Alan R Schwartz

Summary

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc A nasal cannula can be used to treat obstructive sleep apnea
    Brian M McGinley
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:194-200. 2007
  2. pmc Acute upper airway responses to hypoglossal nerve stimulation during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea
    Alan R Schwartz
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 185:420-6. 2012
  3. pmc Obesity and upper airway control during sleep
    Alan R Schwartz
    Sleep Disorders Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 108:430-5. 2010
  4. pmc Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches
    Alan R Schwartz
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 5:185-92. 2008
  5. pmc Effects of leptin and obesity on the upper airway function
    Mikhael Polotsky
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 112:1637-43. 2012
  6. pmc Upper airway neuromuscular compensation during sleep is defective in obstructive sleep apnea
    Brian M McGinley
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 105:197-205. 2008
  7. pmc Contribution of male sex, age, and obesity to mechanical instability of the upper airway during sleep
    Jason P Kirkness
    Div of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:1618-24. 2008
  8. pmc Effect of age and weight on upper airway function in a mouse model
    Mikhael Polotsky
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 111:696-703. 2011
  9. ncbi Sleep apnea determines soluble TNF-α receptor 2 response to massive weight loss
    Maria Pallayova
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Obes Surg 21:1413-23. 2011
  10. pmc Neuromechanical control of the isolated upper airway of mice
    Audrey Liu
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 105:1237-45. 2008

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. pmc A nasal cannula can be used to treat obstructive sleep apnea
    Brian M McGinley
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:194-200. 2007
    ..Although continuous positive airway pressure efficaciously treats obstructive apneas and hypopneas, treatment is impeded by low adherence rates...
  2. pmc Acute upper airway responses to hypoglossal nerve stimulation during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea
    Alan R Schwartz
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 185:420-6. 2012
    ..Hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS) recruits lingual muscles, reduces pharyngeal collapsibility, and treats sleep apnea...
  3. pmc Obesity and upper airway control during sleep
    Alan R Schwartz
    Sleep Disorders Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 108:430-5. 2010
    ..Improvements in these neural responses with weight loss may be related to a decline in systemic and local pharyngeal concentrations of specific inflammatory mediators with somnogenic effects...
  4. pmc Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea: pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches
    Alan R Schwartz
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Proc Am Thorac Soc 5:185-92. 2008
    ..Examining responses to specific weight loss strategies will provide critical insight into mechanisms linking obesity and sleep apnea, and will help to elucidate the humoral and molecular predictors of weight loss responses...
  5. pmc Effects of leptin and obesity on the upper airway function
    Mikhael Polotsky
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 112:1637-43. 2012
    ..The findings suggest that weight and leptin deficiency produced defects in upper airway neuromechanical control and that leptin reversed defects in active neuromuscular responses acutely without reducing mechanical loads...
  6. pmc Upper airway neuromuscular compensation during sleep is defective in obstructive sleep apnea
    Brian M McGinley
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 105:197-205. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest that neuromuscular responses protect individuals without sleep apnea from developing upper airway obstruction during sleep...
  7. pmc Contribution of male sex, age, and obesity to mechanical instability of the upper airway during sleep
    Jason P Kirkness
    Div of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:1618-24. 2008
    ..65-0.82) in predicting sleep apnea status. Upper airway mechanics are differentially controlled by sex, obesity, and age, and partly mediate the relationship between these sleep apnea risk factors and obstructive sleep apnea...
  8. pmc Effect of age and weight on upper airway function in a mouse model
    Mikhael Polotsky
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 111:696-703. 2011
    ..The susceptibility to upper airway obstruction increases with age and weight as tonic neuromuscular activity falls. IFL can elicit phasic responses in normal mice that mitigate or eliminate the obstruction altogether...
  9. ncbi Sleep apnea determines soluble TNF-α receptor 2 response to massive weight loss
    Maria Pallayova
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Obes Surg 21:1413-23. 2011
    ..We sought to determine if any biomarkers can predict amelioration of sleep apnea achieved by bariatric surgery. We hypothesized that surgical WL would substantially reduce severity of sleep apnea and levels of proinflammatory cytokines...
  10. pmc Neuromechanical control of the isolated upper airway of mice
    Audrey Liu
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 105:1237-45. 2008
    ..Our findings in mice imply that anatomic and neuromuscular factors interact dynamically to modulate upper airway function, and provide a novel approach to modeling the impact of genetic and environmental factors in inbred murine strains...
  11. pmc Effect of end-expiratory lung volume on upper airway collapsibility in sleeping men and women
    Samuel B Squier
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 109:977-85. 2010
    ....
  12. pmc Obstructive sleep apnea, insulin resistance, and steatohepatitis in severe obesity
    Vsevolod Y Polotsky
    Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:228-34. 2009
    ..Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance and liver injury. It is unknown whether apnea contributes to insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in severe obesity...
  13. pmc Compensatory responses to upper airway obstruction in obese apneic men and women
    Chien Hung Chin
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 112:403-10. 2012
    ....
  14. ncbi Dynamic modulation of upper airway function during sleep: a novel single-breath method
    Jason P Kirkness
    John Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 101:1489-94. 2006
    ..These findings indicate that UA collapsibility varies dynamically throughout the respiratory cycle and that both local mechanical and neuromuscular factors may be responsible for this dynamic modulation of UA function during sleep...
  15. ncbi Differences in sleep-induced hypoxia between A/J and DBA/2J mouse strains
    Arnon E Rubin
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 168:1520-7. 2003
    ..Our data imply that individuals with low hypoxic sensitivity may be at a greater risk for hypoxia-related complications of obstructive sleep apnea...
  16. ncbi Intermittent hypoxia induces hyperlipidemia in lean mice
    Jianguo Li
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Circ Res 97:698-706. 2005
    ....
  17. ncbi Impact of interrupted leptin pathways on ventilatory control
    Vsevolod Y Polotsky
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 96:991-8. 2004
    ..We conclude that interruption of leptin pathways does not affect hypoxic sensitivity during sleep and wakefulness but that melanocortin 4 blockade is associated with depressed hypercapnic sensitivity in non-rapid eye movement sleep...
  18. pmc Sleep apnea predicts distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarkers in obese adults with normal and impaired glucose metabolism
    Maria Pallayova
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Cardiovasc Diabetol 9:83. 2010
    ..We hypothesized that OSA is associated with distinct alterations in glucose homeostasis and biomarker profiles in subjects with normal (NGM) and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM)...
  19. ncbi Intermittent hypoxia causes REM sleep deficits and decreases EEG delta power in NREM sleep in the C57BL/6J mouse
    Vsevolod Y Polotsky
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Sleep Med 7:7-16. 2006
    ..We hypothesized that both intermittent hypoxia (IH) and non-hypoxic arousals of OSA result in significant disruption of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS)...
  20. ncbi Neuromechanical control of upper airway patency during sleep
    Susheel P Patil
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 102:547-56. 2007
    ..The present study suggests that increased mechanical loads and blunted neuromuscular responses are both required for the development of obstructive sleep apnea...
  21. ncbi Chronic intermittent hypoxia upregulates genes of lipid biosynthesis in obese mice
    Jianguo Li
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 99:1643-8. 2005
    ..In conclusion, we have shown that CIH may exacerbate preexisting fatty liver of obesity via upregulation of the pathways of lipid biosynthesis in the liver...
  22. pmc Performance characteristics of upper airway critical collapsing pressure measurements during sleep
    Jason P Kirkness
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Sleep 34:459-67. 2011
    ..We examined the performance characteristics of the passive and active P(CRIT) by examining both within-night and between-night variability in the measurements...
  23. pmc Effect of a high-flow open nasal cannula system on obstructive sleep apnea in children
    Brian McGinley
    Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Johns Hopkins Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Pediatrics 124:179-88. 2009
    ..We, therefore, sought to assess the effect of warm humidified air delivered through an open nasal cannula (treatment with nasal insufflation [TNI]) on obstructive sleep apnea in children with and without adenotonsillectomy...
  24. ncbi A simplified method for measuring critical pressures during sleep in the clinical setting
    Susheel P Patil
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Asthma and Allergy Building, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Room 4B 50, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:86-93. 2004
    ....
  25. pmc Approach for streamlining measurement of complex physiological phenotypes of upper airway collapsibility
    Tony Wei
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, MD 21224, USA
    Comput Biol Med 43:600-6. 2013
    ..We propose a GUI based PCRIT Analysis Software (PAS) to streamline PCRIT analysis and validate its reliability and accuracy compared to current analysis procedures...
  26. pmc Leptin and the control of pharyngeal patency during sleep in severe obesity
    Steven D Shapiro
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 116:1334-41. 2014
    ..We hypothesized that variations in leptin concentration among similarly obese individuals will predict differences in compensatory responses to upper airway obstruction during sleep...
  27. pmc Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces lung growth in adult mice
    Christian Reinke
    Department of Medicine, Div of Pulmonary Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 300:L266-73. 2011
    ..We conclude that IH increases alveolar surface area by stimulating lung growth in adult mice...
  28. pmc Adult obstructive sleep apnea: pathophysiology and diagnosis
    Susheel P Patil
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Chest 132:325-37. 2007
    ..Understanding nuances in the spectrum of presenting complaints and polysomnography correlates are important for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Knowledge of common patterns of OSA may help to identify patients and guide therapy...
  29. ncbi A physiologic comparison of nasal and oral positive airway pressure
    Philip L Smith
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Chest 123:689-94. 2003
    ..It is currently unclear whether CPAP delivered orally is also capable of raising pressure in the oropharynx above the critical collapse pressure...
  30. pmc Intermittent hypoxia increases insulin resistance in genetically obese mice
    Vsevolod Y Polotsky
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Physiol 552:253-64. 2003
    ..001) and worsening glucose tolerance, consistent with an increase in insulin resistance. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance in response to intermittent hypoxia is dependent on the disruption of leptin pathways...
  31. pmc Sleep Disordered Breathing, Fatigue, and Sleepiness in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Men
    Susheel P Patil
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e99258. 2014
    ..We investigated the association of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with sleep disordered breathing (SDB), fatigue, and sleepiness...
  32. pmc Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces atherosclerosis via activation of adipose angiopoietin-like 4
    Luciano F Drager
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 188:240-8. 2013
    ..The effects and mechanisms of Angptl4 up-regulation in sleep apnea are unknown...
  33. ncbi Phenotypic differences in the hemodynamic response during REM sleep in six strains of inbred mice
    Matthew J Campen
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Physiol Genomics 11:227-34. 2002
    ..8 +/- 2.0 mmHg; P < 0.0125) compared with the other five strains. We conclude that genetic background contributes to the magnitude, variability, and arterial baroreceptor buffering capacity of cardiovascular responses during REM sleep...
  34. ncbi Modulation of upper airway collapsibility during sleep: influence of respiratory phase and flow regimen
    Hartmut Schneider
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Appl Physiol 93:1365-76. 2002
    ....
  35. pmc Effects of sleep apnea on nocturnal free fatty acids in subjects with heart failure
    Jonathan C Jun
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Sleep 34:1207-13. 2011
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the effect of intermittent hypoxia on FFA levels during sleep in patients with heart failure...
  36. pmc Anthropometry in the prediction of sleep disordered breathing in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men
    Todd T Brown
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Antivir Ther 15:651-9. 2010
    ....
  37. pmc Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia are attenuated by deficiency of stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase
    Vladimir Savransky
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Circ Res 103:1173-80. 2008
    ..In conclusion, CIH is associated with dyslipidemia and overexpression of hepatic SCD in both humans and mice alike; SCD-1 deficiency attenuates CIH-induced dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in mice...
  38. ncbi The effect of upper airway obstruction and arousal on peripheral arterial tonometry in obstructive sleep apnea
    CHRISTOPHER P O'DONNELL
    Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:965-71. 2002
    ..000 +/- 0.007 to 0.923 +/- 0.007 arbitrary units). We conclude that airflow obstruction in patients with OSA causes an acute digital vasoconstriction that is accentuated in the presence of an EEG arousal...
  39. ncbi The association between daytime sleepiness and sleep-disordered breathing in NREM and REM sleep
    Naresh M Punjabi
    Sleep 25:307-14. 2002
    ....
  40. pmc Sleep apnea in young abstinent recreational MDMA ("ecstasy") consumers
    Una D McCann
    Department of Psychiatry, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Neurology 73:2011-7. 2009
    ..The present study sought to determine whether abstinent recreational MDMA users have an increased prevalence of OSA...
  41. ncbi Sleep-disordered breathing and insulin resistance in middle-aged and overweight men
    Naresh M Punjabi
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asthma and Allergy Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:677-82. 2002
    ..Thus, sleep-disordered breathing is a prevalent condition in mildly obese men and is independently associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance...
  42. pmc Electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve: a potential therapy
    Alan R Schwartz
    Johns Hopkins Sleep Disorders Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 116:337-44. 2014
    ..These strategies are currently being examined in ongoing pivotal trials of HGNS. ..
  43. ncbi Upper airway response to electrical stimulation of the genioglossus in obstructive sleep apnea
    Arie Oliven
    Department of Medicine B, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Technion, Haifa 31048, Israel
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 95:2023-9. 2003
    ..Our findings imply that responses in apnea severity to HG-ES can be predicted by characterizing the patient's baseline pressure-flow relationships and response to GG-ES...
  44. ncbi Upper airway collapsibility in anesthetized children
    Ronald S Litman
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA
    Anesth Analg 102:750-4. 2006
    ..3) cm H2O (sevoflurane versus halothane, P = 0.048). We conclude that when using dynamic application of negative airway pressure, halothane appears to cause less upper airway obstruction than sevoflurane at equipotent concentrations...
  45. ncbi Effect of coactivation of tongue protrusor and retractor muscles on pharyngeal lumen and airflow in sleep apnea patients
    Arie Oliven
    Dept of Internal Medicine, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Technion, 47 Golomb St, Haifa, Israel
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 103:1662-8. 2007
    ..Stimulation of deeper GG fibers with intramuscular electrodes enlarged the pharynx, and coactivation had no additive effect...
  46. ncbi Ventilating with tracheal gas insufflation and periodic tracheal occlusion during sleep and wakefulness
    Y Tagaito
    Department of Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan
    Chest 122:1742-50. 2002
    ..We hypothesized that TGI + PTO would provide greater ventilatory support than would TGI alone and that its effect would be more pronounced during sleep than wakefulness...
  47. ncbi Extraluminal tissue pressure: what does it mean?
    Alan R Schwartz
    J Appl Physiol 100:5-6. 2006
  48. ncbi Use of dynamic negative airway pressure (DNAP) to assess sedative-induced upper airway obstruction
    Ronald S Litman
    Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA
    Anesthesiology 96:342-5. 2002
    ..The primary objective of this study was to develop a method, using dynamic negative airway pressure (DNAP), for replicating UAO during deep sedation...
  49. ncbi Upper airway surface tension: is it a significant cause of airflow obstruction during sleep?
    Alan R Schwartz
    J Appl Physiol 95:1759-60. 2003
  50. ncbi Tongue neuromuscular and direct hypoglossal nerve stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea
    David W Eisele
    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 400 Parnassus Avenue, Suite A 730, San Francisco, CA 94143 0342, USA
    Otolaryngol Clin North Am 36:501-10. 2003
    ..Further studies and stimulation-system refinements are presently underway, with hopes of establishing upper airway stimulation as a therapeutic option for this challenging disorder...