GREGORY LUCAS

Summary

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Decreased kidney function in a community-based cohort of HIV-Infected and HIV-negative individuals in Rakai, Uganda
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:491-4. 2010
  2. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral adherence, drug resistance, viral fitness and HIV disease progression: a tangled web is woven
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:413-6. 2005
  3. pmc Hepatotoxicity in a 52-week randomized trial of short-term versus long-term treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone in HIV-negative injection opioid users in China and Thailand
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, 1830 E Monument St, Room 435A, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States Electronic address
    Drug Alcohol Depend 142:139-45. 2014
  4. pmc HIV Viremia and T-Cell Activation Differentially Affect the Performance of Glomerular Filtration Rate Equations Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C
    Bhavna Bhasin
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e82028. 2013
  5. pmc Directly administered antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in opioid treatment programs: results from a randomized clinical trial
    Gregory M Lucas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e68286. 2013
  6. pmc Short-term safety of buprenorphine/naloxone in HIV-seronegative opioid-dependent Chinese and Thai drug injectors enrolled in HIV Prevention Trials Network 058
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Int J Drug Policy 23:162-5. 2012
  7. pmc Study design and participant characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy in opioid treatment programs
    Bernadette Anna Mullen
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 11:45. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Adherence to antiretroviral therapy: an update of current concepts
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 E Monument Street, Room 421, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 1:172-80. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Illicit drug use and HIV-1 disease progression: a longitudinal study in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Gregory M Lucas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:412-20. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Directly administered antiretroviral therapy in methadone clinics is associated with improved HIV treatment outcomes, compared with outcomes among concurrent comparison groups
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1628-35. 2006

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. pmc Decreased kidney function in a community-based cohort of HIV-Infected and HIV-negative individuals in Rakai, Uganda
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:491-4. 2010
    ..However little is known about natural history HIV-related kidney disease or about background rates of reduced GFR in HIV-negative individuals in this region...
  2. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral adherence, drug resistance, viral fitness and HIV disease progression: a tangled web is woven
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 55:413-6. 2005
    ..Such benefit may be mediated, at least partially, by reductions in viral fitness associated with drug resistance mutations...
  3. pmc Hepatotoxicity in a 52-week randomized trial of short-term versus long-term treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone in HIV-negative injection opioid users in China and Thailand
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, 1830 E Monument St, Room 435A, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States Electronic address
    Drug Alcohol Depend 142:139-45. 2014
    ..However, as persons taking BUP/NX have multiple hepatic risk factors, comparative data are needed to quantify the risk of hepatoxicity with BUP/NX...
  4. pmc HIV Viremia and T-Cell Activation Differentially Affect the Performance of Glomerular Filtration Rate Equations Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C
    Bhavna Bhasin
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e82028. 2013
    ..Serum creatinine and cystatin C are used as markers of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The performance of these GFR markers relative to exogenously measured GFR (mGFR) in HIV-positive individuals is not well established...
  5. pmc Directly administered antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in opioid treatment programs: results from a randomized clinical trial
    Gregory M Lucas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e68286. 2013
    ..Opioid treatment programs (OTPs) provide a convenient framework for DAART. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared DAART and self-administered therapy (SAT) among HIV-infected subjects attending five OTPs in Baltimore, MD...
  6. pmc Short-term safety of buprenorphine/naloxone in HIV-seronegative opioid-dependent Chinese and Thai drug injectors enrolled in HIV Prevention Trials Network 058
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Int J Drug Policy 23:162-5. 2012
    ....
  7. pmc Study design and participant characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy in opioid treatment programs
    Bernadette Anna Mullen
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 11:45. 2011
    ..Prior work from our group and others suggests that directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) delivered in opioid treatment programs (OTPs) may increase rates of viral suppression...
  8. ncbi request reprint Adherence to antiretroviral therapy: an update of current concepts
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 E Monument Street, Room 421, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 1:172-80. 2004
    ..Owing to the great benefits of CART even the small to modest gains in adherence that are achievable with adherence programs may prove to be cost effective...
  9. ncbi request reprint Illicit drug use and HIV-1 disease progression: a longitudinal study in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Gregory M Lucas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:412-20. 2006
    ..2, 2.8). Active drug use is temporally linked to HIV disease progression and mortality. Effectively targeting and treating active substance abuse in HIV treatment settings may provide a mechanism to improve clinical outcomes...
  10. ncbi request reprint Directly administered antiretroviral therapy in methadone clinics is associated with improved HIV treatment outcomes, compared with outcomes among concurrent comparison groups
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1628-35. 2006
    ..Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) in methadone clinics has the potential to improve treatment outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected injection drug users (IDUs)...
  11. ncbi request reprint Adherence, drug use, and treatment failure in a methadone-clinic-based program of directly administered antiretroviral therapy
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 21:564-74. 2007
    ..Given that a relatively small proportion of the total ART doses were supervised in many patients, future studies should assess how DAART affects adherence with nonsupervised doses and retention to ART...
  12. pmc Chronic kidney disease incidence, and progression to end-stage renal disease, in HIV-infected individuals: a tale of two races
    Gregory M Lucas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicines, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1548-57. 2008
    ..Little is known about the racial differences in the incidence and progression of HIV-related chronic kidney disease (CKD) that underlie African American-white disparities in HIV-related end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
  13. pmc Clinic-based treatment of opioid-dependent HIV-infected patients versus referral to an opioid treatment program: A randomized trial
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Ann Intern Med 152:704-11. 2010
    ..Opioid dependence is common in HIV clinics. Buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP) is an effective treatment of opioid dependence that may be used in routine medical settings...
  14. pmc Substance abuse, adherence with antiretroviral therapy, and clinical outcomes among HIV-infected individuals
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States
    Life Sci 88:948-52. 2011
    ..Strategies that show promise for HIV-infected substance abusers include integrated treatment models, directly observed therapy, and incentive-based interventions...
  15. ncbi request reprint Directly administered antiretroviral therapy in an urban methadone maintenance clinic: a nonrandomized comparative study
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:S409-13. 2004
    ..008). The preliminary results of this study both suggest that DAART can be feasible and acceptable to patients in a methadone clinic setting and provide impetus for further study of this treatment strategy in randomized controlled trials...
  16. ncbi request reprint Relationship between drug resistance and HIV-1 disease progression or death in patients undergoing resistance testing
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 18:1539-48. 2004
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Detrimental effects of continued illicit drug use on the treatment of HIV-1 infection
    G M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 27:251-9. 2001
    ..To identify the effects of substance abuse status (active, former, and never) on utilization of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), medication adherence, and virologic and immunologic responses to therapy...
  18. ncbi request reprint Directly administered antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV infection: benefit or burden?
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 0003, USA
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 16:527-35. 2002
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Survival in an urban HIV-1 clinic in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a 5-year cohort study
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltilmore, Maryland 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 33:321-8. 2003
    ..To examine the implications of early virologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on long-term HAART utilization patterns, development of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, and mortality in an urban HIV-1 clinic...
  20. ncbi request reprint Highly active antiretroviral therapy and the incidence of HIV-1-associated nephropathy: a 12-year cohort study
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore and the Good Samaritan Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 18:541-6. 2004
    ..to assess temporal changes in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus-1-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and the association with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  21. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal assessment of the effects of drug and alcohol abuse on HIV-1 treatment outcomes in an urban clinic
    Gregory M Lucas
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 16:767-74. 2002
    ..To assess the temporal association of changes in substance abuse with antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, HIV-1 RNA suppression, and CD4 cell count changes in patients attending an urban clinic...
  22. pmc A ten-year analysis of the incidence and risk factors for acute pancreatitis requiring hospitalization in an urban HIV clinical cohort
    David J Riedel
    Institute of Human Virology and Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 22:113-21. 2008
    ..Of note, newer antiretrovirals, particularly atazanavir, lopinivir/ritonavir, tenofovir, abacavir, and efavirenz, were not associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis...
  23. ncbi request reprint End-stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease in a cohort of African-American HIV-infected and at-risk HIV-seronegative participants followed between 1988 and 2004
    Gregory M Lucas
    Department of Medicine, Divisions of Infectious Diseases, Bloomberg School of Public Health, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 21:2435-43. 2007
    ..HIV-infected African-Americans are at increased risk of end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT)...
  24. pmc Characteristics of patients with HIV and biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis
    Shyam M Parkhie
    Division of Renal Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 5:798-804. 2010
    ..The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients with HIV infection and biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)...
  25. doi request reprint Antiretroviral nephrotoxicities
    Mohamed G Atta
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Semin Nephrol 28:563-75. 2008
    ..A timely and coordinated effort by the HIV primary provider and a nephrologist is likely to facilitate the evaluation of HIV-1-infected patients with new kidney problems...
  26. doi request reprint HIV-associated nephropathy: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management
    Mohamed G Atta
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 6:365-71. 2008
    ..Furthermore, HAART, corticosteroids and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin axis are potentially helpful in delaying disease progression, as well as the need for renal replacement therapy...
  27. ncbi request reprint Renal disease in patients with HIV infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis and management
    Derek M Fine
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Drugs 68:963-80. 2008
    ..Only with greater awareness of kidney-disease manifestations and their implications in this particularly vulnerable population will we be able to achieve success in confronting this growing problem...
  28. pmc Nonstructured treatment interruptions among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD
    Ravi Kavasery
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 50:360-6. 2009
    ..We characterized patterns of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use and predictors of nonstructured treatment interruptions (NTIs) among injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD...
  29. pmc Predictors of complication after percutaneous ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy in HIV-infected individuals: possible role of hepatitis C and HIV co-infection
    Sayed Tabatabai
    Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1766-73. 2009
    ..HIV-infected patients often undergo kidney biopsy. The risks of percutaneous ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy in this population are not well established...
  30. doi request reprint Kidney biopsy in HIV: beyond HIV-associated nephropathy
    Derek M Fine
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 51:504-14. 2008
  31. pmc Survival during renal replacement therapy among African Americans infected with HIV type 1 in urban Baltimore, Maryland
    Mohamed G Atta
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 45:1625-32. 2007
    ..It is unknown how the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has affected survival during RRT in this vulnerable population...
  32. pmc Rate of comorbidities not related to HIV infection or AIDS among HIV-infected patients, by CD4 cell count and HAART use status
    Richard D Moore
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:1102-4. 2008
    ..Among patients with a CD4 cell count <350 cells/mm(3), receipt of HAART was associated with a significantly decreased incidence of comorbidities not related to HIV infection or AIDS...
  33. doi request reprint Observations on a cohort of HIV-infected patients undergoing native renal biopsy
    Adam R Berliner
    Division of Nephrology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Nephrol 28:478-86. 2008
    ..This study aims to explore the spectrum of renal disease in HIV-infected patients, identify clinical predictors of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and investigate the performance of renal biopsy in HIV-infected patients...
  34. ncbi request reprint Cocaine use and hypertensive renal changes in HIV-infected individuals
    Derek M Fine
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2:1125-30. 2007
    ..This study was conducted to evaluate the possible association of cocaine use and histopathologic findings on biopsy in this population...
  35. ncbi request reprint An improvement in virologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice from 1996 through 2002
    Richard D Moore
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:195-8. 2005
    ..This suggests that improved virologic response may also be attributable to other factors such as a greater focus on medication adherence, improved ARV tolerability, and ease of dosing...
  36. ncbi request reprint Invasive pneumococcal disease in a cohort of HIV-infected adults: incidence and risk factors, 1990-2003
    Pennan M Barry
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 20:437-44. 2006
    ..To investigate the association between the introduction of HAART and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in HIV-infected patients...
  37. ncbi request reprint Incidence of, risk factors for, clinical presentation, and 1-year outcomes of infective endocarditis in an urban HIV cohort
    Kelly A Gebo
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 E Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:426-32. 2006
    ..We evaluated the incidence of, risk factors for, clinical presentation, and 1-year outcomes of IE in HIV-infected patients...
  38. ncbi request reprint Selected topics from the 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections
    Richard E Chaisson
    HIV Clin Trials 3:333-49. 2002
  39. ncbi request reprint Limited effectiveness of antiviral treatment for hepatitis C in an urban HIV clinic
    Shruti H Mehta
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA
    AIDS 20:2361-9. 2006
    ..To evaluate predictors and trends of referral for hepatitis C virus (HCV) care, clinic attendance and treatment in an urban HIV clinic...
  40. ncbi request reprint Treatment of antiretroviral-experienced patients and immune-based therapy
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 14:7-9. 2002
  41. ncbi request reprint HIV notes from the 40th annual meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
    Emily J Erbelding
    Hopkins HIV Rep 14:6-7. 2002
  42. ncbi request reprint HIV notes from the 39th Annual Meeting of the IDSA
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 14:8-10. 2002
  43. ncbi request reprint Report from San Francisco: The 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). The treatment of experienced patients and resistance mechanisms
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 16:6-7, 15. 2004
  44. ncbi request reprint 3rd IAS conference: new drugs and treatment of experienced patients
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 17:4-5. 2005
  45. ncbi request reprint Treatment of experienced patients and antiretroviral resistance issues from the 12th CROI
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 17:1-3, 12. 2005
  46. ncbi request reprint Initial strategies for integrating buprenorphine into HIV care settings in the United States
    Lynn E Sullivan
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8025, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:S191-6. 2006
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Buprenorphine use: the international experience
    Maria Patrizia Carrieri
    INSERM U379, Marseilles, France
    Clin Infect Dis 43:S197-215. 2006
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Adherence to HIV treatment among IDUs and the role of opioid substitution treatment (OST)
    Bruno Spire
    INSERM U379 ORSPACA, Marseilles, France
    Int J Drug Policy 18:262-70. 2007
    ..The review concludes by suggesting areas of future research targeted at improving the understanding of both the role of perceived toxicity and patient-provider relationship for patients on ART and OST...
  49. ncbi request reprint Report from Los Angeles: the 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). New data on treatment-experienced patients and drug resistance
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 19:4-6. 2007
  50. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral toxicities take center stage at the 9th CROI (Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections)
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 14:1, 4, 9. 2002
  51. ncbi request reprint Taking HAART to heart: antiretroviral toxicities
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 15:6-7. 2003
  52. doi request reprint Poor validity of urine dipstick as a screening tool for proteinuria in HIV-positive patients
    Mark J Siedner
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:261-3. 2008
  53. ncbi request reprint Buprenorphine in primary HIV care clinics: a big pill to swallow
    Gregory M Lucas
    Hopkins HIV Rep 16:5-7. 2004

Research Grants8

  1. DIRECTLY ADMINISTERERD HIV THERAPY IN METHADONE CLINICS
    GREGORY LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our research team has an established history of collaboration in this area, and brings together a wealth of research expertise in HIV treatment outcomes, substance abuse, and behavioral aspects of adherence. ..
  2. Directly observed antiretroviral therapy in drug abusers
    GREGORY LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..My career plan and research proposal are consistent with my long-term goals of becoming an effective independent investigator, and optimizing treatment outcomes in HIV-infected IDUs. ..
  3. DIRECTLY ADMINISTERERD HIV THERAPY IN METHADONE CLINICS
    GREGORY LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Our research team has an established history of collaboration in this area, and brings together a wealth of research expertise in HIV treatment outcomes, substance abuse, and behavioral aspects of adherence. ..
  4. Directly Administered HIV Therapy in Methadone Clinics
    GREGORY LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Our research team has an established history of collaboration in this area, and brings together a wealth of research expertise in HIV treatment outcomes, substance abuse, and behavioral aspects of adherence. ..
  5. Directly Administered HIV Therapy in Methadone Clinics
    GREGORY LUCAS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our research team has an established history of collaboration in this area, and brings together a wealth of research expertise in HIV treatment outcomes, substance abuse, and behavioral aspects of adherence. ..
  6. Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV-infected Individuals
    Gregory M Lucas; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In a sample of HIV-infected and HIV- negative research participants, we propose to study clinical markers and contributing factors in the progression of kidney disease, and the association between kidney disease and heart disease. ..