Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

Summary

Affiliation: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Extracellular signaling through the microenvironment: a hypothesis relating carcinogenesis, bystander effects, and genomic instability
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Radiat Res 156:618-27. 2001
  2. pmc Transforming growth factor-beta and breast cancer: Mammary gland development
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 2:92-9. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Latency and activation in the control of TGF-beta
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1:353-63. 1996
  4. ncbi request reprint It takes a tissue to make a tumor: epigenetics, cancer and the microenvironment
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 6:213-21. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint Three down and counting: the transformation of human mammary cells from normal to malignant in three steps
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Cancer and Tissue Biology, Life Sciences Division, Building 74 174, 1 Cyclotron Road, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Trends Mol Med 7:142-3. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint A systems biology approach to multicellular and multi-generational radiation responses
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Building 74 355, Berkeley, CA 94705, USA
    Mutat Res 597:32-8. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Latency and activation in the control of TGF-beta
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, E O Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California 94720, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1:353-63. 1996
  8. ncbi request reprint Irradiated mammary gland stroma promotes the expression of tumorigenic potential by unirradiated epithelial cells
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Cancer Res 60:1254-60. 2000
  9. ncbi request reprint Cancer as an emergent phenomenon in systems radiation biology
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Bldg 977, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Radiat Environ Biophys 47:33-8. 2008
  10. pmc New highlights on stroma-epithelial interactions in breast cancer
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 7:33-6. 2005

Research Grants

  1. GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON MAMMARY GLAND BIOLOGY
    MARY BARCELLOS HOFF; Fiscal Year: 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. ncbi request reprint Extracellular signaling through the microenvironment: a hypothesis relating carcinogenesis, bystander effects, and genomic instability
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Radiat Res 156:618-27. 2001
    ..Understanding radiation effects in terms of coordinated multicellular responses that affect decisions regarding the fate of a cell may necessitate re-evaluation of radiation dose and risk concepts and provide avenues for intervention...
  2. pmc Transforming growth factor-beta and breast cancer: Mammary gland development
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 2:92-9. 2000
    ..Definition of the spatial and temporal patterns of latent TGF-beta activation in situ is essential for understanding the specific roles that TGF-beta plays during mammary gland development, proliferation, and morphogenesis...
  3. ncbi request reprint Latency and activation in the control of TGF-beta
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1:353-63. 1996
    ..Recent studies of irradiated mammary gland reveal certain features of TGF-beta 1 activation that may shed light on its regulation and potential roles in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland...
  4. ncbi request reprint It takes a tissue to make a tumor: epigenetics, cancer and the microenvironment
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 6:213-21. 2001
    ..Our hypothesis is that the persistent disruption of the microenvironment in irradiated tissue compromises its ability to suppress carcinogenesis...
  5. ncbi request reprint Three down and counting: the transformation of human mammary cells from normal to malignant in three steps
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Cancer and Tissue Biology, Life Sciences Division, Building 74 174, 1 Cyclotron Road, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Trends Mol Med 7:142-3. 2001
    ..Elenbaas et al. recently described an experimental system for studying the genetic requirements for the development of breast cancer...
  6. ncbi request reprint A systems biology approach to multicellular and multi-generational radiation responses
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Building 74 355, Berkeley, CA 94705, USA
    Mutat Res 597:32-8. 2006
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Latency and activation in the control of TGF-beta
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, E O Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California 94720, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1:353-63. 1996
    ..Recent studies of irradiated mammary gland reveal certain features of TGF-beta 1 activation that may shed light on its regulation and potential roles in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland...
  8. ncbi request reprint Irradiated mammary gland stroma promotes the expression of tumorigenic potential by unirradiated epithelial cells
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Cancer Res 60:1254-60. 2000
    ..Disruption of solid tissue interactions is a heretofore unrecognized activity of ionizing radiation as a carcinogen...
  9. ncbi request reprint Cancer as an emergent phenomenon in systems radiation biology
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Bldg 977, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Radiat Environ Biophys 47:33-8. 2008
    ..Given the current research goal to determine the consequences of high and low radiation exposures, broadening the scope of radiation studies to include systems biology concepts should benefit risk modeling of radiation carcinogenesis...
  10. pmc New highlights on stroma-epithelial interactions in breast cancer
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 7:33-6. 2005
    ..In the present article, we discuss three recent publications that highlight the complex role the stroma has during the development of cancer and the potential for targeting the stroma by therapeutic approaches...
  11. ncbi request reprint Radiation and the microenvironment - tumorigenesis and therapy
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 5:867-75. 2005
    ..These alterations in the microenvironment can contribute to carcinogenesis and alter the tissue response to anticancer therapy. Examples of these responses and their implications are discussed with a view to therapeutic intervention...
  12. doi request reprint Targeted and nontargeted effects of ionizing radiation that impact genomic instability
    Christopher A Maxwell
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Cancer Res 68:8304-11. 2008
    ..Together, these studies show that radiation deregulates centrosome stability, which underlies genomic instability in normal human epithelial cells, and that this can be opposed by radiation-induced TGFbeta signaling...
  13. ncbi request reprint Imaging features that discriminate between foci induced by high- and low-LET radiation in human fibroblasts
    Sylvain V Costes
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Radiat Res 165:505-15. 2006
    ..Thus, even though double-strand breaks and radiation-induced foci are correlated, the dynamic nature of both contradicts their accepted equivalence for low doses of different radiation qualities...
  14. doi request reprint Lack of radiation dose or quality dependence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by transforming growth factor β
    Kumari L Andarawewa
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 79:1523-31. 2011
    ..In this study we determined whether radiation dose or quality affected TGF-β-mediated EMT...
  15. ncbi request reprint A tool for the quantitative spatial analysis of complex cellular systems
    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
    University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    IEEE Trans Image Process 14:1300-13. 2005
    ..Finally, we show a number of examples that demonstrate the feasibility of our approach...
  16. ncbi request reprint Transforming growth factor-beta1 mediates cellular response to DNA damage in situ
    Kenneth B Ewan
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    Cancer Res 62:5627-31. 2002
    ..These data indicate that TGF-beta1 is essential for rapid p53-mediated cellular responses that mediate cell fate decisions in situ...
  17. pmc Latent transforming growth factor-beta activation in mammary gland: regulation by ovarian hormones affects ductal and alveolar proliferation
    Kenneth B Ewan
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Am J Pathol 160:2081-93. 2002
    ..Together these data indicate that ovarian hormones regulate TGF-beta 1 activation, which in turn restricts proliferative response to hormone signaling...
  18. pmc Proliferation of estrogen receptor-alpha-positive mammary epithelial cells is restrained by transforming growth factor-beta1 in adult mice
    Kenneth B R Ewan
    Life Sciences Division, Bldg 74 355, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720, USA
    Am J Pathol 167:409-17. 2005
    ..Accordingly, we propose that TGF-beta1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER-alpha-positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans...
  19. ncbi request reprint New rationales for using TGFbeta inhibitors in radiotherapy
    Kumari L Andarawewa
    Life Sciences Division, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Int J Radiat Biol 83:803-11. 2007
    ..Subsequent studies have shown that TGFbeta is a major mediator of cellular and tissue responses to IR and have revealed novel facets of its complex biology...
  20. ncbi request reprint Ionizing radiation predisposes nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells to undergo transforming growth factor beta induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition
    Kumari L Andarawewa
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
    Cancer Res 67:8662-70. 2007
    ..Together, these data show that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression...
  21. doi request reprint Multidimensional profiling of cell surface proteins and nuclear markers
    Ju Han
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 7:80-90. 2010
    ..We demonstrate that multidimensional representations of cell-by-cell phenotypes improve predictive and visualization capabilities among different treatment groups, and identify hidden variables...
  22. ncbi request reprint Intensity-based signal separation algorithm for accurate quantification of clustered centrosomes in tissue sections
    Markus C Fleisch
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Microsc Res Tech 69:964-72. 2006
    ..This was done by taking into account baseline centrosome amplification and proliferation rates measured in the tissue. Using this technique, the authors showed that 20-30% of cells have amplified centrosomes in Tp53 null mammary tumors...
  23. ncbi request reprint The not-so innocent bystander: the microenvironment as a therapeutic target in cancer
    Anna C Erickson
    Life Sciences Division, Building 74 174, 1 Cyclotron Road, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 7:71-88. 2003
    ..Therefore, controlling and eliminating cancer may be more readily achieved indirectly via the tissue microenvironment...
  24. pmc Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions
    Catherine C Park
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10728-33. 2003
    ..These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization...
  25. pmc Image-based modeling reveals dynamic redistribution of DNA damage into nuclear sub-domains
    Sylvain V Costes
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 3:e155. 2007
    ..These data suggest that DNA damage-induced foci are restricted to certain regions of the nucleus of human epithelial cells. It is possible that DNA lesions are collected in these nuclear sub-domains for more efficient repair...
  26. ncbi request reprint Integrative radiation carcinogenesis: interactions between cell and tissue responses to DNA damage
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Department of Cancer Biology, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94705, USA
    Semin Cancer Biol 15:138-48. 2005
    ..Understanding the dynamic interactions between tissue and cell stress responses will be necessary for an accurate assessment of cancer risk and may also provide targets for prevention...
  27. pmc Promotion of variant human mammary epithelial cell outgrowth by ionizing radiation: an agent-based model supported by in vitro studies
    Rituparna Mukhopadhyay
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 12:R11. 2010
    ..We investigated whether ionizing radiation, which increases breast cancer risk in women, affects the rate of vHMEC outgrowth...
  28. ncbi request reprint The pleiotropic roles of transforming growth factor beta in homeostasis and carcinogenesis of endocrine organs
    Markus C Fleisch
    Life Sciences Division, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 977 225A, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 13:379-400. 2006
    ....
  29. pmc Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice
    Marina Simian
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Breast Cancer Res 11:R72. 2009
    ..Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics...
  30. doi request reprint Irradiation of juvenile, but not adult, mammary gland increases stem cell self-renewal and estrogen receptor negative tumors
    Jonathan Tang
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California, USA
    Stem Cells 32:649-61. 2014
    ..These studies suggest that irradiation during puberty transiently increases stem cell self-renewal, which increases susceptibility to developing ER-negative breast cancer...
  31. pmc Mapping mammary gland architecture using multi-scale in situ analysis
    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
    Department of Cancer Biology, Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720, USA
    Integr Biol (Camb) 1:80-9. 2009
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Consequences of epithelial or stromal TGFβ1 depletion in the mammary gland
    David H Nguyen
    Endocrinology Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 16:147-55. 2011
    ....
  33. pmc Phenotypic reversion or death of cancer cells by altering signaling pathways in three-dimensional contexts
    Fei Wang
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1494-503. 2002
    ..We have now used this assay to identify reversion and/or death requirements of several more aggressive human breast cancer cell lines...
  34. doi request reprint Karyotypic instability and centrosome aberrations in the progeny of finite life-span human mammary epithelial cells exposed to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation
    Hiroko Sudo
    Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Radiat Res 170:23-32. 2008
    ..Thus genomic instability occurs frequently in finite life-span HMEC exposed to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation and may contribute to radiation-induced breast cancer...
  35. pmc The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensional assays correlate with their profiles of gene expression
    Paraic A Kenny
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Mol Oncol 1:84-96. 2007
    ..We further demonstrate that consistent differences in genes encoding signal transduction proteins emerge when even tumor cells are cultured in 3D microenvironments...
  36. pmc Transgenic mice carrying an imbalance in the native ratio of A to B forms of progesterone receptor exhibit developmental abnormalities in mammary glands
    G Shyamala
    Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:696-701. 1998
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Ionizing radiation accelerates aortic lesion formation in fat-fed mice via SOD-inhibitable processes
    D L Tribble
    Life Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19:1387-92. 1999
    ..On the basis of these results, we propose that radiation may be a useful tool for initiating oxidative or redox-regulated events that promote atherogenesis and for testing the antiatherogenic properties of antioxidants...
  38. ncbi request reprint Geometric approach to segmentation and protein localization in cell culture assays
    S Raman
    Lawerence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkley, CA 94720, USA
    J Microsc 225:22-30. 2007
    ..The technique has been tested against 196 images that were generated to study centrosome abnormalities. Corresponding computed representations are compared against manual counts for validation...
  39. ncbi request reprint Radiation-induced transforming growth factor beta and subsequent extracellular matrix reorganization in murine mammary gland
    M H Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley 94720
    Cancer Res 53:3880-6. 1993
    ..Fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV localization were unchanged over the time course. I postulate that radiation-induced TGF beta may mediate the remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix in the irradiated mammary gland...
  40. ncbi request reprint Quantitative image analysis in mammary gland biology
    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, California, USA
    J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 9:343-59. 2004
    ..Integration of quantitative imaging into the further study of the mammary gland holds the promise of better understanding its tissue complexity that evolves during development, differentiation and disease...
  41. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta1 signaling attenuates ataxia telangiectasia mutated activity in response to genotoxic stress
    Julia Kirshner
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
    Cancer Res 66:10861-9. 2006
    ....
  42. pmc Radiation carcinogenesis in context: how do irradiated tissues become tumors?
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94705, USA
    Health Phys 97:446-57. 2009
    ..The implications of this perspective in terms of reducing cancer risk after exposure are discussed...
  43. ncbi request reprint Iterative voting for inference of structural saliency and characterization of subcellular events
    Bahram Parvin
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    IEEE Trans Image Process 16:615-23. 2007
    ..Iterative voting has been implemented in both 2-D and 3-D for multi image analysis...
  44. ncbi request reprint In situ localization of progesterone receptors in normal mouse mammary glands: absence of receptors in the connective and adipose stroma and a heterogeneous distribution in the epithelium
    G Shyamala
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 63:251-9. 1997
    ..The potential significance of these findings to mammary development is discussed...
  45. ncbi request reprint Quantitative in vivo microscopy: the return from the 'omics'
    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Curr Opin Biotechnol 17:501-10. 2006
    ..In this way, parallel studies are feasible where multiple cell colonies treated with drugs or gene expression repressors can be monitored and analyzed to study the dynamics of relevant biological processes...
  46. ncbi request reprint Isoform-specific activation of latent transforming growth factor beta (LTGF-beta) by reactive oxygen species
    Michael F Jobling
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Radiat Res 166:839-48. 2006
    ..We propose that LTGF-beta1 contains a redox switch centered at methionine 253, which allows LTGF-beta1 to act uniquely as an extracellular sensor of oxidative stress in tissues...
  47. pmc Murine microenvironment metaprofiles associate with human cancer etiology and intrinsic subtypes
    David H Nguyen
    Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 19:1353-62. 2013
    ..We asked whether expression metaprofiles could discern radiation-preceded human cancer or be informative in sporadic breast cancers...
  48. ncbi request reprint System for combined three-dimensional morphological and molecular analysis of thick tissue specimens
    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Microsc Res Tech 59:522-30. 2002
    ..g., whole gland) analysis of complex tissue samples or cultures...
  49. ncbi request reprint Radiation therapy and the microenvironment
    Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff
    Int J Radiat Biol 83:723-5. 2007
  50. ncbi request reprint Education and training for radiation scientists: radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003
    C Norman Coleman
    Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Radiat Res 160:729-37. 2003
    ..5) Educate other scientists and the general public on the quantitative, basic, molecular, translational and applied aspects of radiation sciences...
  51. ncbi request reprint Conditional overexpression of active transforming growth factor beta1 in vivo accelerates metastases of transgenic mammary tumors
    Rebecca S Muraoka-Cook
    Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt Ingram Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Cancer Res 64:9002-11. 2004
    ..Therefore, induction and/or activation of TGF-beta in hosts with established TGF-beta-responsive cancers can rapidly accelerate metastatic progression...

Research Grants1

  1. GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON MAMMARY GLAND BIOLOGY
    MARY BARCELLOS HOFF; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..