Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Country: USA


  1. Lee Y, Huynh T, Lee S. Paracrine and endocrine modes of myostatin action. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;120:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications not only for the understanding of the physiological control of muscle mass but also for therapeutic strategies to target MSTN to treat patients with muscle loss. ..
  2. McPherron A, Huynh T, Lee S. Redundancy of myostatin and growth/differentiation factor 11 function. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that myostatin and Gdf11 have redundant functions in regulating skeletal patterning in mice but most likely not in regulating muscle size. ..
  3. Lee S, McPherron A. Regulation of myostatin activity and muscle growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9306-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the propeptide, follistatin, or other molecules that block signaling through this pathway may be useful agents for enhancing muscle growth for both human therapeutic and agricultural applications. ..
  4. request reprint
    Lee S, McPherron A. Myostatin and the control of skeletal muscle mass. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999;9:604-7 pubmed
  5. Lee S, Reed L, Davies M, Girgenrath S, Goad M, Tomkinson K, et al. Regulation of muscle growth by multiple ligands signaling through activin type II receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18117-22 pubmed
    ..Finally, we provide genetic evidence that these ligands signal through both activin type II receptors, ACVR2 and ACVR2B, to regulate muscle growth in vivo. ..
  6. Lee S. Quadrupling muscle mass in mice by targeting TGF-beta signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e789 pubmed
  7. Lee S. Genetic analysis of the role of proteolysis in the activation of latent myostatin. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1628 pubmed publisher
  8. Lee S, Lee Y, Zimmers T, Soleimani A, Matzuk M, Tsuchida K, et al. Regulation of muscle mass by follistatin and activins. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1998-2008 pubmed publisher
  9. Lee S, Huynh T, Lee Y, Sebald S, Wilcox Adelman S, Iwamori N, et al. Role of satellite cells versus myofibers in muscle hypertrophy induced by inhibition of the myostatin/activin signaling pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2353-60 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Lee Y, Lehar A, Sebald S, Liu M, Swaggart K, Talbot C, et al. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition accelerates degeneration in dysferlinopathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:5711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that depending on the disease context, inducing muscle hypertrophy by myostatin blockade may have detrimental effects, which need to be weighed against the potential gains in muscle growth and decreased fibrosis. ..