Steven J Reynolds

Summary

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among HIV-infected adults failing antiretroviral therapy in Rakai, Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28:1739-44. 2012
  2. pmc A case-control study of Burkitt lymphoma in East Africa: are local health facilities an appropriate source of representative controls?
    Sonya Baik
    Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Infect Agent Cancer 7:5. 2012
  3. pmc Failure of immunologic criteria to appropriately identify antiretroviral treatment failure in Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 23:697-700. 2009
  4. pmc Evolution of drug resistance after virological failure of a first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Antivir Ther 14:293-7. 2009
  5. pmc Setting the stage: current state of affairs and major challenges
    Steven J Reynolds
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:S71-6. 2010
  6. pmc High rates of syphilis among STI patients are contributing to the spread of HIV-1 in India
    S J Reynolds
    c o American Embassy Kampala, PO Box 7007, Kampala, Uganda
    Sex Transm Infect 82:121-6. 2006
  7. pmc HIV-1 transmission among HIV-1 discordant couples before and after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy
    Steven J Reynolds
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA
    AIDS 25:473-7. 2011
  8. pmc A randomized, controlled, trial of short cycle intermittent compared to continuous antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of HIV infection in Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10307. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test
    Steven J Reynolds
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, ICER Program Uganda, 2190 Kampala Place, Washington, DC 20521, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 4:587-91. 2004
  10. pmc Factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among men in Rakai, Uganda
    Aaron A R Tobian
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:945-9. 2009

Detail Information

Publications67

  1. pmc Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among HIV-infected adults failing antiretroviral therapy in Rakai, Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28:1739-44. 2012
    ..PI resistance was not detected in individuals failing second-line ART. Surveillance for transmitted and acquired drug resistance remains a priority for scale-up of ART...
  2. pmc A case-control study of Burkitt lymphoma in East Africa: are local health facilities an appropriate source of representative controls?
    Sonya Baik
    Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Infect Agent Cancer 7:5. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  3. pmc Failure of immunologic criteria to appropriately identify antiretroviral treatment failure in Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 23:697-700. 2009
    ..Our objective was to evaluate immunologic failure criteria against gold standard virologic monitoring...
  4. pmc Evolution of drug resistance after virological failure of a first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Antivir Ther 14:293-7. 2009
    ..This study aimed to determine the extent of viral resistance over time among non-clade B HIV type-1-infected patients in Uganda who were maintained on first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) following virological failure...
  5. pmc Setting the stage: current state of affairs and major challenges
    Steven J Reynolds
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:S71-6. 2010
    ..The global health community and political leaders will need to overcome these challenges if a long-term effective response to the HIV pandemic is to be achieved...
  6. pmc High rates of syphilis among STI patients are contributing to the spread of HIV-1 in India
    S J Reynolds
    c o American Embassy Kampala, PO Box 7007, Kampala, Uganda
    Sex Transm Infect 82:121-6. 2006
    ..The incidence of syphilis and its association with HIV-1 infection rates among a cohort of sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees was investigated...
  7. pmc HIV-1 transmission among HIV-1 discordant couples before and after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy
    Steven J Reynolds
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA
    AIDS 25:473-7. 2011
    ..To evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on HIV-1 transmission rates among HIV-1 discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda...
  8. pmc A randomized, controlled, trial of short cycle intermittent compared to continuous antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of HIV infection in Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10307. 2010
    ..Short cycle treatment interruption could reduce toxicity and drug costs and contribute to further expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs...
  9. ncbi request reprint OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test
    Steven J Reynolds
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, ICER Program Uganda, 2190 Kampala Place, Washington, DC 20521, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 4:587-91. 2004
    ..The test has many important applications, extending the opportunities for voluntary counseling and testing, and as a tool for the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings...
  10. pmc Factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among men in Rakai, Uganda
    Aaron A R Tobian
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:945-9. 2009
    ..70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.91]), and was not significantly affected by enrollment HIV status. Education on modifiable behavioral changes may reduce the acquisition of HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00425984 and NCT00124878 .)...
  11. pmc Frequent detection of HPV before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV/HSV-2 co-infected women in Uganda
    Anne F Rositch
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e55383. 2013
    ..Therefore, we examined the frequency of cervical HPV DNA detection among HIV/HSV-2 co-infected women followed monthly for 6 months both before and after initiation of ART in Rakai, Uganda...
  12. pmc Effects of genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 on the efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention: Analyses from the Rakai trials
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Med 6:e1000187. 2009
    ..We assessed the role of GUD and HSV-2 in the protection against HIV afforded by MC...
  13. pmc Circumcision of HIV-infected men: effects on high-risk human papillomavirus infections in a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda
    David Serwadda
    School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Infect Dis 201:1463-9. 2010
    ..00; 95% CI 0.65-1.53) or clearance of HR-HPV infections (RR, 1.09; 95% CI 0.94-1.27). Circumcision of HIV-positive men reduced the prevalence and incidence of multiple HR-HPV infections...
  14. pmc Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis
    Aaron A R Tobian
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:1298-309. 2009
    ..We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision for the prevention of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and syphilis in HIV-negative adolescent boys and men...
  15. pmc Effect of daily aciclovir on HIV disease progression in individuals in Rakai, Uganda, co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 12:441-8. 2012
    ..We investigated the effect of daily suppressive aciclovir on HIV-1 disease progression in Rakai, Uganda...
  16. pmc Peer health workers and AIDS care in Rakai, Uganda: a mixed methods operations research evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial
    Hannah Arem
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 25:719-24. 2011
    ....
  17. pmc Utility of a point-of-care malaria rapid diagnostic test for excluding malaria as the cause of fever among HIV-positive adults in rural Rakai, Uganda
    Lisa A Mills
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:145-7. 2010
    ..0-89.7) and 99.1% (95% CI: 96.8-99.9), respectively. The rapid diagnostic test accurately ruled malaria "in or out" at the point-of-care, facilitating appropriate clinical management and averting unnecessary anti-malarial therapy...
  18. pmc High prevalence of liver fibrosis associated with HIV infection: a study in rural Rakai, Uganda
    Lara Stabinski
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Antivir Ther 16:405-11. 2011
    ..Liver disease is a leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected persons in the United States and Europe. However, data regarding the effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on liver disease in Africa are sparse...
  19. pmc HIV-1 viral subtype differences in the rate of CD4+ T-cell decline among HIV seroincident antiretroviral naive persons in Rakai district, Uganda
    Noah Kiwanuka
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 54:180-4. 2010
    ..Data on the effect of HIV-1 viral subtype on CD4 T-cell decline are limited...
  20. pmc Effect of peer health workers on AIDS care in Rakai, Uganda: a cluster-randomized trial
    Larry W Chang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e10923. 2010
    ..We conducted a cluster randomized trial to assess the effect of community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care of adults in Rakai, Uganda...
  21. pmc HIV-1 subtypes and differences in heterosexual HIV transmission among HIV-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda
    Noah Kiwanuka
    Makerere University School of Public Health, P O Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
    AIDS 23:2479-84. 2009
    ..To determine whether heterosexual transmission of HIV differs according to HIV-1 subtype...
  22. ncbi request reprint A new model to monitor the virological efficacy of antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor countries
    Robert Colebunders
    Infectious Disease Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    Lancet Infect Dis 6:53-9. 2006
    ..We believe that this model can make an accurate diagnosis of treatment failure in most patients. However, operational research is needed to assess whether this strategy works in practice...
  23. pmc Telecommunications and health Care: an HIV/AIDS warmline for communication and consultation in Rakai, Uganda
    Larry William Chang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) 7:130-2. 2008
    ..Most clinical staff felt that the warmline made their jobs easier and improved the health of patients. An HIV/AIDS warmline leveraged the skills of a limited workforce to provide increased access to HIV/AIDS care, advice, and education...
  24. pmc Frequency of long-term nonprogressors in HIV-1 seroconverters From Rakai Uganda
    Oliver Laeyendecker
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 52:316-9. 2009
    ..Studies on long-term nonprogressors (LTNP) have been conducted in the USA and Europe. This study examined the frequency of LTNPs and HIV controllers among 637 HIV-1 seroconverters in rural Uganda...
  25. pmc Cost analyses of peer health worker and mHealth support interventions for improving AIDS care in Rakai, Uganda
    Larry W Chang
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    AIDS Care 25:652-6. 2013
    ..50 patients per year from switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy. Other AIDS care programs may find these intervention costs affordable...
  26. pmc Liver stiffness is associated with monocyte activation in HIV-infected Ugandans without viral hepatitis
    Andrew D Redd
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:1026-30. 2013
    ..Liver stiffness in HIV-infected Ugandans is associated with increased sCD14 indicative of monocyte activation in the absence of viral hepatitis or microbial translocation, and suggests that HIV may be directly involved in liver disease...
  27. pmc Traditional herbal medicine use associated with liver fibrosis in rural Rakai, Uganda
    Brandon J Auerbach
    Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 7:e41737. 2012
    ..Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa...
  28. pmc Virologic versus immunologic monitoring and the rate of accumulated genotypic resistance to first-line antiretroviral drugs in Uganda
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 12:381. 2012
    ..We compared the genotypic resistance patterns between clients with VLM versus immunological monitoring (IM)...
  29. pmc Combination implementation for HIV prevention: moving from clinical trial evidence to population-level effects
    Larry W Chang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 13:65-76. 2013
    ..Only through careful consideration of how to implement and operationalise HIV prevention interventions will the HIV community be able to move from clinical trial evidence to population-level effects...
  30. pmc Identification of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 in the latent reservoir after single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
    Megan Wind-Rotolo
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:1301-9. 2009
    ..Although resistant viruses fade to undetectable levels in plasma, they may persist as stably integrated proviruses within the latent reservoir in resting CD4(+) T cells, potentially complicating future treatment...
  31. pmc Incident HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among men in Rakai, Uganda
    Aaron A R Tobian
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 23:1589-94. 2009
    ..Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is associated with an increased risk for acquiring HIV, but little is known about the temporal sequence of these infections...
  32. pmc The challenge of HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance in Africa in the era of HAART
    Hakim Sendagire
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda
    AIDS Rev 11:59-70. 2009
    ..This article provides a comprehensive review of the published literature on the prevalence of primary and secondary HIV drug resistance with different subtypes and in various settings across sub-Saharan Africa...
  33. pmc Hepatitis B virus and sexual behavior in Rakai, Uganda
    Lara Stabinski
    Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Med Virol 83:796-800. 2011
    ..Therefore vaccination against HBV, particularly susceptible adults with HIV or at risk of HIV/STDs should be a priority...
  34. pmc Improved performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and the effect of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on the serologic detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 in Rakai, Uganda
    Jordyn L Gamiel
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:888-90. 2008
    ..Higher-than-standard-index cutoff values gave optimal sensitivity and specificity. Kalon ELISA was the optimal assay when an index value of 1.5 was used (sensitivity, 91.7%; specificity, 92.4%)...
  35. doi request reprint The Role of Viral Introductions in Sustaining Community-Based HIV Epidemics in Rural Uganda: Evidence from Spatial Clustering, Phylogenetics, and Egocentric Transmission Models
    Mary K Grabowski
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Med 11:e1001610. 2014
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Recent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 acquisition in India
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:1513-21. 2003
    ..81 for recent incident HSV-2. Recent incident HSV-2 infection was associated with the highest risk of HIV-1 in this study, which suggests that prevention of HSV-2 infection may reduce the risk of HIV-1 acquisition...
  37. ncbi request reprint Developments in STD/HIV interactions: the intertwining epidemics of HIV and HSV-2
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Ross 1159, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 19:415-25. 2005
    ..Treatment of HSV-2/HIV dually infected individuals may prove to be a low-cost intervention to improve clinical outcomes and delay the need for antiretroviral therapy...
  38. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of a rapid test for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 in the setting of multiple transmitted viral subtypes
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Ross Building, Room 1150, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 13:171-3. 2002
    ..We conclude that the OraQuick rapid HIV-1/2 test performs well in the setting of diverse HIV viral subtypes...
  39. ncbi request reprint Same-sex behavior and high rates of HIV among men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India (1993-2002)
    Amita Gupta
    Division of Infectious Disease, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:483-90. 2006
    ..To determine HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, trends, and risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) and compare these with those of non-MSM attending STI clinics in Pune, India over a 10-year period...
  40. pmc Two-year virologic outcomes of an alternative AIDS care model: evaluation of a peer health worker and nurse-staffed community-based program in Uganda
    Larry W Chang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 50:276-82. 2009
    ..We evaluated an alternative model, community-based, comprehensive antiretroviral program staffed primarily by peer health workers and nurses...
  41. ncbi request reprint Can nucleic acid amplification tests be used to test for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in microbicide trials?
    Patricia Rizzo-Price
    Division of Infectious Diseases, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 18:543-5. 2007
    ..The potential inhibitory effects of microbicides on the NAATs selected for detection of Ct and Ng should be considered in clinical trials involving topical microbicides...
  42. pmc Antiretroviral drug susceptibility among drug-naive adults with recent HIV infection in Rakai, Uganda
    Susan H Eshleman
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 646 Ross Bldg, 720 Rutland Ave, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS 23:845-52. 2009
    ..To analyze antiretroviral drug susceptibility in HIV from recently infected adults in Rakai, Uganda, prior to the availability of antiretroviral drug treatment...
  43. pmc Turicella otitidis as an unusual agent causing a posterior auricular abscess
    S J Reynolds
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medical Microbiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada
    J Clin Microbiol 39:1672-3. 2001
    ..A posterior auricular abscess in a 3-year-old girl was confirmed to have been caused by an unusual organism, Turicella otitidis...
  44. pmc Microbial translocation, the innate cytokine response, and HIV-1 disease progression in Africa
    Andrew D Redd
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:6718-23. 2009
    ..These data suggest that microbial translocation and its subsequent inflammatory immune response do not have a causal relationship with HIV-1 disease progression in Africa...
  45. pmc High retention and appropriate use of insecticide-treated nets distributed to HIV-affected households in Rakai, Uganda: results from interviews and home visits
    Lauren Cohee
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Malar J 8:76. 2009
    ..Knowledge about and appropriate use of ITNs among HIV-positive ITN recipients and their household members has not been well characterized...
  46. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients hospitalized with severe sepsis in Uganda-high frequency, low clinical sand derivation of a clinical prediction score
    Shevin T Jacob
    University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e70305. 2013
    ..In a cohort of hospitalized HIV-infected Ugandan patients with severe sepsis, we report the frequency, management and outcomes of patients with MTB bacteremia and propose a risk score based on clinical predictors of MTB bacteremia...
  47. pmc Development and evaluation of a clinical algorithm to monitor patients on antiretrovirals in resource-limited settings using adherence, clinical and CD4 cell count criteria
    David Meya
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Int AIDS Soc 12:3. 2009
    ..abstract:..
  48. pmc Evaluation of multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in the diagnosis of genital ulcer disease in the Rakai District, Uganda
    T R Suntoke
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 85:97-101. 2009
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Male circumcision and risk of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections in India
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University Medical School, Ross 1150, 720 Rutland Avenue, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Lancet 363:1039-40. 2004
    ..The specificity of this relation suggests a biological rather than behavioural explanation for the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV-1...
  50. ncbi request reprint Increased risk of incident HIV during pregnancy in Rakai, Uganda: a prospective study
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA
    Lancet 366:1182-8. 2005
    ..HIV acquisition is significantly higher during pregnancy than in the postpartum period. We did a prospective study to estimate HIV incidence rates during pregnancy and lactation...
  51. pmc Incident HIV infection among men attending STD clinics in Pune, India: pathways to disparity and interventions to enhance equity
    Mary E Shepherd
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Health Popul Nutr 21:251-63. 2003
    ..Nevertheless, given the same level of knowledge on AIDS, the same level of risk behaviour, and the same level of biological co-factors, the most disadvantaged men still have higher rates of HIV incidence...
  52. ncbi request reprint High HIV prevalence among a high-risk subgroup of women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India
    Shruti H Mehta
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:75-80. 2006
    ..To investigate changes over a decade in prevalence and correlates of HIV among high-risk women attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Pune, India, who deny a history of commercial sex work (CSW)...
  53. ncbi request reprint Documenting intermenstrual bleeding in a vaginal microbicide study: case reports and lessons learned
    Smita Joshi
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:294-6. 2006
  54. doi request reprint Point-of-care lactate testing predicts mortality of severe sepsis in a predominantly HIV type 1-infected patient population in Uganda
    CHRISTOPHER C MOORE
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:215-22. 2008
    ..Therefore, we evaluated the ability of a hand-held portable whole-blood lactate (PWBL) analyzer to predict mortality of patients who are admitted to the hospital with severe sepsis...
  55. pmc Limitations of rapid HIV-1 tests during screening for trials in Uganda: diagnostic test accuracy study
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    BMJ 335:188. 2007
    ..To evaluate the limitations of rapid tests for HIV-1...
  56. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral therapy where resources are limited
    Steven J Reynolds
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, USA
    N Engl J Med 348:1806-9. 2003
  57. pmc CD4 stabilization tubes provide improved accuracy of absolute CD4 T-cell counts compared to standard k3 EDTA tubes in human immunodeficiency virus immunologic monitoring in resource-poor settings
    Joseph P Shott
    SAIC Frederick, Inc, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:1623-4. 2008
    ..Here, we assessed this technology for its use in an HIV clinical monitoring laboratory in a resource-poor setting in rural Uganda...
  58. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of filter paper transfer of whole-blood and plasma samples for quantifying HIV RNA in subjects on antiretroviral therapy in Uganda
    Laura Waters
    St Stephens AIDS Trust, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, UK
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:590-3. 2007
    ..We investigated filter paper transfer (FPT) of whole blood and plasma as an alternative to standard plasma-based assays for virologic monitoring in Uganda...
  59. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of syphilis treatment using azithromycin and/or benzathine penicillin in Rakai, Uganda
    Mohammed G Kiddugavu
    Rakai Health Science Program, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda
    Sex Transm Dis 32:1-6. 2005
    ..The goal of this study was to assess azithromycin and/or benzathine penicillin for treatment of syphilis...
  60. pmc Which patients first? Setting priorities for antiretroviral therapy where resources are limited
    Laura J McGough
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, 4940 Eastern Ave, B 3 North, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Am J Public Health 95:1173-80. 2005
    ..We then describe current rationing mechanisms for ARVs...
  61. pmc Responding to the human resource crisis: peer health workers, mobile phones, and HIV care in Rakai, Uganda
    Larry W Chang
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 22:173-4. 2008
  62. ncbi request reprint Might male circumcision be more protective against HIV in the highly exposed? An immunological hypothesis
    Maria J Wawer
    AIDS 19:2181-2. 2005
  63. ncbi request reprint Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA
    Lancet 369:657-66. 2007
    ..Ecological and observational studies suggest that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men. Our aim was to investigate the effect of male circumcision on HIV incidence in men...
  64. ncbi request reprint The impact of male circumcision on HIV incidence and cost per infection prevented: a stochastic simulation model from Rakai, Uganda
    Ronald H Gray
    School of Public Health, University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS 21:845-50. 2007
    ..To estimate the impact of male circumcision on HIV incidence, the number of procedures per HIV infection averted, and costs per infection averted...
  65. ncbi request reprint WHO HIV clinical staging or CD4 cell counts for antiretroviral therapy eligibility assessment? An evaluation in rural Rakai district, Uganda
    Joseph Kagaayi
    Rakai Health Sciences Programme, Rakai, Uganda
    AIDS 21:1208-10. 2007
    ..Clinical criteria missed half the patients with CD4 cell counts of 200 cells/microl or less, highlighting the importance of CD4 cell measurements for the scale-up of ART provision in resource-limited settings...
  66. ncbi request reprint Survival of HIV-infected treatment-naive individuals with documented dates of seroconversion in Rakai, Uganda
    Tom Lutalo
    Rakai Health Science Program, Entebbe, Uganda
    AIDS 21:S15-9. 2007
    ..To estimate the survival time from HIV infection to death...
  67. ncbi request reprint HIV viral load monitoring in resource-limited regions: optional or necessary?
    Alexandra Calmy
    Medecins Sans Frontieres, Access to Medicines Campaign, Geneva, 1211, Switzerland
    Clin Infect Dis 44:128-34. 2007
    ..Rather than considering viral load data to be an unaffordable luxury, efforts should be made to ensure that viral load testing becomes affordable, simple, and easy to use in resource-limited settings...