P D Adams

Summary

Affiliation: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Automatic Fortran to C++ conversion with FABLE
    Ralf W Grosse-Kunstleve
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Cyclotron Road, Bldg, 64R0121, Berkeley, CA, 94720 8118, USA
    Source Code Biol Med 7:5. 2012
  2. pmc Manipulation of the carbon storage regulator system for metabolite remodeling and biofuel production in Escherichia coli
    Adrienne E McKee
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA
    Microb Cell Fact 11:79. 2012
  3. pmc Survey of renewable chemicals produced from lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment
    Patanjali Varanasi
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, CA, USA
    Biotechnol Biofuels 6:14. 2013
  4. pmc Thermoascus aurantiacus is a promising source of enzymes for biomass deconstruction under thermophilic conditions
    Shara D McClendon
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA
    Biotechnol Biofuels 5:54. 2012
  5. pmc Glycoside hydrolases from a targeted compost metagenome, activity-screening and functional characterization
    Michael J Dougherty
    The Joint Bioenergy Institute, Emeryville, USA
    BMC Biotechnol 12:38. 2012
  6. ncbi request reprint Advances, interactions, and future developments in the CNS, Phenix, and Rosetta structural biology software systems
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Annu Rev Biophys 42:265-87. 2013
  7. pmc A rapid and inexpensive labeling method for microarray gene expression analysis
    Mario Ouellet
    The Joint Bioenergy Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, USA
    BMC Biotechnol 9:97. 2009
  8. pmc Recent developments in phasing and structure refinement for macromolecular crystallography
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, BLDG 64R0121, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 19:566-72. 2009
  9. pmc PHENIX: a comprehensive Python-based system for macromolecular structure solution
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 66:213-21. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Recent developments in the PHENIX software for automated crystallographic structure determination
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Synchrotron Radiat 11:53-5. 2004

Research Grants

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. pmc Automatic Fortran to C++ conversion with FABLE
    Ralf W Grosse-Kunstleve
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Cyclotron Road, Bldg, 64R0121, Berkeley, CA, 94720 8118, USA
    Source Code Biol Med 7:5. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  2. pmc Manipulation of the carbon storage regulator system for metabolite remodeling and biofuel production in Escherichia coli
    Adrienne E McKee
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA
    Microb Cell Fact 11:79. 2012
    ..coli. Therefore, we hypothesized that perturbation of the Csr system through the CsrA-CsrB ribonucleoprotein complex might increase production of biofuels and their intermediates from heterologous pathways...
  3. pmc Survey of renewable chemicals produced from lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment
    Patanjali Varanasi
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, CA, USA
    Biotechnol Biofuels 6:14. 2013
    ..abstract:..
  4. pmc Thermoascus aurantiacus is a promising source of enzymes for biomass deconstruction under thermophilic conditions
    Shara D McClendon
    Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA
    Biotechnol Biofuels 5:54. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  5. pmc Glycoside hydrolases from a targeted compost metagenome, activity-screening and functional characterization
    Michael J Dougherty
    The Joint Bioenergy Institute, Emeryville, USA
    BMC Biotechnol 12:38. 2012
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Advances, interactions, and future developments in the CNS, Phenix, and Rosetta structural biology software systems
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Annu Rev Biophys 42:265-87. 2013
    ..The prospects for future improvement of these methods are discussed...
  7. pmc A rapid and inexpensive labeling method for microarray gene expression analysis
    Mario Ouellet
    The Joint Bioenergy Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Emeryville, USA
    BMC Biotechnol 9:97. 2009
    ....
  8. pmc Recent developments in phasing and structure refinement for macromolecular crystallography
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, BLDG 64R0121, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 19:566-72. 2009
    ..Recent advances in phasing and model refinement and validation algorithms make it possible to arrive at better electron density maps and more accurate models...
  9. pmc PHENIX: a comprehensive Python-based system for macromolecular structure solution
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 66:213-21. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Recent developments in the PHENIX software for automated crystallographic structure determination
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Synchrotron Radiat 11:53-5. 2004
    ..Here, the features of PHENIXare reviewed and the recent advances in infrastructure and algorithms are briefly described...
  11. ncbi request reprint PHENIX: building new software for automated crystallographic structure determination
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 4 230, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 58:1948-54. 2002
    ..This new software will provide the necessary algorithms to proceed from reduced intensity data to a refined molecular model and to facilitate structure solution for both the novice and expert crystallographer...
  12. pmc The Phenix software for automated determination of macromolecular structures
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Methods 55:94-106. 2011
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Recent developments in software for the automation of crystallographic macromolecular structure determination
    P D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mailstop 4 230, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Curr Opin Struct Biol 10:564-8. 2000
    ..These first steps towards complete automation have made X-ray crystallography more efficient...
  14. ncbi request reprint Crystallography & NMR system: A new software suite for macromolecular structure determination
    A T Brunger
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA, and Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 54:905-21. 1998
    ..User-friendly task-oriented input files are available for nearly all aspects of macromolecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography and solution NMR...
  15. ncbi request reprint Algorithms for deriving crystallographic space-group information. II. Treatment of special positions
    R W Grosse-Kunstleve
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Mail Stop 4 230, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr A 58:60-5. 2002
    ..All algorithms are implemented in ISO C++ and are integrated into the Computational Crystallography Toolbox. The source code is freely available...
  16. ncbi request reprint Substructure search procedures for macromolecular structures
    R W Grosse-Kunstleve
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 4R0230, Berkeley, California 94720 8235, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 59:1966-73. 2003
    ..The first part is an overview of the fundamentals of Patterson methods and direct methods with the audience of the CCP4 Study Weekend in mind. In the second part, a new hybrid substructure search is outlined...
  17. ncbi request reprint Patterson correlation methods: a review of molecular replacement with CNS
    R W Grosse-Kunstleve
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Mail Stop 4 230, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 57:1390-6. 2001
    ..The three principal components are the direct rotation function, Patterson correlation refinement and the fast translation function. CNS is available online and is free of charge for academic users...
  18. pmc electronic Ligand Builder and Optimization Workbench (eLBOW): a tool for ligand coordinate and restraint generation
    Nigel W Moriarty
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 65:1074-80. 2009
    ..A variety of input formats and options allow the attainment of a number of diverse goals including geometry optimization and generation of restraints...
  19. pmc Joint X-ray and neutron refinement with phenix.refine
    Pavel V Afonine
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physical Biosciences Division, MS 64R0121, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 66:1153-63. 2010
    ..Here, the implementation of crystallographic structure-refinement procedures that include both X-ray and neutron data (separate or jointly) in the PHENIX system is described...
  20. ncbi request reprint Automated structure solution with the PHENIX suite
    Peter H Zwart
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 426:419-35. 2008
    ..The algorithms are tightly linked and made easily accessible to users through the PHENIX Wizards and the PHENIX GUI...
  21. pmc Surprises and pitfalls arising from (pseudo)symmetry
    Peter H Zwart
    Berkeley Center for Structural Biology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 6R2100, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 64:99-107. 2008
    ..The background to certain common pathologies is presented and a new notation for space groups in unusual settings is introduced. The main concepts are illustrated with several examples from the literature and the Protein Data Bank...
  22. pmc On macromolecular refinement at subatomic resolution with interatomic scatterers
    Pavel V Afonine
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 63:1194-7. 2007
    ..Applications to several data sets of both small molecules and macromolecules are shown. These refinements were performed using the general-purpose macromolecular refinement module phenix.refine of the PHENIX package...
  23. pmc A robust bulk-solvent correction and anisotropic scaling procedure
    Pavel V Afonine
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 61:850-5. 2005
    ..These algorithms are implemented in the CCTBX bulk-solvent correction and scaling module...
  24. pmc Bulk-solvent and overall scaling revisited: faster calculations, improved results
    P V Afonine
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 69:625-34. 2013
    ..Similarly, alternative methods are presented for anisotropic scaling and their performance is analyzed. All methods are implemented in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox (cctbx) and are used in PHENIX programs...
  25. ncbi request reprint On symmetries of substructures
    R W Grosse-Kunstleve
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 4R0230, Berkeley, California 94720 8235, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 59:1974-7. 2003
    ..Pointers are also provided to practical tools for working with substructure symmetries...
  26. ncbi request reprint Numerically stable algorithms for the computation of reduced unit cells
    R W Grosse-Kunstleve
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, BLDG 4R0230, Berkeley, CA 94720 8235, USA
    Acta Crystallogr A 60:1-6. 2004
    ..1973), A29, 433-440]. Both algorithms have been enhanced to generate a change-of-basis matrix along with the parameters of the reduced cell...
  27. ncbi request reprint Computational aspects of high-throughput crystallographic macromolecular structure determination
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
    Methods Biochem Anal 44:75-87. 2003
  28. ncbi request reprint Crystal structures of an NAD kinase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus in complex with ATP, NAD, or NADP
    Jinyu Liu
    Berkeley Structural Genomics Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physical Bioscience Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 5230, USA
    J Mol Biol 354:289-303. 2005
    ..A possible phosphate transfer mechanism is proposed on the basis of the structures presented...
  29. ncbi request reprint Crystal structures of the Rhodococcus proteasome with and without its pro-peptides: implications for the role of the pro-peptide in proteasome assembly
    Young Do Kwon
    Graduate Group in Comparative Biochemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Mol Biol 335:233-45. 2004
    ..This appears to be a fail-safe mechanism ensuring that the active sites on the beta-subunits are activated only after proteasome assembly is complete...
  30. pmc Generalized X-ray and neutron crystallographic analysis: more accurate and complete structures for biological macromolecules
    Paul D Adams
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 65:567-73. 2009
    ..Furthermore, this method has several practical advantages, including the easier determination of the orientation of water molecules, hydroxyl groups and some amino-acid side chains...
  31. pmc Structure of O67745_AQUAE, a hypothetical protein from Aquifex aeolicus
    Vaheh Oganesyan
    Berkeley Structural Genomics Center, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 63:369-74. 2007
    ..Data are presented that provide the first insights into the structural organization of the proteins within this clan and a distal alternative GDP-binding domain outside the metal-binding active site is proposed...
  32. ncbi request reprint Crystal structure of a heat-inducible transcriptional repressor HrcA from Thermotoga maritima: structural insight into DNA binding and dimerization
    Jinyu Liu
    Berkeley Structural Genomics Center, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Mol Biol 350:987-96. 2005
    ..Structural implication on how the inactive form of HrcA may be converted to the active form by GroEL binding to a conserved C-terminal sequence region of HrcA is discussed...
  33. pmc Structure of a NAD kinase from Thermotoga maritima at 2.3 A resolution
    Vaheh Oganesyan
    Structural Genomics Center, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 61:640-6. 2005
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint SPARX, a new environment for Cryo-EM image processing
    Michael Hohn
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physical Bioscience Division, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    J Struct Biol 157:47-55. 2007
    ..SPARX and all dependencies are free for academic use and available with complete source...
  35. pmc Crystal structure of the "PhoU-like" phosphate uptake regulator from Aquifex aeolicus
    Vaheh Oganesyan
    Berkely Structural Genomics Center, Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Bacteriol 187:4238-44. 2005
    ..Other proteins that share the PhoU domain fold include the coiled-coil domains of the STAT protein, the ribosome-recycling factor, and structural proteins like spectrin...
  36. pmc Crystal structure of DNA sequence specificity subunit of a type I restriction-modification enzyme and its functional implications
    Jeong Sun Kim
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:3248-53. 2005
    ..Furthermore, the relative orientation of the two DNA binding clefts suggests kinking of bound dsDNA and exposing of target adenines from the recognized DNA sequences...
  37. pmc Crystal structures of a group II chaperonin reveal the open and closed states associated with the protein folding cycle
    Jose H Pereira
    Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:27958-66. 2010
    ..These results suggest a completely distinct closing mechanism in the group II chaperonins as compared with the group I chaperonins...
  38. ncbi request reprint Structural basis for double-stranded RNA processing by Dicer
    Ian J Macrae
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    Science 311:195-8. 2006
    ..The 65 angstrom distance between the PAZ and RNase III domains matches the length spanned by 25 base pairs of RNA. Thus, Dicer itself is a molecular ruler that recognizes dsRNA and cleaves a specified distance from the helical end...
  39. pmc Iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild wizard
    Thomas C Terwilliger
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 64:61-9. 2008
    ..1 to 3.2 A, resulting in a mean R factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density and is relatively independent of resolution...
  40. pmc Ligand identification using electron-density map correlations
    Thomas C Terwilliger
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 63:101-7. 2007
    ..This approach may be useful in identification of unknown ligands in new macromolecular structures as well as in the identification of which ligands in a mixture have bound to a macromolecule...
  41. ncbi request reprint X-ray crystallographic and kinetic studies of human sorbitol dehydrogenase
    Thomas A Pauly
    Exploratory Medicinal Sciences, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA
    Structure 11:1071-85. 2003
    ..The inhibitor forms hydrophobic interactions to NADH and likely sterically occludes substrate binding. The structure of the inhibitor complex provides a framework for developing more potent inhibitors of hSDH...
  42. ncbi request reprint Automated crystallographic ligand building using the medial axis transform of an electron-density isosurface
    Jun Aishima
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stanford, CA, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 61:1354-63. 2005
    ..Generalization of the method to recognition of common features across multiple contour levels could lead to powerful automatic fitting methods that perform well even at low resolution...
  43. ncbi request reprint Automatic solution of heavy-atom substructures
    Charles M Weeks
    Hauptman Woodward Medical Research Institute, 73 High Street, Buffalo, New York 14203, USA
    Methods Enzymol 374:37-83. 2003
  44. ncbi request reprint Backbone dynamics of an oncogenic mutant of Cdc42Hs shows increased flexibility at the nucleotide-binding site
    Paul D Adams
    Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Biochemistry 43:9968-77. 2004
    ..Thus, local dynamic changes introduced by a single-point mutation can affect important aspects of signaling processes without disrupting the conformation of the whole protein...
  45. pmc Automated ligand fitting by core-fragment fitting and extension into density
    Thomas C Terwilliger
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 62:915-22. 2006
    ....
  46. doi request reprint Modeling membrane proteins utilizing information from silent amino acid substitutions
    Uzi Kochva
    The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
    Curr Protoc Bioinformatics . 2004
    ..Thus, the correct structure is found by repeating the GMDS for several close homologues and selecting the structure that persists in all of the trials...
  47. pmc Protein structures by spallation neutron crystallography
    Paul Langan
    Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545, USA
    J Synchrotron Radiat 15:215-8. 2008
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Molecular dynamics applied to X-ray structure refinement
    Axel T Brunger
    The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Road, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Acc Chem Res 35:404-12. 2002
    ..The theory and practice of the method are reviewed, and some recent improvements are described...
  49. ncbi request reprint Intramolecular quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the peptide bond in cyclic hexapeptides
    Paul D Adams
    Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 7078, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 124:9278-86. 2002
    ....
  50. pmc Transmembrane signal transduction of the alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin
    Kay E Gottschalk
    Institut fur Organische Chemie und Biochemie, Technische Universitat Munchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D 85747 Garching, Germany
    Protein Sci 11:1800-12. 2002
    ..A transition between these two states was determined by molecular dynamics (MD) calculations. On the basis of these calculations, we propose a three-state mechanism...
  51. ncbi request reprint Fluorescence of cis-1-amino-2-(3-indolyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid: a single tryptophan chi(1) rotamer model
    Bo Liu
    Department of Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 124:13329-38. 2002
    ....
  52. pmc High-resolution structure of RNase P protein from Thermotoga maritima
    Alexei V Kazantsev
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 0347, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7497-502. 2003
    ..The protein is found to dimerize through an extensive, well-ordered interface. This dimerization may reflect a mechanism of thermal stability of the protein before assembly with the RNA moiety of the holoenzyme...
  53. ncbi request reprint Exploring the structural dynamics of the E.coli chaperonin GroEL using translation-libration-screw crystallographic refinement of intermediate states
    Charu Chaudhry
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Mol Biol 342:229-45. 2004
    ....
  54. pmc Iterative-build OMIT maps: map improvement by iterative model building and refinement without model bias
    Thomas C Terwilliger
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 64:515-24. 2008
    ..The procedure is demonstrated with a molecular-replacement structure and with an experimentally phased structure and a variation on the method is demonstrated by removing model bias from a structure from the Protein Data Bank...
  55. pmc Solution structure of an oncogenic mutant of Cdc42Hs
    Paul D Adams
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Biochemistry 45:2577-83. 2006
    ....
  56. pmc Interpretation of ensembles created by multiple iterative rebuilding of macromolecular models
    Thomas C Terwilliger
    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 63:597-610. 2007
    ....
  57. pmc Crystal structure of a bacterial ribonuclease P RNA
    Alexei V Kazantsev
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:13392-7. 2005
    ..This site is located in a highly conserved core structure formed by intricately interlaced long-range interactions between interhelical sequences...

Research Grants3

  1. 2006 Diffraction Methods in Structual Biology Conference
    Paul Adams; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Junior participation will be encouraged with time for discussion after talks and a session devoted to talks selected from the poster-presentations. ..