Robert F Siliciano

Summary

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Orientation-dependent regulation of integrated HIV-1 expression by host gene transcriptional readthrough
    Yefei Han
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:134-46. 2008
  2. ncbi request reprint The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection
    Joel N Blankson
    Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 e mail
    Annu Rev Med 53:557-93. 2002
  3. pmc Control of HIV-1 in elite suppressors despite ongoing replication and evolution in plasma virus
    Karen A O'Connell
    Broadway Research Bldg, Rm 880, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 84:7018-28. 2010
  4. pmc A novel assay allows genotyping of the latent reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the resting CD4+ T cells of viremic patients
    Daphne Monie
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Broadway Research Building, Room 879, 733 North Broadway St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 79:5185-202. 2005
  5. pmc Continued production of drug-sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in children on combination antiretroviral therapy who have undetectable viral loads
    Deborah Persaud
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 78:968-79. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Intermittent HIV-1 viremia (Blips) and drug resistance in patients receiving HAART
    Richard E Nettles
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    JAMA 293:817-29. 2005
  7. pmc A simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaque model to study viral reservoirs that persist during highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Jason B Dinoso
    Department of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:9247-57. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint Stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in patients receiving valproic acid
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:833-6. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Genotypic analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance at the limit of detection: virus production without evolution in treated adults with undetectable HIV loads
    Tara L Kieffer
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21025, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:1452-65. 2004
  10. pmc Stimulation of HIV-1-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes facilitates elimination of latent viral reservoir after virus reactivation
    Liang Shan
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Immunity 36:491-501. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications93

  1. pmc Orientation-dependent regulation of integrated HIV-1 expression by host gene transcriptional readthrough
    Yefei Han
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 4:134-46. 2008
    ..Due to the nature of HIV-1 integration sites in vivo, this orientation-dependent regulation can influence the vast majority of infected cells and adds complexity to the maintenance of latency...
  2. ncbi request reprint The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection
    Joel N Blankson
    Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 e mail
    Annu Rev Med 53:557-93. 2002
    ..The clinical implications of this and other HIV-1 reservoirs are discussed...
  3. pmc Control of HIV-1 in elite suppressors despite ongoing replication and evolution in plasma virus
    Karen A O'Connell
    Broadway Research Bldg, Rm 880, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 84:7018-28. 2010
    ..Interestingly, there was little continual evolution in CTL epitopes, and we detected de novo CTL responses to autologous viral mutants. Thus, some ES control viremia despite ongoing replication and evolution...
  4. pmc A novel assay allows genotyping of the latent reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the resting CD4+ T cells of viremic patients
    Daphne Monie
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Broadway Research Building, Room 879, 733 North Broadway St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 79:5185-202. 2005
    ..The ability to analyze archival species in viremic patients may have clinical utility in detecting drug-resistant variants not present in the plasma...
  5. pmc Continued production of drug-sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in children on combination antiretroviral therapy who have undetectable viral loads
    Deborah Persaud
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 78:968-79. 2004
    ..Thus, in most children on HAART with clinically undetectable viremia, there is continued virus production without evolution of resistance in the protease gene...
  6. ncbi request reprint Intermittent HIV-1 viremia (Blips) and drug resistance in patients receiving HAART
    Richard E Nettles
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    JAMA 293:817-29. 2005
    ....
  7. pmc A simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaque model to study viral reservoirs that persist during highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Jason B Dinoso
    Department of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:9247-57. 2009
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in patients receiving valproic acid
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:833-6. 2007
    ..We conclude that the clinical use of VA has no ancillary effect on the decay of the latent reservoir...
  9. ncbi request reprint Genotypic analysis of HIV-1 drug resistance at the limit of detection: virus production without evolution in treated adults with undetectable HIV loads
    Tara L Kieffer
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21025, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:1452-65. 2004
    ..Thus, in some patients, HAART suppresses replication to a level that does not allow the evolution of drug resistance over a time frame of years...
  10. pmc Stimulation of HIV-1-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes facilitates elimination of latent viral reservoir after virus reactivation
    Liang Shan
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Immunity 36:491-501. 2012
    ..These results demonstrate that stimulating HIV-1-specific CTLs prior to reactivating latent HIV-1 may be essential for successful eradication efforts and should be considered in future clinical trials...
  11. pmc Evidence of CD8+ T-cell-mediated selective pressure on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef in HLA-B*57+ elite suppressors
    Justin R Bailey
    Broadway Research Bldg, Rm 880, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:88-97. 2009
    ..The results provide further evidence of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated selective pressure on plasma virus in ES and suggest that there must be ongoing HIV-1 replication in spite of the very low viral loads seen for these patients...
  12. pmc Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a patient who developed AIDS to an elite suppressor
    Justin R Bailey
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 82:7395-410. 2008
    ..The results strongly suggest that through direct and indirect mechanisms, CD8(+) T cells in some ES control HIV-1 isolates are capable of causing profound immunosuppression...
  13. pmc Minocycline attenuates HIV infection and reactivation by suppressing cellular activation in human CD4+ T cells
    Gregory L Szeto
    Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1132-40. 2010
    ..The anti-HIV effects of minocycline are mediated by altering the cellular environment rather than directly targeting virus, placing minocycline in the class of anticellular anti-HIV drugs...
  14. pmc Maintenance of viral suppression in HIV-1-infected HLA-B*57+ elite suppressors despite CTL escape mutations
    Justin R Bailey
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Exp Med 203:1357-69. 2006
    ..Continued viral suppression probably reflects CTL responses against unmutated epitopes and residual or de novo responses against epitopes with escape mutations...
  15. pmc Dose-response curve slope sets class-specific limits on inhibitory potential of anti-HIV drugs
    Lin Shen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 North Broadway, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nat Med 14:762-6. 2008
    ..Only agents with slopes >1 achieve high-level inhibition of single-round infectivity, a finding with profound implications for drug and vaccine development...
  16. pmc Nuclear retention of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells
    Kara G Lassen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS Pathog 2:e68. 2006
    ..Whether through effects on RNA export or another mechanism, the ability of PTB to reverse latency without inducing cellular activation is a result with therapeutic implications...
  17. pmc Novel pathway for induction of latent virus from resting CD4(+) T cells in the simian immunodeficiency virus/macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 latency
    Anding Shen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 81:1660-70. 2007
    ..This is the first demonstration that costimulatory signals can induce latent virus without the coengagement of the T-cell receptor, and this study might provide insights into potential pathways to target latent HIV-1...
  18. pmc Replication-competent noninduced proviruses in the latent reservoir increase barrier to HIV-1 cure
    Ya Chi Ho
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cell 155:540-51. 2013
    ..The identification of replication-competent noninduced proviruses indicates that the size of the latent reservoir-and, hence, the barrier to cure-may be up to 60-fold greater than previously estimated...
  19. pmc Isolation and characterization of replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a subset of elite suppressors
    Joel N Blankson
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:2508-18. 2007
    ..The results suggest that some ES are infected with HIV-1 isolates that are fully replication competent and that long-term immunologic control of replication-competent HIV-1 is possible...
  20. pmc Preservation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected elite suppressors correlates with low CD4+ T-cell activation
    Amanda J Chase
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 82:8307-15. 2008
    ..Furthermore, the maintenance of Tregs may be one mechanism associated with the nonprogressive nature of HIV-1 infection in ES...
  21. pmc Host factors dictate control of viral replication in two HIV-1 controller/chronic progressor transmission pairs
    Robert W Buckheit
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, BRB 880, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nat Commun 3:716. 2012
    ..These data suggest that host factors have a dominant role in the control of HIV-1 infection, thus it may be possible to control fully pathogenic HIV-1 isolates with therapeutic vaccination...
  22. pmc G-->A hypermutation in protease and reverse transcriptase regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 residing in resting CD4+ T cells in vivo
    Tara L Kieffer
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 879 Broadway Research Bldg, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 79:1975-80. 2005
    ..Mutations occurred in predicted contexts, with notable hotspots. Thus, defects in Vif function in vivo give rise to hypermutated viral genomes that can be integrated but do not produce progeny viruses...
  23. pmc A critical subset model provides a conceptual basis for the high antiviral activity of major HIV drugs
    Lin Shen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Sci Transl Med 3:91ra63. 2011
    ..This model explains the high antiviral activity of two drug classes important for successful HIV-1 treatment and defines a characteristic of good targets for antiviral drugs in general, namely, intermolecular cooperativity...
  24. ncbi request reprint Experimental approaches to the study of HIV-1 latency
    Yefei Han
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 879 BRB 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:95-106. 2007
    ..This Review will consider current approaches to the analysis of HIV-1 latency both in vivo and in vitro...
  25. pmc Residual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viremia in some patients on antiretroviral therapy is dominated by a small number of invariant clones rarely found in circulating CD4+ T cells
    Justin R Bailey
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 80:6441-57. 2006
    ..The sequences have been deposited in GenBank. The accession numbers are DQ 391282 to DQ 391351 (for env) and DQ 391352 to DQ 392955 (for RT)...
  26. ncbi request reprint Marked intraindividual variability in antiretroviral concentrations may limit the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring
    Richard E Nettles
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1189-96. 2006
    ..Effective therapeutic drug monitoring for antiretrovirals requires a better understanding of intraindividual variability in pharmacokinetics...
  27. pmc Prolonged control of replication-competent dual- tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 following cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Maria Salgado
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Retrovirology 8:97. 2011
    ....
  28. pmc The HBV drug entecavir - effects on HIV-1 replication and resistance
    Moira A McMahon
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:2614-21. 2007
    ..Until more is known about HIV-1-resistance patterns and their selection by entecavir, caution is needed with the use of entecavir in persons with HIV-1 and HBV coinfection who are not receiving fully suppressive antiretroviral regimens...
  29. pmc Neutralizing antibodies do not mediate suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite suppressors or selection of plasma virus variants in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Justin R Bailey
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 80:4758-70. 2006
    ..Both drug-mediated and natural suppression of HIV-1 replication to levels below 50 copies/ml may limit the stimulation and maintenance of effective NAb responses...
  30. pmc Limits on replenishment of the resting CD4+ T cell reservoir for HIV in patients on HAART
    Ahmad R Sedaghat
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e122. 2007
    ..Thus, intensification of standard HAART regimens should have minimal effects on the decay of the latent reservoir...
  31. pmc Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression in latently infected resting CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo
    Monika Hermankova
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 77:7383-92. 2003
    ..In these cells, latency appears to reflect regulation at the level of mRNA production rather than at the level of splicing or nuclear export of viral mRNAs...
  32. ncbi request reprint Genotypic resistance in HIV-1-infected patients with persistently detectable low-level viremia while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Richard E Nettles
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1030-7. 2004
    ....
  33. pmc Preferential cytolysis of peripheral memory CD4+ T cells by in vitro X4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection before the completion of reverse transcription
    Yan Zhou
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 82:9154-63. 2008
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Psychological distress and physical pain appear to have no short-term adverse impact on plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in patients on successful HAART
    Richard E Nettles
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 08543, USA
    HIV Clin Trials 6:262-71. 2005
    ..However, the short-term effect of psychological and physical distress on HIV-1 RNA levels in patients on successful HAART has not been well studied...
  35. pmc Decay dynamics of HIV-1 depend on the inhibited stages of the viral life cycle
    Ahmad R Sedaghat
    Department of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4832-7. 2008
    ..We propose that clinically observed viral decay rates for HAART regimens should be evaluated in the context of the drug classes that are represented...
  36. doi request reprint Viral reservoirs, residual viremia, and the potential of highly active antiretroviral therapy to eradicate HIV infection
    Lin Shen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 122:22-8. 2008
    ..Progress toward eradication of the infection will require novel approaches to target the stable reservoirs that persist even when viral replication is completely halted...
  37. pmc CD4+ T cells from elite suppressors are more susceptible to HIV-1 but produce fewer virions than cells from chronic progressors
    Karen A O'Connell
    Department of Medicine and The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E689-98. 2011
    ..This higher virus production is linked to cellular activation levels. These data identify fundamental differences in chronic infection of ES and CP that likely contribute to differential HIV-1 disease progression...
  38. pmc Disulfiram reactivates latent HIV-1 in a Bcl-2-transduced primary CD4+ T cell model without inducing global T cell activation
    Sifei Xing
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 85:6060-4. 2011
    ..The extent to which disulfiram reactivates latent HIV-1 in patient cells is unclear, but the drug alone or in combination may be useful in future eradication strategies...
  39. doi request reprint The role of protective HCP5 and HLA-C associated polymorphisms in the control of HIV-1 replication in a subset of elite suppressors
    Yefei Han
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 22:541-4. 2008
    ..These results suggest that some ES control viremia by mechanisms independent of the newly-identified genetic factors...
  40. pmc Isolation of a cellular factor that can reactivate latent HIV-1 without T cell activation
    Hung Chih Yang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6321-6. 2009
    ..Our results highlight the therapeutic potential of cellular factors for the reactivation of latent HIV-1 and provide an efficient approach for their identification...
  41. pmc Role of natural killer cells in a cohort of elite suppressors: low frequency of the protective KIR3DS1 allele and limited inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vitro
    Karen A O'Connell
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 83:5028-34. 2009
    ..Thus, the strong NK cell-mediated inhibition of viral replication is not necessary for the immunological control of HIV-1 in all ES...
  42. ncbi request reprint SIV-specific T lymphocyte responses in PBMC and lymphoid tissues of SIV-infected pigtailed macaques during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy
    Lucy M Carruth
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Jefferson Street Building, 600 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Med Primatol 34:109-21. 2005
    ..Conversely, in the setting of low initial viremia and robust T lymphocyte responses, treatment does not have a detrimental effect on the immune response...
  43. pmc Kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 decay following entry into resting CD4+ T cells
    Yan Zhou
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 79:2199-210. 2005
    ..Therefore, the reservoir of unintegrated HIV-1 in recently infected resting CD4(+) T cells is highly labile...
  44. pmc Novel single-cell-level phenotypic assay for residual drug susceptibility and reduced replication capacity of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Haili Zhang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 78:1718-29. 2004
    ..Thus, the ability to simultaneously analyze residual susceptibility and reduced replication capacity of drug-resistant viruses may provide a basis for rational therapeutic decisions in the setting of treatment failure...
  45. doi request reprint Multi-step inhibition explains HIV-1 protease inhibitor pharmacodynamics and resistance
    S Alireza Rabi
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 123:3848-60. 2013
    ..Sequence changes in the CT alone, which are ignored in current clinical tests for PI resistance, conferred PI resistance, providing an explanation for PI failure without resistance. ..
  46. pmc Novel structurally related compounds reactivate latent HIV-1 in a bcl-2-transduced primary CD4+ T cell model without inducing global T cell activation
    Sifei Xing
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 67:398-403. 2012
    ..Eradication strategies involve reactivation of this latent reservoir; however, agents that reactivate latent HIV-1 through non-specific T cell activation are toxic...
  47. pmc Unstimulated primary CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-positive elite suppressors are fully susceptible to HIV-1 entry and productive infection
    S Alireza Rabi
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 85:979-86. 2011
    ..The results of this physiological study strongly suggest that differences in HIV-1 entry and infection of CD4(+) T cells alone cannot explain the elite control of viral replication...
  48. pmc Molecular characterization of preintegration latency in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    Theodore C Pierson
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 76:8518-31. 2002
    ..Our results demonstrate that the preintegration state is labile and decays rapidly (half-life = 1 day) following the entry of HIV-1 into a resting T cell, with significant decay occurring during the slow process of reverse transcription...
  49. pmc A novel method for determining the inhibitory potential of anti-HIV drugs
    Lin Shen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 30:610-6. 2009
    ..This article discusses recent advances in in vitro measures of antiviral activity and the therapeutic implications of the dose-response curve slope and IIP...
  50. pmc Small-molecule screening using a human primary cell model of HIV latency identifies compounds that reverse latency without cellular activation
    Hung Chih Yang
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3473-86. 2009
    ..Our study expands the number of classes of latency-reversing therapeutics and demonstrates the utility of this in vitro model for finding strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection...
  51. ncbi request reprint Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205 USA
    Nat Med 9:727-8. 2003
    ..Here we show that even in treated patients who have had no detectable viremia for as long as 7 years, the reservoir decays so slowly (t(1/2) = 44 months) that eradication is unlikely...
  52. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 viral load blips are of limited clinical significance
    Patricia K Lee
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 57:803-5. 2006
    ..Blips are not typically associated with the development of resistance mutations and most importantly are not associated with virological or clinical failure of previously adequate HAART...
  53. ncbi request reprint The multifactorial nature of HIV-1 latency
    Kara Lassen
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 879 BRB, 733N, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Trends Mol Med 10:525-31. 2004
    ..Defects at consecutive steps of transcriptional initiation and elongation enable HIV-1 to remain hidden within resting CD4(+) T cells...
  54. pmc HLA-B*57 elite suppressor and chronic progressor HIV-1 isolates replicate vigorously and cause CD4+ T cell depletion in humanized BLT mice
    Maria Salgado
    Department of Medicine, Center for AIDS Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 88:3340-52. 2014
    ..A better understanding of the immunological bases of viral suppression in ES will serve to inform novel approaches to preventive and therapeutic HIV vaccine design...
  55. pmc New ex vivo approaches distinguish effective and ineffective single agents for reversing HIV-1 latency in vivo
    C Korin Bullen
    1 Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 2
    Nat Med 20:425-9. 2014
    ..Further, our data indicate that non-activating LRAs are unlikely to drive the elimination of the latent reservoir in vivo when administered individually. ..
  56. pmc Rapid quantification of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 using a viral outgrowth assay
    Gregory M Laird
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003398. 2013
    ..The reductions in both labor and cost make this assay suitable for quantifying the frequency of latently infected cells in clinical trials of HIV-1 eradication strategies...
  57. pmc Uracil DNA glycosylase initiates degradation of HIV-1 cDNA containing misincorporated dUTP and prevents viral integration
    Amy F Weil
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E448-57. 2013
    ..These findings establish the essential elements of this pathway and reconcile diverse observations in the literature...
  58. pmc Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcriptional elongation in resting CD4+ T cells in vivo
    Kara G Lassen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 78:9105-14. 2004
    ....
  59. ncbi request reprint Scientific rationale for antiretroviral therapy in 2005: viral reservoirs and resistance evolution
    Robert F Siliciano
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Top HIV Med 13:96-100. 2005
    ..This article summarizes a presentation on viral reservoirs and viral evolution by Robert F. Siliciano, MD, PhD, at the International AIDS Society-USA course in New York in March 2005...
  60. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of HIV-1 escape from immune responses and antiretroviral drugs
    Justin Bailey
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21204, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 16:470-6. 2004
    ....
  61. pmc A case of seronegative HIV-1 infection
    Adam M Spivak
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:341-5. 2010
    ..Lack of an antibody response to HIV-1 is rare and appears to be due to a defect in HIV-1-specific immunity rather than infection with attenuated virus...
  62. pmc Short communication: dynamic constraints on the second phase compartment of HIV-infected cells
    Adam M Spivak
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 27:759-61. 2011
    ....
  63. pmc Evolution of the HIV-1 nef gene in HLA-B*57 positive elite suppressors
    Maria Salgado
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N, Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Retrovirology 7:94. 2010
    ..The results provide further evidence of ongoing viral replication in ES and suggest that the nef and gag genes in these patients respond similarly to selective pressure from the host...
  64. pmc Constraints on the dominant mechanism for HIV viral dynamics in patients on raltegravir
    Ahmad R Sedaghat
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Antivir Ther 14:263-71. 2009
    ..Alternative explanations for this phenomenon are also possible. For example, the stage in the viral life cycle at which raltegravir acts might explain the distinct viral dynamics produced by this drug...
  65. pmc Role of APOBEC3G/F-mediated hypermutation in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite suppressors
    Shiv K Gandhi
    Broadway Research Bldg, Rm 880, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 82:3125-30. 2008
    ..Thus, enhanced APOBEC3 activity alone cannot explain the ability of elite suppressors to control viremia...
  66. pmc Severe depletion of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells from the intestinal lamina propria but not peripheral blood or lymph nodes during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection
    Amanda J Chase
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 81:12748-57. 2007
    ..These results indicate that Tregs are rapidly depleted in the GALT of SIV-infected macaques, defining a role for the loss of Treg-mediated suppression in early events in the pathogenesis of the disease...
  67. pmc Persistence of wild-type virus and lack of temporal structure in the latent reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in pediatric patients with extensive antiretroviral exposure
    Christian T Ruff
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 76:9481-92. 2002
    ....
  68. pmc A comparison of viral loads between HIV-1-infected elite suppressors and individuals who receive suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Jason B Dinoso
    1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:102-4. 2008
    ....
  69. pmc Contribution of virus-like particles to the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag-derived vaccines in mice
    S B Justin Wong
    Program in Cellular and Moleculat Medicine, Department of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Broadway Research Building Suite 879, 733 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 79:1701-12. 2005
    ..Thus, the release of VLPs formed in vivo may not play a major role in the immunogenicity of vectors expressing HIV-1 Gag constructs...
  70. pmc Chronic CD4+ T-cell activation and depletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: type I interferon-mediated disruption of T-cell dynamics
    Ahmad R Sedaghat
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, 879 BRB, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 82:1870-83. 2008
    ..From these results, we propose a new model for CD4(+) T-cell depletion during chronic HIV-1 infection...
  71. pmc The antiherpetic drug acyclovir inhibits HIV replication and selects the V75I reverse transcriptase multidrug resistance mutation
    Moira A McMahon
    Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:31289-93. 2008
    ..Although acyclovir may prove a useful lead for development of new HIV treatments, the selection of resistant mutants raises a cautionary note to the use of acyclovir monotherapy in patients coinfected with HSV and HIV...
  72. doi request reprint Elite suppression of HIV-1 replication
    Joel N Blankson
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Immunity 29:845-7. 2008
    ..In this issue of Immunity, Migueles et al. (2008) show that HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells from these individuals effectively suppress viral replication by granzyme B-mediated killing of target cells...
  73. pmc Resting CD4+ T lymphocytes but not thymocytes provide a latent viral reservoir in a simian immunodeficiency virus-Macaca nemestrina model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Anding Shen
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 77:4938-49. 2003
    ..The results provide the first evidence for a latent viral reservoir for SIV in macaques and the most extensive survey of the distribution of latently infected cells in the host...
  74. pmc Intrinsic stability of episomal circles formed during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication
    Theodore C Pierson
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 76:4138-44. 2002
    ..We conclude that these DNA circles are not intrinsically unstable in all cell types and suggest that the utility of 2-LTR circle assays in measuring recent HIV-1 infection of susceptible cells in vivo needs to be reevaluated...
  75. pmc Latency in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: no easy answers
    Deborah Persaud
    Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 77:1659-65. 2003
  76. ncbi request reprint Treatment implications of the latent reservoir for HIV-1
    Susan Peterson
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Adv Pharmacol 55:411-25. 2007
  77. ncbi request reprint Loss of HIV-1-specific immunity during treatment interruption in 2 chronically infected patients
    Joel N Blankson
    JAMA 288:162-4. 2002
  78. ncbi request reprint A long-term latent reservoir for HIV-1: discovery and clinical implications
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 54:6-9. 2004
    ..Thus although HAART cannot produce eradication, lifetime control of the infection with antiretroviral drugs may be possible...
  79. pmc Resting CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals carry integrated HIV-1 genomes within actively transcribed host genes
    Yefei Han
    Department of Medicine, Ross 1049, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Virol 78:6122-33. 2004
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that HIV-1 genomes reside within actively transcribed host genes in resting CD4+ T cells in vivo...
  80. pmc Low-level HIV-1 replication and the dynamics of the resting CD4+ T cell reservoir for HIV-1 in the setting of HAART
    Ahmad R Sedaghat
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore Maryland 21205, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 8:2. 2008
    ..However, the mechanism underlying the long half-life of the latent reservoir is unknown. The most likely potential mechanisms are low-level viral replication and the intrinsic stability of latently infected cells...
  81. ncbi request reprint Pre-steady-state kinetic studies establish entecavir 5'-triphosphate as a substrate for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
    Robert A Domaoal
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8066, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:5452-9. 2008
    ..This study has important therapeutic implications as it establishes ETV as an inhibitor for HIV-1 RT and illustrates the mechanism of resistance by the M184V mutant...
  82. ncbi request reprint Keeping quiet: microRNAs in HIV-1 latency
    Yefei Han
    Nat Med 13:1138-40. 2007
  83. ncbi request reprint Evolution of HIV-1 in an HLA-B*57-positive patient during virologic escape
    Justin R Bailey
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:50-5. 2007
    ..The present study suggests that control of viral replication in elite suppressors may be due to HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells and, in some cases, mutations that have subtle effects on viral fitness...
  84. ncbi request reprint Crosscurrents in HIV-1 evolution
    Joel N Blankson
    Nat Immunol 7:121-2. 2006
  85. ncbi request reprint Enhanced culture assay for detection and quantitation of latently infected, resting CD4+ T-cells carrying replication-competent virus in HIV-1-infected individuals
    Janet D Siliciano
    Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 304:3-15. 2005
    ..The development of an enhanced viral culture assay to quantitate the number of latently infected cells carrying replication competent virus is described here...
  86. ncbi request reprint An anti-CD45RO immunotoxin kills latently infected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) CD4 T cells in the blood of HIV-positive persons
    Jesus Saavedra-Lozano
    Cancer Immunobiology Center and Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 8576, USA
    J Infect Dis 185:306-14. 2002
    ..In contrast, CD4(+) CD45RA(+) naive T cells and a proportion of CD4(+) CD45RO(lo) memory T cells are spared...
  87. pmc Barrier-to-autointegration factor BAF binds p55 Gag and matrix and is a host component of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions
    Malini Mansharamani
    Department of Cell Biology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Virol 77:13084-92. 2003
    ..We further conclude that BAF might contribute to the assembly or activity of HIV-1 PICs through direct binding to matrix, as well as DNA...
  88. ncbi request reprint Targeting HIV reservoirs with valproic acid
    Janet M Siliciano
    Hopkins HIV Rep 17:8-9. 2005
  89. ncbi request reprint HIV-1-induced depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gut: mechanism and therapeutic implications
    Amanda Chase
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore MD 21205, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 27:4-7. 2006
    ..The therapeutic implications of the early CD4+ T cell loss are discussed...
  90. doi request reprint Immune alteration fends off AIDS
    Karen O'Connell
    Nat Med 14:1016-8. 2008
  91. ncbi request reprint The Effect of early treatment on the latent reservoir of HIV-1
    Joel N Blankson
    J Infect Dis 191:1394-6. 2005
  92. pmc The anti-HIV activity of entecavir: a multicentre evaluation of lamivudine-experienced and lamivudine-naive patients
    Joe Sasadeusz
    The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    AIDS 22:947-55. 2008
    ....
  93. ncbi request reprint Can antiretroviral therapy ever be stopped? An update
    Rachel Simmons
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    AIDS Read 14:435-8, 441-2. 2004
    ..Thus, in principle, lifelong control of viral replication is possible if suppression of viremia to below 50 copies/mL is maintained...