 2010
    ..Moreover, a relatively small difference in plasma levels (1.4 ng/ml at 10 h) was associated with a more impressive difference in DAT occupancy ( approximately 10% at 10 h)...
  14. ncbi request reprint Effects of atomoxetine on growth after 2-year treatment among pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Pediatrics 116:e74-80. 2005
    ..This meta-analysis examined the effect on growth of atomoxetine, now approved in the United States for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
  15. ncbi request reprint Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology
    Thomas J Spencer
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    J Pediatr Psychol 32:631-42. 2007
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology
    Thomas J Spencer
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Ambul Pediatr 7:73-81. 2007
    ....
  17. pmc Further evidence of dopamine transporter dysregulation in ADHD: a controlled PET imaging study using altropane
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1059-61. 2007
    ..The findings of in vivo neuroimaging of DAT in ADHD have been somewhat discrepant, however...
  18. ncbi request reprint An open-label study of the tolerability of mixed amphetamine salts in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and treated primary essential hypertension
    Timothy E Wilens
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:696-702. 2006
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Atomoxetine and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the effects of comorbidity
    Thomas J Spencer
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:415-20. 2006
    ....
  20. pmc A naturalistic 10-year prospective study of height and weight in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder grown up: sex and treatment effects
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychiatry and Adult ADHD, Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Pediatr 157:635-40, 640.e1. 2010
    ..To assess the effect of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its treatment on growth outcomes in children followed into adulthood...
  21. ncbi request reprint PET study examining pharmacokinetics, detection and likeability, and dopamine transporter receptor occupancy of short- and long-acting oral methylphenidate
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 163:387-95. 2006
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Novel treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 63:16-22. 2002
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint New developments in the treatment of ADHD
    Joseph Biederman
    Dept of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:148-59. 2006
  24. ncbi request reprint Effects of atomoxetine on growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following up to five years of treatment
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17:689-700. 2007
    ..To examine the effects on growth of long-term pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we present findings from an ongoing 5-year study of the efficacy and safety of treatment with atomoxetine...
  25. pmc Presenting ADHD symptoms, subtypes, and comorbid disorders in clinically referred adults with ADHD
    Timothy E Wilens
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, YAW 6A, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 70:1557-62. 2009
    ..Comorbidity among adults with ADHD is also of great interest due to the high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, which can lead to a more persistent ADHD among adults...
  26. pmc Effect of psychostimulants on brain structure and function in ADHD: a qualitative literature review of magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroimaging studies
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, 55 Fruit St WRN 705, Boston, MA 02114
    J Clin Psychiatry 74:902-17. 2013
    ..To evaluate the impact of therapeutic oral doses of stimulants on the brains of ADHD subjects as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based neuroimaging studies (morphometric, functional, spectroscopy)...
  27. doi request reprint Preliminary examination of the reliability and concurrent validity of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder self-report scale v1.1 symptom checklist to rate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescents
    Lenard A Adler
    Department of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 22:238-44. 2012
    ..To validate the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v1.1 Symptom Checklist versus the clinician-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) in adolescents with ADHD...
  28. doi request reprint Reliability and validity of the Time-Sensitive ADHD Symptom Scale in adults
    Lenard A Adler
    Department of Psychiatry, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10010, USA
    Compr Psychiatry 52:769-73. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Time-Sensitive ADHD Symptom Scale (TASS) to evaluate change of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms over the course of a day in adults...
  29. pmc Comparative acute efficacy and tolerability of OROS and immediate release formulations of methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    BMC Psychiatry 7:49. 2007
    ..The main aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of IR MPH administered three times daily to those of once daily OROS-MPH...
  30. ncbi request reprint An open trial of adjunctive donepezil in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Timothy E Wilens
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, YAW 6A, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 15:947-55. 2005
    ..We sought to determine if donepezil, used adjunctively to stimulant medication, would improve residual symptoms of ADHD and EF deficits...
  31. ncbi request reprint Blood pressure changes associated with medication treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Timothy E Wilens
    Clinical Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 66:253-9. 2005
    ..To evaluate the effects of medications used in the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on blood pressure and pulse...
  32. pmc Representativeness of participants in a clinical trial for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Comparison with adults from a large observational study
    Craig B H Surman
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Ste 2000, 185 Alewife Brook Pkwy, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 71:1612-6. 2010
    ..In particular, exclusion criteria may frequently exclude individuals with comorbid mental health conditions, which are common in the adult ADHD population...
  33. ncbi request reprint Effect of comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder on responses to atomoxetine in children with ADHD: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trial data
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care 6A, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 190:31-41. 2007
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred preschool children and school-age youths with ADHD
    Timothy E Wilens
    Clinical Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:262-8. 2002
    ..We evaluated the clinical characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and functioning of preschool children and school-age youths with ADHD referred to a pediatric psychiatric clinic for evaluation...
  35. ncbi request reprint Triple-bead mixed amphetamine salts (SPD465), a novel, enhanced extended-release amphetamine formulation for the treatment of adults with ADHD: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study
    Thomas J Spencer
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Unit, 55 Fruit St, Warren 705, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 69:1437-48. 2008
    ....
  36. pmc Neural substrates of impaired sensorimotor timing in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Eve M Valera
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 68:359-67. 2010
    ..Also, the neural substrates of these deficits are largely unknown for both youth and adults with ADHD. The present study examined subsecond sensorimotor timing and its neural substrates in ADHD adults...
  37. pmc Personal and familial correlates of bipolar (BP)-I disorder in children with a diagnosis of BP-I disorder with a positive child behavior checklist (CBCL)-severe dysregulation profile: a controlled study
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, United States
    J Affect Disord 147:164-70. 2013
    ..However, since not all BP-I disorder children have a positive profile questions remain as to its informativeness, particularly in the absence of an expert diagnostician...
  38. ncbi request reprint Long-term safety and effectiveness of mixed amphetamine salts extended release in adults with ADHD
    Joseph Biederman
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA
    CNS Spectr 10:16-25. 2005
    ..Assess the long-term safety and effectiveness of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS XR) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined subtype...
  39. ncbi request reprint A post hoc subgroup analysis of an 18-day randomized controlled trial comparing the tolerability and efficacy of mixed amphetamine salts extended release and atomoxetine in school-age girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Joseph Biederman
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Clin Ther 28:280-93. 2006
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Does prolonged therapy with a long-acting stimulant suppress growth in children with ADHD?
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 02114, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:527-37. 2006
    ..To investigate whether prolonged therapy with a long-acting stimulant affects growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  41. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate extended-release capsules in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Clinic, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, and New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 61:1380-7. 2007
    ..This multicenter, randomized, fixed-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated efficacy of extended-release dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH-ER) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  42. ncbi request reprint Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder
    Jeffrey H Newcorn
    Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:240-8. 2005
    ..To examine (1) moderating effects of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment response and (2) responses of ODD symptoms to atomoxetine...
  43. pmc Understanding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from childhood to adulthood
    Timothy E Wilens
    Timothy E Wilens, MD, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, YAW 6A, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Postgrad Med 122:97-109. 2010
    ..Pharmacotherapy, including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, α-agonists, and antidepressants, plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD...
  44. ncbi request reprint In vivo neuroreceptor imaging in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a focus on the dopamine transporter
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:1293-300. 2005
    ..Interpretation of the latter finding awaits clarification of the issue of timing of drug administration and imaging to disentangle receptor occupancy from downregulation...
  45. ncbi request reprint Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-specific quality of life with triple-bead mixed amphetamine salts (SPD465) in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Unit, 55 Fruit St, Warren 705, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 69:1766-75. 2008
    ..To assess the quality of life (QOL) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given triple-bead mixed amphetamine salts (MAS), a long-acting amphetamine formulation designed for a duration of action of up to 16 hours...
  46. pmc Can pediatric bipolar-I disorder be diagnosed in the context of posttraumatic stress disorder? A familial risk analysis
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 3139, USA
    Psychiatry Res 208:215-24. 2013
    ..Pediatric BP-I disorder is similarly highly familial in probands with and without PTSD indicating that their co-occurrence is not due to diagnostic error. ..
  47. ncbi request reprint Transgenerational transmission of hyperactivity in a mouse model of ADHD
    Jinmin Zhu
    Center for Brain Repair, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida 32311, and Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114
    J Neurosci 34:2768-73. 2014
    ..We suggest that transgenerational transmission is a plausible mechanism for propagation of environmentally induced ADHD phenotypes in the population. ..
  48. doi request reprint Functional magnetic resonance imaging of methylphenidate and placebo in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during the multi-source interference task
    George Bush
    Departments of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:102-14. 2008
    ..Stimulant medications are effective treatments for ADHD, but their neural effects have not been fully characterized...
  49. ncbi request reprint Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: A controlled study of 1001 adults in the community
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 67:524-40. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate functional impairments in a nonreferred sample of adults identifying themselves as having been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by a clinician in their community...
  50. ncbi request reprint Emotional dysregulation in adult ADHD and response to atomoxetine
    Frederick W Reimherr
    Mood Disorders Clinic, Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 58:125-31. 2005
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Overview and neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Thomas J Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 63:3-9. 2002
    ..Therefore, the treatment characteristics of newer, more selective treatments such as atomoxetine should continue to be explored in ADHD...
  52. ncbi request reprint New insights into the comorbidity between ADHD and major depression in adolescent and young adult females
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:426-34. 2008
    ..The main aim of this study was to evaluate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females...
  53. doi request reprint Are stimulants effective in the treatment of executive function deficits? Results from a randomized double blind study of OROS-methylphenidate in adults with ADHD
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21:508-15. 2011
    ..This randomized clinical trial showed that executive function deficits do not moderate the response to methylphenidate and measures of executive function deficits are not associated with response to OROS-MPH...
  54. ncbi request reprint Stimulants and sudden death: what is a physician to do?
    Timothy E Wilens
    Clinical Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Pediatrics 118:1215-9. 2006
    ..Recently, a US Food and Drug Administration advisory committee raised concerns about cardiovascular risks and sudden death in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder who are receiving stimulants...
  55. doi request reprint Validation of the adult ADHD investigator symptom rating scale (AISRS)
    Thomas J Spencer
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Atten Disord 14:57-68. 2010
    ..Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults...
  56. ncbi request reprint Modafinil occupies dopamine and norepinephrine transporters in vivo and modulates the transporters and trace amine activity in vitro
    Bertha K Madras
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, 1 Pine Hill Dr, Southborough, MA 01772 9102, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:561-9. 2006
    ..The present data provide compelling evidence that modafinil occupies the DAT and NET in living brain of rhesus monkeys and raise the possibility that modafinil affects wakefulness by interacting with catecholamine transporters in brain...
  57. ncbi request reprint Donepezil in the treatment of ADHD-like symptoms in youths with pervasive developmental disorder: a case series
    Robert L Doyle
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, USA
    J Atten Disord 9:543-9. 2006
    ..Because work in dementia documents improvement in executive function deficits with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the authors reason that similar benefits could be obtained in PDD...
  58. ncbi request reprint A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of bupropion for the prevention of smoking in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Michael C Monuteaux
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 68:1094-101. 2007
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Patterns of psychopathology and dysfunction in clinically referred preschoolers
    Timothy E Wilens
    Clinical Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA
    J Dev Behav Pediatr 23:S31-6. 2002
    ..Preschoolers referred for psychiatric services had high rates of psychopathology with prominent comorbidity and associated dysfunction. These preschoolers are likely to require aggressive interventions including psychopharmacology...
  60. pmc The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
    Ronald C Kessler
    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, 180 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 163:716-23. 2006
    ..Despite growing interest in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about its prevalence or correlates...
  61. ncbi request reprint Further evidence that severe scores in the aggression/anxiety-depression/attention subscales of child behavior checklist (severe dysregulation profile) can screen for bipolar disorder symptomatology: a conditional probability analysis
    Mai Uchida
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Affect Disord 165:81-6. 2014
    ..However, the utility of this profile as a screening tool has remained unclear...
  62. pmc Further understanding of the comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and bipolar disorder in adults: an MRI study of cortical thickness
    Nikos Makris
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Psychiatry Res 202:1-11. 2012
    ..Attention to comorbidity is necessary to help clarify the heterogeneous neuroanatomy of both BPD and ADHD...
  63. ncbi request reprint ADHD treatment across the life cycle
    Thomas J Spencer
    Department of Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 65:22-6. 2004
    ..This article reviews the use of long-acting methylphenidate, mixed amphetamine salts, desipramine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, bupropion, and atomoxetine in studies of children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD...
  64. ncbi request reprint A systematic chart review of the nature of psychiatric adverse events in children and adolescents treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    Timothy E Wilens
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13:143-52. 2003
    ..To this end we completed a retrospective analysis of medical charts to determine the incidence, nature, and clinical correlates of treatment emergent adverse effects in the behavioral, cognitive, and emotional domains...
  65. ncbi request reprint Functional outcomes in the treatment of adults with ADHD
    Lenard A Adler
    Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10010, USA
    J Atten Disord 11:720-7. 2008
    ..ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo...
  66. ncbi request reprint Cerebellar vermis involvement in cocaine-related behaviors
    Carl M Anderson
    Brain Imaging Center, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:1318-26. 2006
    ....
  67. doi request reprint Issues in the management of patients with complex attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms
    Thomas J Spencer
    Harvard Medical School, Clinical and Research Program, Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    CNS Drugs 23:9-20. 2009
    ..Nevertheless, identification and appropriate treatment must be given a high priority for these highly vulnerable patients to derive optimal benefits from treatment...
  68. pmc Plasma and brain concentrations of oral therapeutic doses of methylphenidate and their impact on brain monoamine content in mice
    Aygul Balcioglu
    Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Neuropharmacology 57:687-93. 2009
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Patterns of comorbidity and dysfunction in clinically referred preschool and school-age children with bipolar disorder
    Timothy E Wilens
    Johnson and Johnson Center for the Study of Pediatric Psychopathology, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 13:495-505. 2003
    ..This study reports on the clinical characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and functioning of preschoolers identified with BPD who were referred to a pediatric psychiatric clinic...
  70. ncbi request reprint A double-blind comparison of desipramine and placebo in children and adolescents with chronic tic disorder and comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Thomas Spencer
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Psychiatry Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:649-56. 2002
    ..To address this issue, we evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of the noradrenergic tricyclic antidepressant desipramine hydrochloride in the treatment of children and adolescents with chronic tic disorders and comorbid ADHD...
  71. ncbi request reprint Heterogeneity of irritability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects with and without mood disorders
    Eric Mick
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 58:576-82. 2005
    ..We hypothesized that irritability is a heterogeneous symptom distinguished by severity and that attending to this heterogeneity would impact the relationship between irritability and bipolar disorder...
  72. ncbi request reprint Influence of gender on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 159:36-42. 2002
    ..In this study the authors systematically examined the impact of gender on the clinical features of ADHD in a group of children referred to a clinic...
  73. pmc Patterns and predictors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persistence into adulthood: results from the national comorbidity survey replication
    Ronald C Kessler
    Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 57:1442-51. 2005
    ..Despite growing interest in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about predictors of persistence of childhood cases into adulthood...
  74. doi request reprint Psychopharmacological interventions
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 32 Fruit Street, YAW 6A, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 17:439-58, xi. 2008
    ..Cognitive and cognitive/behaviorally based psychotherapies combined with medication may play a role in treating behavioral and organizational issues and comorbid psychopathology...
  75. ncbi request reprint Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan
    Timothy E Wilens
    Clinical Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Annu Rev Med 53:113-31. 2002
    ..Pharmacotherapy, including stimulants, antidepressants, and antihypertensives, plays a fundamental role in the management of ADHD across the lifespan...
  76. ncbi request reprint Pharmacology of adult ADHD with stimulants
    Thomas J Spencer
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    CNS Spectr 12:8-11. 2007
  77. ncbi request reprint A review of the pharmacotherapy of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Timothy E Wilens
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Atten Disord 5:189-202. 2002
    ..Despite the increasing recognition of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, the use of pharmacotherapeutics remains less established...
  78. ncbi request reprint An open trial of bupropion for the treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder
    Timothy E Wilens
    Clinical Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 54:9-16. 2003
    ..Given the efficacy of bupropion for ADHD in adults, as well as its use in the management of bipolar depression, we studied the tolerability and efficacy of sustained-release (SR) bupropion in adults with ADHD plus BPD...
  79. ncbi request reprint Substance use among ADHD adults: implications of late onset and subthreshold diagnoses
    Stephen V Faraone
    Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, USA
    Am J Addict 16:24-32; quiz 33-4. 2007
    ..In contrast, subthreshold ADHD seems to be a milder form of the disorder, or perhaps a heterogeneous group of true ADHD cases and false positives...
  80. ncbi request reprint Comparison of parent and teacher reports of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms from two placebo-controlled studies of atomoxetine in children
    Joseph Biederman
    Scientific Communications, Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:1106-10. 2006
    ..This study assessed whether parent reports were as sensitive as teacher reports to document change in ADHD symptoms during clinical trials with atomoxetine...
  81. ncbi request reprint Treatment of ADHD with stimulant medications: response to Nissen perspective in the New England Journal of Medicine
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1147-50. 2006
  82. pmc Effect of candidate gene polymorphisms on the course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Psychiatry Res 170:199-203. 2009
    ..94) and 5HTTLPR long allele. Our findings suggest that the DRD4 7-repeat allele is associated with a more persistent course of ADHD...
  83. doi request reprint A preliminary study of dopamine D4 receptor genotype and structural brain alterations in adults with ADHD
    Michael C Monuteaux
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147:1436-41. 2008
    ..These result support the heterogeneity of ADHD and provides insights as to its underlying pathophysiology...
  84. doi request reprint Stability of executive function deficits in girls with ADHD: a prospective longitudinal followup study into adolescence
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Program of the Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Dev Neuropsychol 33:44-61. 2008
    ..These findings document the stability of EFDs in girls with ADHD from childhood into adolescence...
  85. ncbi request reprint A prospective open-label treatment trial of ziprasidone monotherapy in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder
    Joseph Biederman
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, 32 Fruit Street, Yawkey Center for Outpatient Care Yaw 6A, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Bipolar Disord 9:888-94. 2007
    ..To assess the effectiveness and tolerability of ziprasidone for treating pediatric mania...
  86. pmc Do stimulants protect against psychiatric disorders in youth with ADHD? A 10-year follow-up study
    Joseph Biederman
    Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Clinical and Research Programs in PediatricPsychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Pediatrics 124:71-8. 2009
    ..We tested the association between stimulant treatment and the subsequent development of psychiatric comorbidity in a longitudinal sample of patients with ADHD...
  87. ncbi request reprint Cardiovascular effects of longer-term, high-dose OROS methylphenidate in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    Paul Hammerness
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02138, USA
    J Pediatr 155:84-9, 89.e1. 2009
    ..To examine the effects of high doses of extended-release methylphenidate (OROS MPH) on cardiovascular variables in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  88. doi request reprint Adult psychiatric outcomes of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: 11-year follow-up in a longitudinal case-control study
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 167:409-17. 2010
    ..Few follow-up studies have been conducted of girls with ADHD, and none have followed girls into adulthood. The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of psychopathology in girls with and without ADHD followed into young adulthood...
  89. pmc Examination of concordance between maternal and youth reports in the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Warren 705, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Bipolar Disord 11:298-306. 2009
    ..To this end we compared discordant (mother positive and youth negative) and concordant (mother and youth positive) cases...
  90. doi request reprint A randomized, 3-phase, 34-week, double-blind, long-term efficacy study of osmotic-release oral system-methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 30:549-53. 2010
    ..More work is needed to be conducted with larger samples being followed to study completion to better understand the long-lasting impact of pharmacotherapy for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
  91. ncbi request reprint Assessing the validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form in adults with ADHD
    Eric Mick
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Boston MA 02114, USA
    J Atten Disord 11:504-9. 2008
    ..The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD...
  92. ncbi request reprint Psychopathology in females with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled, five-year prospective study
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit of the Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, 32 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 60:1098-105. 2006
    ..This study estimated the lifetime burden of comorbid psychopathology in a large sample of girls with and without ADHD followed up over five years...
  93. ncbi request reprint An open-label trial of OROS methylphenidate in adults with late-onset ADHD
    Joseph Biederman
    Joint Program, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Office, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    CNS Spectr 11:390-6. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that treatment with oral release osmotic system (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) will be safe and efficacious for the treatment of adults with late-onset ADHD...
  94. ncbi request reprint A double-blind comparison of galantamine hydrogen bromide and placebo in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Program, Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 26:163-6. 2006
    ..Because of its cholinergic nicotinic mechanism of action, galantamine HBr was hypothesized to have therapeutic activity in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  95. ncbi request reprint Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10-year follow-up study
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit of the Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Psychol Med 36:167-79. 2006
    ..Our objective was to estimate the lifetime prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of youth with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through young adulthood using contemporaneous diagnostic and analytic techniques...
  96. ncbi request reprint A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
    Joseph Biederman
    Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 59:829-35. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-daily OROS methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of adults with DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  97. ncbi request reprint Growth deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder revisited: impact of gender, development, and treatment
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit of the Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Pediatrics 111:1010-6. 2003
    ..Although the relationship between putative growth deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been examined in boys, this issue has not been evaluated in girls...
  98. ncbi request reprint ADHD treatment with once-daily OROS methylphenidate: final results from a long-term open-label study
    Timothy Wilens
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Psychopharmacology, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:1015-23. 2005
    ..This article presents final results from an open-label, multisite study of a once-daily formulation of methylphenidate (MPH), OROS MPH...
  99. ncbi request reprint An open-label trial of risperidone in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 15:311-7. 2005
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of risperidone as a treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder...
  100. ncbi request reprint Which SSRI? A meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy trials in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Daniel A Geller
    Pediatric OCD Problem, WACC 725, Massachusetts General Hospital, 15 Parkman Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:1919-28. 2003
    ....
  101. ncbi request reprint Aripiprazole in the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder: a systematic chart review
    Joseph Biederman
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Research Office, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    CNS Spectr 10:141-8. 2005
    ..Pediatric bipolar disorder is a serious neuropsychiatric disorder associated with high levels of morbidity and disability...