Katherine L O'Brien

Summary

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Systematic review of the indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on pneumococcal disease and colonization
    Jennifer D Loo
    From the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore Westat Inc, Rockville, MD and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S161-71. 2014
  2. pmc Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on immunogenicity
    Maria Deloria Knoll
    From the International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Biostatistics Consulting, Chicago, IL Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S119-29. 2014
  3. pmc Comparative immunogenicity of 7 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and the development of functional antibodies to cross-reactive serotypes
    Lindsay R Grant
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e74906. 2013
  4. pmc The burden of acute respiratory infections in crisis-affected populations: a systematic review
    Anna Bellos
    Disease Control in Humanitarian Emergencies, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Confl Health 4:3. 2010
  5. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae among Navajo children in the era before use of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines, 1989-1996
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 160:270-8. 2004
  6. ncbi request reprint Potential impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines on pediatric pneumococcal diseases
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 159:634-44. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Combined schedules of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines: is hyporesponsiveness an issue?
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 7:597-606. 2007
  8. doi request reprint Pneumococcal antibodies in a child with type 14 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine failure
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621 N, Washington St, Baltimore, MD, United States
    Vaccine 27:1863-8. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Burden of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates
    Katherine L O'Brien
    GAVI s PneumoADIP, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet 374:893-902. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 368:1469-70. 2006

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications95

  1. pmc Systematic review of the indirect effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on pneumococcal disease and colonization
    Jennifer D Loo
    From the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore Westat Inc, Rockville, MD and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S161-71. 2014
    ..To aid decision making for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use in infant national immunization programs, we summarized the indirect effects of PCV on clinical outcomes among nontargeted age groups...
  2. pmc Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on immunogenicity
    Maria Deloria Knoll
    From the International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Biostatistics Consulting, Chicago, IL Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S119-29. 2014
    ..Despite the breadth of studies demonstrating benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), uncertainty remains regarding the optimal PCV dosing schedule in infants...
  3. pmc Comparative immunogenicity of 7 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and the development of functional antibodies to cross-reactive serotypes
    Lindsay R Grant
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e74906. 2013
    ..The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced 7-valent conjugate (PCV7) in the USA in 2010 allowing assessment of PCV7 and PCV13 immunogenicity and functional cross-protection in vitro...
  4. pmc The burden of acute respiratory infections in crisis-affected populations: a systematic review
    Anna Bellos
    Disease Control in Humanitarian Emergencies, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Confl Health 4:3. 2010
    ..Humanitarian agencies should include ARI prevention and control among infants, children and adults as priority activities in crises. Improved data collection, case management and vaccine strategies will help to reduce disease burden...
  5. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae among Navajo children in the era before use of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines, 1989-1996
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 160:270-8. 2004
    ..These data are critical for assessing the impact of these vaccines in this high-risk population...
  6. ncbi request reprint Potential impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines on pediatric pneumococcal diseases
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 159:634-44. 2004
    ..Routine immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines should substantially reduce the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with pneumococcal disease in children...
  7. ncbi request reprint Combined schedules of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines: is hyporesponsiveness an issue?
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 7:597-606. 2007
    ..In this Review, we describe the evidence for and against this hyporesponsiveness and explore the possible mechanisms for such an occurrence...
  8. doi request reprint Pneumococcal antibodies in a child with type 14 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine failure
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621 N, Washington St, Baltimore, MD, United States
    Vaccine 27:1863-8. 2009
    ..We conclude that antibody concentration, functional activity and avidity do not predict individual protection against IPD, and immunological correlates of protection are only useful at the population level...
  9. doi request reprint Burden of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates
    Katherine L O'Brien
    GAVI s PneumoADIP, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet 374:893-902. 2009
    ..To support local and global policy decisions on pneumococcal disease prevention and treatment, we estimated country-specific incidence of serious cases and deaths in children younger than 5 years...
  10. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 368:1469-70. 2006
  11. ncbi request reprint Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization among immunized and unimmunized children in a community-randomized trial
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1211-20. 2007
    ..The impact of PCV on nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization is essential to understanding disease effects...
  12. ncbi request reprint Randomized, controlled trial efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against otitis media among Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:71-3. 2008
    ..6) for clinically-diagnosed OM, 5.1% (95% CI: -51.5 to 40.6) for severe OM, and 64% (95% CI: -34% to 90%) for vaccine serotype pneumococcal OM suggesting that this vaccine is efficacious for pneumococcal OM in this high risk population...
  13. ncbi request reprint Predictors of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunogenicity among infants and toddlers in an American Indian PnCRM7 efficacy trial
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:104-14. 2007
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are important for the prevention of serious illness and death among infants. Factors associated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunogenicity have not been explored...
  14. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of invasive group a streptococcus disease in the United States, 1995-1999
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:268-76. 2002
    ..We estimate that 9600-9700 cases of invasive GAS disease occur in the United States each year, resulting in 1100-1300 deaths...
  15. ncbi request reprint Safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM(197) among infants with sickle cell disease. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Study Group
    K L O'Brien
    Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA
    Pediatrics 106:965-72. 2000
    ....
  16. pmc Evaluation of a medium (STGG) for transport and optimal recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal secretions collected during field studies
    K L O'Brien
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:1021-4. 2001
    ..Recovery of pneumococci after storage of NP material in STGG medium at -70 degrees C is at least as good as that from direct plating. Storage at -20 degrees C is also acceptable. Storage at 4 degrees C for 5 days is not ideal...
  17. ncbi request reprint The potential indirect effect of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 621 North Washington Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Vaccine 21:1815-25. 2003
    ..Thus, widespread use of these conjugate vaccines may prevent disease by providing both direct and indirect immunity, and may reduce the use of antibiotics and the development of antibiotic resistance worldwide...
  18. ncbi request reprint Efficacy and safety of seven-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in American Indian children: group randomised trial
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet 362:355-61. 2003
    ..We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a seven-valent polysaccharide protein conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PnCRM7) against such disease...
  19. ncbi request reprint Severe pneumococcal pneumonia in previously healthy children: the role of preceding influenza infection
    K L O'Brien
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 30:784-9. 2000
    ..Prevention of pneumococcal disease should be included among the potential benefits of influenza vaccination...
  20. doi request reprint Burden of disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in children younger than 5 years: global estimates
    James P Watt
    Hib Initiative, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Lancet 374:903-11. 2009
    ..Hib disease can be almost completely eliminated through routine vaccination. We assessed the global burden of disease to help national policy makers and international donors set priorities...
  21. ncbi request reprint Delivering pneumococcal vaccine to a high risk population: the Navajo experience
    Andrea L Benin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Hum Vaccin 1:66-9. 2005
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Navajo and White Mountain Apache children before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Eugene V Millar
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:711-6. 2009
    ..The increased risk of pneumococcal disease among Navajo and White Mountain Apache populations has been documented. Little is known about the dynamics of pneumococcal carriage in these populations...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effect of community-wide conjugate pneumococcal vaccine use in infancy on nasopharyngeal carriage through 3 years of age: a cross-sectional study in a high-risk population
    Eugene V Millar
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:8-15. 2006
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines also protect against nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes, but the duration of protection against nasopharyngeal carriage is not known...
  24. pmc Evaluation of risk factors for severe pneumonia in children: the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study
    Chizoba B Wonodi
    International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:S124-31. 2012
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Pre- and post-conjugate vaccine epidemiology of pneumococcal serotype 6C invasive disease and carriage within Navajo and White Mountain Apache communities
    Eugene V Millar
    Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:1258-65. 2010
    ..The epidemiology of serotype 6C prior to and after 7-valent PCV (PCV7) introduction is incompletely understood...
  26. pmc The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health Project: a 21st century childhood pneumonia etiology study
    Orin S Levine
    Department of International Health, International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:S93-101. 2012
    ..PERCH will also address differences in host, environmental, and/or geographic factors that might determine pneumonia etiology and, by preserving specimens, will generate a resource for future research and pathogen discovery...
  27. pmc Impact of more than a decade of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use on carriage and invasive potential in Native American communities
    Jennifer R Scott
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 205:280-8. 2012
    ..We assessed the impact of 12 years of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype-specific invasive disease potential among Native Americans...
  28. ncbi request reprint Anticapsular serum antibody concentration and protection against pneumococcal colonization among children vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Eugene V Millar
    Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:1173-9. 2007
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines also prevent nasopharyngeal acquisition of vaccine serotypes, although the mechanism is incompletely understood...
  29. doi request reprint Indirect effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal colonization among unvaccinated household members
    Eugene V Millar
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:989-96. 2008
    ..Understanding the impact of PCV7 on carriage among vaccinated and unvaccinated community members is critical to interpreting, predicting, and understanding the impact of PCV7 on disease...
  30. doi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease a decade after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use in an American Indian population at high risk for disease
    Robert Weatherholtz
    Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 50:1238-46. 2010
    ..Before 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates among Navajo were several-fold those of the general US population. Only 50% of IPD cases in children involved PCV7 serotypes...
  31. doi request reprint Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease among White Mountain Apache persons in the era of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Rochelle Lacapa
    Center for American Indian Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:476-84. 2008
    ..We aimed to assess the impact of PCV7 and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine on the rate of IPD among White Mountain Apache persons...
  32. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal vaccination in developing countries
    Orin S Levine
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 367:1880-2. 2006
  33. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease among Navajo adults
    James P Watt
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:1080-7. 2007
    ..The high prevalence of renal failure, alcoholism, and unemployment among Navajo adults compared with the general US population may explain some of their increased risk of IPD...
  34. pmc A prospective study of agents associated with acute respiratory infection among young American Indian children
    Niranjan Bhat
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 32:e324-33. 2013
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Respiratory syncytial virus infection in Navajo and White Mountain Apache children
    Jana Bockova
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Pediatrics 110:e20. 2002
    ..We aimed to estimate RSV hospitalization rates among Navajo and White Mountain Apache children younger than 2 years...
  36. doi request reprint Pneumococcal sequence type replacement among American Indian children: a comparison of pre- and routine-PCV7 eras
    Jennifer R Scott
    Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621N Washington Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States
    Vaccine 30:2376-81. 2012
    ..PCV7 was introduced as a routine infant vaccine in October 2000. We assessed variability in PCV7 effectiveness and mechanisms of ST replacement after prolonged routine PCV7 use...
  37. pmc Specimen collection for the diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia
    Laura L Hammitt
    International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:S132-9. 2012
    ..We discuss the advantages and limitations of each specimen, and discuss the rationale for the specimens to be collected for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study...
  38. pmc Identification and selection of cases and controls in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health project
    Maria Deloria-Knoll
    International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:S117-23. 2012
    ..For each issue, we present the options that were considered, the advantages and disadvantages of each, the rationale for the methods selected for PERCH, and remaining implications and limitations...
  39. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine against invasive pneumococcal disease in Navajo adults
    Andrea L Benin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:81-9. 2003
    ..PPV23 was not significantly effective among Navajo adults and may be inadequate to prevent serious pneumococcal disease in this population...
  40. ncbi request reprint Could a single dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children be effective? Modeling the optimal age of vaccination
    Ezra J Barzilay
    Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Vaccine 24:904-13. 2006
    ..IPD reduction ranged from 15 to 62%, depending on model parameters. A single PCV dose in infants could prevent substantial IPD...
  41. pmc Use and evaluation of molecular diagnostics for pneumonia etiology studies
    Niranjan Bhat
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
    Clin Infect Dis 54:S153-8. 2012
    ....
  42. doi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease among White Mountain Apache adults, 1991-2005
    Sandra J Bliss
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins University, 621 N Washington St, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:749-55. 2008
    ..We aimed to determine the disease spectrum and risk factors of White Mountain Apache adults (age, >or=18 years) with IPD and the use and effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in this population...
  43. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease among Navajo adults, 1989-1998
    James P Watt
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:496-501. 2004
    ..Navajo adults have rates of IPD that are 3-5-fold higher than those of the general US population. Additional research is needed to understand the reasons for this elevated risk and to develop prevention strategies...
  44. pmc Serotype-specific changes in invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction: a pooled analysis of multiple surveillance sites
    Daniel R Feikin
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS Med 10:e1001517. 2013
    ..We used a standardized approach to describe serotype-specific IPD changes among multiple sites after PCV7 introduction...
  45. ncbi request reprint Impact of intrapartum antibiotics on the care and evaluation of the neonate
    Sharon Balter
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:853-7. 2003
    ..To assess practices for testing and treatment of infants, we evaluated a population-based sample of deliveries to see whether excessive evaluation and treatment occurs after IAP...
  46. pmc Methods for a systematic review of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules
    Jennifer D Loo
    From the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Westat Inc, Rockville, MD Biostatistics Consulting, Chicago, IL and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S182-7. 2014
    ..As more lower income countries make decisions to introduce PCV into their national immunization programs, an optimal schedule with which to administer PCV has become a key policy question...
  47. pmc Immunoblot method to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae and identify multiple serotypes from nasopharyngeal secretions
    Melinda A Bronsdon
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1596-600. 2004
    ..The IB method identified multiple clones and minor populations of pneumococci in NP secretions. This method is useful for detecting specific serotypes and carriage of multiple serotypes in epidemiologic surveillance and carriage studies...
  48. ncbi request reprint Trends in incidence and antimicrobial resistance of early-onset sepsis: population-based surveillance in San Francisco and Atlanta
    Terri B Hyde
    Active Bacterial Core surveillance of the Emerging Infections Program Network, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Pediatrics 110:690-5. 2002
    ..The objective of this study was to determine trends in the incidence of early-onset sepsis caused by organisms other than group B streptococcus in the era of antimicrobial prophylaxis...
  49. pmc Nontypeable pneumococcal isolates among navajo and white mountain apache communities: are these really a cause of invasive disease?
    Jennifer R Scott
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 206:73-80. 2012
    ..We sought to assess whether pneumococci that are nontypeable (NT) by the Quellung reaction truly lack capsule genes or are failing to produce capsule in vitro...
  50. pmc Nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for detection of pneumococcal carriage in adults
    James P Watt
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621 N Washington St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4974-6. 2004
    ..Sampling both sites may give more accurate results than sampling either site alone in studies of pneumococcal carriage in adults...
  51. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type A disease among Navajo and White Mountain Apache children, 1988-2003
    Eugene V Millar
    Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:823-30. 2005
    ..As Hib disease rates decrease to very low levels, there are concerns that non-type b strains of H. influenzae may emerge as more prevalent causes of invasive disease in children...
  52. ncbi request reprint Contributions of Native Americans to the global control of infectious diseases
    Mathuram Santosham
    Center for American Indian Health, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University, 621 N Washington Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Vaccine 25:2366-74. 2007
    ..The lessons learned from these studies and their resultant prevention or treatment interventions have been applied around the world, and have had a major impact in the reduction of global childhood morbidity and mortality...
  53. pmc Nasopharyngeal carriage and transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in American Indian households after a decade of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use
    Jonathan F Mosser
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e79578. 2014
    ..Few studies document pneumococcal household dynamics in the routine-PCV7 era...
  54. doi request reprint Efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis among American Indian children
    Lindsay R Grant
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of International Health, Center for American Indian Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:184-8. 2012
    ..Navajo and White Mountain Apache children suffer a disproportionate burden of severe rotavirus disease compared with the general U.S. population...
  55. doi request reprint Standardizing surveillance of pneumococcal disease
    Maria Deloria Knoll
    GAVI Alliance s Pneumococcal Vaccines Accelerated Development and Introduction Plan, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:S37-48. 2009
    ..To facilitate comparisons of surveillance data among countries, investigators of Pneumococcal Vaccines Accelerated Development and Introduction Plan-sponsored projects have developed standard case definitions and data reporting methods...
  56. pmc Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease among young children
    Laura Conklin
    From the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Westat Inc, Rockville, MD Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD and Institute for Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S109-18. 2014
    ..The optimal schedule to maximize protection of vaccinated children against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) is not known...
  57. pmc The differential impact of coadministered vaccines, geographic region, vaccine product and other covariates on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunogenicity
    Daniel E Park
    From the International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Biostatistics Consulting, Chicago, IL Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S130-9. 2014
    ..We aimed to systematically assess local setting factors, beyond dosing schedule, which may affect PCV antibody levels...
  58. pmc Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on prevention of pneumonia
    Jennifer D Loo
    From the Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Westat Inc, Rockville, MD and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S140-51. 2014
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are known to provide protection against vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia; uncertainty exists regarding the optimum PCV dosing schedule...
  59. pmc Systematic review of the effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine dosing schedules on vaccine-type nasopharyngeal carriage
    Katherine E Fleming-Dutra
    From the Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA International Vaccine Access Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Westat Inc, Rockville, MD and Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 33:S152-60. 2014
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) reduce nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type (VT) pneumococci, an important driver of vaccine programs' overall benefits. The dosing schedule that best reduces carriage is unclear...
  60. doi request reprint Impact of immunizations on the disease burden of American Indian and Alaska native children
    Rosalyn Singleton
    Alaska Native Tribal Consortium, Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4055 Tudor Centre Dr, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163:446-53. 2009
    ..Although tremendous strides have been made in eliminating disparities in infectious disease among AI/AN children, further gains will require addressing disparities in adverse living conditions...
  61. ncbi request reprint Report from a WHO working group: standard method for detecting upper respiratory carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Katherine L O'Brien
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:133-40. 2003
    ..Numerous studies evaluating the efficacy of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines are being conducted or planned throughout the world. Some of these studies are evaluating the effect of vaccine on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage...
  62. doi request reprint Young infants can develop protective levels of neutralizing antibody after infection with respiratory syncytial virus
    Joshua J Shinoff
    Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:1007-15. 2008
    ..RSV can induce substantial neutralizing antibody responses in young infants when the titer of preexisting antibodies is low...
  63. doi request reprint The role of neutralizing antibodies in protection of American Indian infants against respiratory syncytial virus disease
    Angelia Eick
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:207-12. 2008
    ..S. infant population. To evaluate whether these high rates can be attributable to low concentrations of maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibodies, we conducted a case-control study...
  64. doi request reprint The epidemiologic evidence underlying recommendations for use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine among American Indian and Alaska Native populations
    Maria A Said
    Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 621N, Washington Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Vaccine 29:5355-62. 2011
    ....
  65. pmc A literature review and survey of childhood pneumonia etiology studies: 2000-2010
    Zunera Gilani
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:S102-8. 2012
    ..It reinforces the need for the standardization of methods and analyses for present and future pneumonia etiology studies in order to optimize their cumulative potential to accurately describe the microbial causes of childhood pneumonia...
  66. pmc Revisiting pneumococcal carriage by use of broth enrichment and PCR techniques for enhanced detection of carriage and serotypes
    Maria da Gloria Carvalho
    Streptococcus Laboratory, Respiratory Disease Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Mailstop C02, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1611-8. 2010
    ..A PCR-based approach that employed a broth enrichment step appeared to best enhance the detection of mixed serotypes and low-density pneumococcal carriage...
  67. ncbi request reprint The evidence for using conjugate vaccines to protect HIV-infected children against pneumococcal disease
    Sandra J Bliss
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:67-80. 2008
    ..PCV should be considered as an important intervention for improving the lives of HIV-infected children...
  68. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease epidemiology and effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Alaska native adults
    Rosalyn J Singleton
    Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA
    Vaccine 25:2288-95. 2007
    ..PPV-23 vaccine effectiveness was confirmed in younger Alaska Native adults but not among adults > or =55 years...
  69. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal infections in children with sickle cell disease in the era of penicillin prophylaxis, antibiotic resistance, and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination
    Thomas V Adamkiewicz
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2040 Ridgewood Drive NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Pediatr 143:438-44. 2003
    ..The pneumococcal-polysaccharide vaccine was 80.4% effective within 3 years after vaccination (95% CI, 39.7, 93.6). Children with sickle cell disease of all ages may benefit from PVC boosted with polysaccharide vaccination...
  70. doi request reprint Disk diffusion bioassays for the detection of antibiotic activity in body fluids: applications for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health project
    Amanda J Driscoll
    International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 855 N Wolfe St, Suite 600, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:S159-64. 2012
    ..Although there are limitations to the disk diffusion method, its low cost, ease of use, and ability to broadly detect antibiotic pretreatment make it an appealing method for epidemiologic studies such as PERCH...
  71. doi request reprint Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea
    Christa L Fischer Walker
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 381:1405-16. 2013
    ..Morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea are falling, but action is needed globally and at country level to accelerate the reduction...
  72. pmc Procedures for collection of induced sputum specimens from children
    Lindsay R Grant
    Department of International Health, Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 54:S140-5. 2012
    ..PERCH selected the nebulization technique using hypertonic saline...
  73. pmc A policy framework for accelerating adoption of new vaccines
    Orin S Levine
    International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Hum Vaccin 6:1021-4. 2010
    ..It highlights the important roles of different actors at various times in the process and may allow new vaccine initiatives to save time and improve their efficiency by anticipating key steps and actions...
  74. ncbi request reprint Identification of a recombinant live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate that is highly attenuated in infants
    Ruth A Karron
    Center for Immunization Research, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1093-104. 2005
    ..Recombination technology can be used to create live attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines that contain combinations of known attenuating mutations...
  75. pmc Estimating the burden of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic techniques
    Maria A Said
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e60273. 2013
    ..We aimed to develop a conceptual and quantitative strategy to estimate the non-bacteremic disease burden among adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using systematic study methods and the availability of a urine antigen assay...
  76. doi request reprint Maternal influenza vaccination and effect on influenza virus infection in young infants
    Angelia A Eick
    Center for American Indian Health, 621 N Washington Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 165:104-11. 2011
    ..To assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy on laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants to 6 months of age...
  77. ncbi request reprint Integrated monitoring of a new group B streptococcal disease prevention program and other perinatal infections
    Anne Schuchat
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Matern Child Health J 6:107-14. 2002
    ..To determine levels of prenatal screening for several infections, intrapartum recognition of risk factors, and prophylaxis against mother-to-child transmission of group B streptococcus...
  78. pmc Invasive group A streptococcal disease: risk factors for adults
    Stephanie H Factor
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:970-7. 2003
    ..68, p=0.004), diabetes (RR=2.27, p=0.03), cardiac disease (RR=3.24, p=0.006), cancer (RR=3.54, p=0.006), and corticosteroid use (RR=5.18, p=0.03). Thus, host and environmental factors increased the risk for invasive GAS disease...
  79. ncbi request reprint Impact of haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in South Africa and Argentina
    Michael Martin
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:842-7. 2004
    ..Because surveillance for culture-confirmed Hib meningitis is not available in many countries, alternative means to measure the impact of Hib conjugate vaccine would be useful...
  80. pmc Risk for severe group A streptococcal disease among patients' household contacts
    Katherine A Robinson
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 9:443-7. 2003
    ..The risk estimate from this study is important for developing recommendations on the use of chemoprophylaxis for household contacts of persons with invasive GAS disease...
  81. ncbi request reprint Global reduction of Hib disease: what are the next steps? Proceedings of the meeting Scottsdale, Arizona, September 22-25, 2002
    James P Watt
    Department of International Health, the Center for American Indian Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Pediatr 143:S163-87. 2003
    ..In areas where Hib disease burden is not well characterized, additional work will be needed to understand the epidemiology of Hib disease and to communicate the value of Hib conjugate vaccine...
  82. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal disease and vaccination in the Americas: an agenda for accelerated vaccine introduction
    Salvador Garcia
    The Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC, United States of America
    Rev Panam Salud Publica 19:340-8. 2006
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint The changing landscape of epidemic bacterial meningitis in Africa: new opportunities for prevention
    Jay C Butler
    J Infect Dis 192:189-91. 2005
  84. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal vaccination for Indian children
    Orin S Levine
    Indian Pediatr 44:491-6. 2007
  85. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal vaccination and public health
    Orin S Levine
    GAVI s PneumoADIP, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 369:1144-5. 2007
  86. ncbi request reprint PneumoADIP: an example of translational research to accelerate pneumococcal vaccination in developing countries
    Orin S Levine
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Health Popul Nutr 22:268-74. 2004
    ..This model may provide a useful example and valuable lessons for how a successful public-private partnership can improve global health...
  87. pmc Rapid assessment tool for Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in developing countries
    Daniel R Feikin
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:1270-6. 2004
    ..Results were affected by the quality of available data. The Hib rapid assessment tool can be useful to countries that desire a timely assessment of Hib disease rates...
  88. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and reactogenicity to Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) conjugate vaccine among rural Alaska adults
    Catherine M Dentinger
    Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska, USA
    Hum Vaccin 2:24-8. 2006
    ..As part of a project to eliminate Hib carriage in three rural villages, we evaluated a cohort of Alaska adults for antibody response and reactogenicity to a single dose of Hib conjugate vaccine (HbOC)...
  89. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity of surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae Type b meningitis
    Jennifer C Moïsi
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:960. 2006
  90. pmc Vaccines to prevent pneumonia and improve child survival
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science and Technology, National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Chris Hani Baragwanth Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Bertsham, South Africa
    Bull World Health Organ 86:365-72. 2008
    ..In this review, we discuss advances made in optimizing the use of established vaccines and the potential issues related to newer bacterial conjugate vaccines in reducing childhood pneumonia morbidity and mortality...
  91. pmc Risk factors for pediatric invasive group A streptococcal disease
    Stephanie H Factor
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1062-6. 2005
    ..67, p=0.03) and household member(s) with runny nose (OR=0.09, p=0.002) were associated with decreased risk. Among children, household-level characteristics that influence exposure to GAS most affect development of invasive disease...
  92. ncbi request reprint A new old opportunity for preventing serious group A streptococcal infections
    Orin S Levine
    Clin Infect Dis 41:343-4. 2005
  93. ncbi request reprint Reemergence, in southwestern Alaska, of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease due to strains indistinguishable from those isolated from vaccinated children
    Lynne A Lucher
    Arctic Investigations Program, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:958-65. 2002
    ..Continued monitoring of Hib carriage may provide insights into the epidemiology of continued transmission in an era of widespread vaccination...

Research Grants2

  1. Impact of PCV on disease and colonization among Native American communities
    KATHERINE O BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This information will allow us to design vaccine strategies to meet these new patterns of pneumococcal disease and stay at least one step ahead of the organism changes. ..
  2. Impact of PCV on disease and colonization among Native American communities
    KATHERINE LOUISE contact O apos BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This information will allow us to design vaccine strategies to meet these new patterns of pneumococcal disease and stay at least one step ahead of the organism changes. ..