R H Gray

Summary

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Risk factors for intimate partner violence in women in the Rakai Community Cohort Study, Uganda, from 2000 to 2009
    Fiona G Kouyoumdjian
    Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Canada
    BMC Public Health 13:566. 2013
  2. doi request reprint Programme science research on medical male circumcision scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 89:345-9. 2013
  3. pmc A 'snip' in time: what is the best age to circumcise?
    Brian J Morris
    School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    BMC Pediatr 12:20. 2012
  4. doi request reprint The effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention and effects on risk behaviors in a posttrial follow-up study
    Ron Gray
    John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 26:609-15. 2012
  5. pmc Parametric frailty models for clustered data with arbitrary censoring: application to effect of male circumcision on HPV clearance
    Xiangrong Kong
    Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    BMC Med Res Methodol 10:40. 2010
  6. pmc Methodologies for evaluating HIV prevention intervention (populations and epidemiologic settings)
    Ronald H Gray
    Reproductive Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, E4132, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 4:274-8. 2009
  7. pmc The effects of male circumcision on female partners' genital tract symptoms and vaginal infections in a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:42.e1-7. 2009
  8. doi request reprint Reassessing the hypothesis on STI control for HIV prevention
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 371:2064-5. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Randomised trials of HIV prevention
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 370:200-1. 2007
  10. pmc Limitations of rapid HIV-1 tests during screening for trials in Uganda: diagnostic test accuracy study
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    BMJ 335:188. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications83

  1. pmc Risk factors for intimate partner violence in women in the Rakai Community Cohort Study, Uganda, from 2000 to 2009
    Fiona G Kouyoumdjian
    Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario Canada
    BMC Public Health 13:566. 2013
    ..There is a lack of data on IPV risk factors from longitudinal studies and from low and middle income countries. Identifying risk factors is needed to inform the design of appropriate IPV interventions...
  2. doi request reprint Programme science research on medical male circumcision scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 89:345-9. 2013
    ..Here, we describe challenges to implementation and discuss the ongoing and future role of implementation and programme science in addressing such challenges. ..
  3. pmc A 'snip' in time: what is the best age to circumcise?
    Brian J Morris
    School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
    BMC Pediatr 12:20. 2012
    ..This is an important issue for many parents, but also pediatricians, other doctors, policy makers, public health authorities, medical bodies, and males themselves...
  4. doi request reprint The effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention and effects on risk behaviors in a posttrial follow-up study
    Ron Gray
    John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 26:609-15. 2012
    ..The efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention over 2 years has been demonstrated in three randomized trials, but the longer-term effectiveness of male circumcision is unknown...
  5. pmc Parametric frailty models for clustered data with arbitrary censoring: application to effect of male circumcision on HPV clearance
    Xiangrong Kong
    Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    BMC Med Res Methodol 10:40. 2010
    ....
  6. pmc Methodologies for evaluating HIV prevention intervention (populations and epidemiologic settings)
    Ronald H Gray
    Reproductive Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, E4132, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 4:274-8. 2009
    ..The reasons for these negative findings may be due to ineffective interventions, but in part reflect the inappropriate selection of study populations and epidemiologic settings...
  7. pmc The effects of male circumcision on female partners' genital tract symptoms and vaginal infections in a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:42.e1-7. 2009
    ..The objective of the study was to assess effects of male circumcision on female genital symptoms and vaginal infections...
  8. doi request reprint Reassessing the hypothesis on STI control for HIV prevention
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 371:2064-5. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Randomised trials of HIV prevention
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 370:200-1. 2007
  10. pmc Limitations of rapid HIV-1 tests during screening for trials in Uganda: diagnostic test accuracy study
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    BMJ 335:188. 2007
    ..To evaluate the limitations of rapid tests for HIV-1...
  11. ncbi request reprint The impact of male circumcision on HIV incidence and cost per infection prevented: a stochastic simulation model from Rakai, Uganda
    Ronald H Gray
    School of Public Health, University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS 21:845-50. 2007
    ..To estimate the impact of male circumcision on HIV incidence, the number of procedures per HIV infection averted, and costs per infection averted...
  12. ncbi request reprint Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA
    Lancet 369:657-66. 2007
    ..Ecological and observational studies suggest that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV acquisition in men. Our aim was to investigate the effect of male circumcision on HIV incidence in men...
  13. ncbi request reprint Disclosure of HIV status on informed consent forms presents an ethical dilemma for protection of human subjects
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 41:246-8. 2006
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Determinants of HIV-1 load in subjects with early and later HIV infections, in a general-population cohort of Rakai, Uganda
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:1209-15. 2004
    ..GUD was consistently associated with higher HIV loads in subjects with incident and those with prevalent HIV infection, suggesting that treatment of GUD might reduce HIV viremia...
  15. ncbi request reprint Increased risk of incident HIV during pregnancy in Rakai, Uganda: a prospective study
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA
    Lancet 366:1182-8. 2005
    ..HIV acquisition is significantly higher during pregnancy than in the postpartum period. We did a prospective study to estimate HIV incidence rates during pregnancy and lactation...
  16. ncbi request reprint Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda
    R H Gray
    Departments of Population and Family Health Sciences, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 357:1149-53. 2001
    ..The probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in representative African populations is unknown. We aimed to calculate this probability overall, and to estimate how it is affected by various factors thought to influence infectivity...
  17. ncbi request reprint Randomized trial of presumptive sexually transmitted disease therapy during pregnancy in Rakai, Uganda
    R H Gray
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, The Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:1209-17. 2001
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess presumptive sexually transmitted disease treatment on pregnancy outcome and HIV transmission...
  18. ncbi request reprint Male circumcision and HIV acquisition and transmission: cohort studies in Rakai, Uganda. Rakai Project Team
    R H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS 14:2371-81. 2000
    ..Male circumcision is associated with reduced HIV acquisition...
  19. pmc Subfertility and risk of spontaneous abortion
    R H Gray
    School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Public Health 90:1452-4. 2000
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the association between subfertility and spontaneous abortion...
  20. pmc Male circumcision decreases acquisition and increases clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-negative men: a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 201:1455-62. 2010
    ..HR-HPV clearance was determined in men with prior genotype-specific HR-HPV infections. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HR-HPV acquisition were estimated by Poisson multiple regression...
  21. pmc Effects of genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 on the efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention: Analyses from the Rakai trials
    Ronald H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Med 6:e1000187. 2009
    ..We assessed the role of GUD and HSV-2 in the protection against HIV afforded by MC...
  22. doi request reprint The contribution of HIV-discordant relationships to new HIV infections in Rakai, Uganda
    Ron Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 25:863-5. 2011
    ..3% and 17.6% in married persons with unknown partner status, and 29.3% and 42.7% in the unmarried. Voluntary counseling and testing targeting discordant couples is unlikely to have a substantial impact in this setting...
  23. pmc Factors associated with the prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among men in Rakai, Uganda
    Aaron A R Tobian
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, USA
    J Infect Dis 199:945-9. 2009
    ..70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.91]), and was not significantly affected by enrollment HIV status. Education on modifiable behavioral changes may reduce the acquisition of HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00425984 and NCT00124878 .)...
  24. pmc Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis
    Aaron A R Tobian
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:1298-309. 2009
    ..We assessed the efficacy of male circumcision for the prevention of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and syphilis in HIV-negative adolescent boys and men...
  25. pmc Evaluation of multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in the diagnosis of genital ulcer disease in the Rakai District, Uganda
    T R Suntoke
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 85:97-101. 2009
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Polygyny, maternal HIV status and child survival: Rakai, Uganda
    Heena Brahmbhatt
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Soc Sci Med 55:585-92. 2002
    ..Polygyny had no significant effect on the survival of children with HIV-negative mothers. Polygynous households, where not all wives may have HIV, could be diverting resources away from the children of the infected wives...
  27. ncbi request reprint Factors related to autonomy and discontinuation of use of natural family planning for women in Liberia and Zambia
    R T Kambic
    Department of Population Dynamics, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:2060-2. 1991
    ..The most consistent association was that women who entered the programs in the later time periods were more likely to become autonomous users and less likely to discontinue use of the method or to experience an accidental pregnancy...
  28. pmc Does sex in the early period after circumcision increase HIV-seroconversion risk? Pooled analysis of adult male circumcision clinical trials
    Supriya D Mehta
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    AIDS 23:1557-64. 2009
    ..To evaluate whether sexual intercourse soon after adult male circumcision affected HIV risk...
  29. pmc Foreskin inflammation is associated with HIV and herpes simplex virus type-2 infections in Rakai, Uganda
    Kristine E Johnson
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
    AIDS 23:1807-15. 2009
    ..We assessed foreskin inflammation associated with HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in circumcised men...
  30. ncbi request reprint Age differences in sexual partners and risk of HIV-1 infection in rural Uganda
    Robert J Kelly
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 32:446-51. 2003
    ..To assess whether differences in age between sexual partners affect the risk of HIV infection in female adolescents and young adults...
  31. ncbi request reprint Stochastic simulation of the impact of antiretroviral therapy and HIV vaccines on HIV transmission; Rakai, Uganda
    Ronald H Gray
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 17:1941-51. 2003
    ..To model the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV vaccines on HIV transmission using empirical data from studies in Rakai, Uganda...
  32. ncbi request reprint HIV infection and disturbances of vaginal flora during pregnancy
    T E Taha
    School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 20:52-9. 1999
    ..Although these studies were cross-sectional, our data suggest that BV could be associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection...
  33. pmc Improved performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and the effect of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection on the serologic detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 in Rakai, Uganda
    Jordyn L Gamiel
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:888-90. 2008
    ..Higher-than-standard-index cutoff values gave optimal sensitivity and specificity. Kalon ELISA was the optimal assay when an index value of 1.5 was used (sensitivity, 91.7%; specificity, 92.4%)...
  34. ncbi request reprint Alcohol use before sex and HIV acquisition: a longitudinal study in Rakai, Uganda
    Iryna B Zablotska
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
    AIDS 20:1191-6. 2006
    ..To examine the association between alcohol use and HIV acquisition...
  35. pmc Performance of a commercial, type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific antibodies in Ugandans
    Oliver Laeyendecker
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1794-6. 2004
    ..A higher index cutoff value was required for optimal sensitivity and specificity, and overall performance of the assay was not affected by HIV status...
  36. ncbi request reprint Genital tract infections and perinatal transmission of HIV
    T E Taha
    School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 918:84-98. 2000
    ..In addition, antibiotics could reduce infectious causes of morbidity and mortality in infant and mother...
  37. pmc Performance of the Euroline Western blot assay in the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibody in Uganda, China and the USA
    J D Neal
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 22:342-4. 2011
    ..Among the 437 Ugandans in Rakai, 67.3% were HSV-2-positive by Euroline WB (sensitivity 98.7%, specificity 65.4%). The Euroline WB has a consistently high sensitivity, but specificity varied significantly among the different locations...
  38. pmc Incident HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among men in Rakai, Uganda
    Aaron A R Tobian
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 23:1589-94. 2009
    ..Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is associated with an increased risk for acquiring HIV, but little is known about the temporal sequence of these infections...
  39. ncbi request reprint Child mortality associated with reasons for non-breastfeeding and weaning: is breastfeeding best for HIV-positive mothers?
    Heena Brahmbhatt
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS 17:879-85. 2003
    ..To estimate child mortality associated with reasons for the non-initiation of breastfeeding and weaning caused by preceding morbidity, compared with voluntary weaning as a result of maternal choice...
  40. pmc Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised controlled trial
    Maria J Wawer
    Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 374:229-37. 2009
    ..We assessed whether circumcision in HIV-infected men would reduce transmission of the virus to female sexual partners...
  41. pmc Male circumcision for the prevention of acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted infections: the case for neonatal circumcision
    Aaron A R Tobian
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 164:78-84. 2010
    ..This review evaluates the recent data that support revision of the AAP policy to fully reflect the evidence of long-term health benefits of male circumcision...
  42. pmc Effect of hormonal contraceptive use on HIV progression in female HIV seroconverters in Rakai, Uganda
    Chelsea B Polis
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 24:1937-44. 2010
    ..To assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and HIV progression...
  43. pmc A modeling framework for the analysis of HPV incidence and persistence: a semi-parametric approach for clustered binary longitudinal data analysis
    Xiangrong Kong
    Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Stat Med 29:2880-9. 2010
    ..A simulation study is performed to provide empirical information on the number of individuals that is needed for satisfactory power and estimation accuracy of the association parameter estimates in future studies...
  44. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the missing-indicator method and conditional logistic regression in 1:m matched case-control studies with missing exposure values
    Xianbin Li
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 159:603-10. 2004
    ..Overall, compared with the missing-indicator method, conditional logistic regression provided a slight advantage in terms of bias and coverage probability, at the cost of slightly reduced statistical power and efficiency...
  45. ncbi request reprint Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda
    Maria J Wawer
    Heilbrun Department of Population and Family Health, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Infect Dis 191:1403-9. 2005
    ..We estimated rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transmission per coital act in HIV-discordant couples by stage of infection in the index partner...
  46. ncbi request reprint Clinical illness as a marker for initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy in a rural setting, Rakai, Uganda
    Lisa A Spacek
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 17:116-20. 2006
    ..6%; P = 0.001).HIV-related illness and WHO stage predicted disease progression. The specificity of clinical illness to predict viral load >55,000 copies/mL was high and could be used to rule in HIV disease requiring ART...
  47. pmc Effect of hormonal contraceptive use before HIV seroconversion on viral load setpoint among women in Rakai, Uganda
    Chelsea B Polis
    Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21202, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56:125-30. 2011
    ..High viral load (VL) setpoint is a marker for rapid HIV progression. Few studies have examined whether use of hormonal contraception (HC) prior to HIV seroconversion affects VL setpoint...
  48. ncbi request reprint Duration of human immunodeficiency virus infection and likelihood of giving birth in a Medicaid population in Maryland
    L M Lee
    Department of Population and Family Health Sciences, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 151:1020-8. 2000
    ..This may compromise estimation of HIV prevalence and interpretation of time trends from serosurveillance of pregnant women...
  49. ncbi request reprint Stability of nevirapine suspension in prefilled oral syringes used for reduction of mother-to-child HIV transmission
    Vivian E Rexroad
    Department of Pharmacy, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287 6180, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:373-5. 2006
    ..To reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, we assessed the stability of nevirapine suspension in an oral dosing syringe over a range of storage conditions...
  50. pmc Geographic HIV type 1 subtype distribution in Rakai district, Uganda
    Aleisha N Collinson-Streng
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 25:1045-8. 2009
    ..001) and more subtype D in southern clusters compared with northern clusters (78% vs. 65%, p < 0.008). These data illustrate the geographic complexity of subtype variation, which has important implications for HIV-1 vaccine design...
  51. pmc Changes in the distribution of HIV type 1 subtypes D and A in Rakai District, Uganda between 1994 and 2002
    Samantha A Conroy
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26:1087-91. 2010
    ..Over this 8-year period, the overall viral population in this region evolved toward the less virulent HIV-1A strain, most likely as a consequence of the faster disease progression and lower transmissibility of HIV-1D...
  52. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of natural family planning programmes in Liberia and Zambia
    R H Gray
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland
    J Biosoc Sci 25:249-58. 1993
    ..7) than in Liberia (US$47.1). Costs per couple-year protection were higher during learning than autonomy, and declined over time. These studies suggest that NFP programmes can achieve acceptable use- and cost-effectiveness in Africa...
  53. pmc Effect of peer health workers on AIDS care in Rakai, Uganda: a cluster-randomized trial
    Larry W Chang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 5:e10923. 2010
    ..We conducted a cluster randomized trial to assess the effect of community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care of adults in Rakai, Uganda...
  54. pmc Utility of a point-of-care malaria rapid diagnostic test for excluding malaria as the cause of fever among HIV-positive adults in rural Rakai, Uganda
    Lisa A Mills
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 82:145-7. 2010
    ..7) and 99.1% (95% CI: 96.8-99.9), respectively. The rapid diagnostic test accurately ruled malaria "in or out" at the point-of-care, facilitating appropriate clinical management and averting unnecessary anti-malarial therapy...
  55. pmc Telecommunications and health Care: an HIV/AIDS warmline for communication and consultation in Rakai, Uganda
    Larry William Chang
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) 7:130-2. 2008
    ..Most clinical staff felt that the warmline made their jobs easier and improved the health of patients. An HIV/AIDS warmline leveraged the skills of a limited workforce to provide increased access to HIV/AIDS care, advice, and education...
  56. pmc Performance of a prototype malaria rapid diagnostic test versus thick film microscopy among HIV-positive subjects in rural Rakai, Uganda
    Lisa A Mills
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 1830 East Monument Street 401, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104:237-9. 2010
    ..9%) compared with thick film microscopy and the specificity was 97.7% (95% CI 93.5-99.5%). MFT was simple, rapid and effective for detection of Plasmodium falciparum among HIV-positive subjects in a rural, malaria-endemic African setting...
  57. ncbi request reprint Repeat voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), sexual risk behavior and HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda
    Joseph K B Matovu
    Rakai Health Sciences Program Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda
    AIDS Behav 11:71-8. 2007
    ..6/100 py in first time acceptors and 1.6/100 py in non-acceptors. These data suggest a need for intensive risk-reduction counseling interventions targeting HIV-negative repeat VCT acceptors as a special risk group...
  58. ncbi request reprint The incidence of HIV-1 associated with injections and transfusions in a prospective cohort, Rakai, Uganda
    Noah Kiwanuka
    The Rakai Project, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe
    AIDS 18:342-4. 2004
    ..92 (CI 1.22-12.58) associated with transfusions. Sexual behaviours were significantly associated with HIV risk. Medical injections did not increase HIV acquisition in this rural Ugandan population...
  59. ncbi request reprint Reduced fertility among HIV-infected women associated with viral load in Rakai district, Uganda
    Ruby H N Nguyen
    Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, NC 27709, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 17:842-6. 2006
    ..OR of live birth which was 12% of the previous viral load category. Our data suggest that there may be considerable differences in the ability to produce a live birth among HIV-positive women with high viral loads...
  60. ncbi request reprint Higher HIV-1 incidence and genetic complexity along main roads in Rakai District, Uganda
    Miguel A Arroyo
    US Military HIV Research Program USMHRP, Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:440-5. 2006
    ..To determine the association between the incidence of HIV-1 infection and the genetic complexity of HIV-1 strains in 2 geographic strata within Rakai District, Uganda...
  61. ncbi request reprint The incidence and prevalence of orphanhood associated with parental HIV infection: a population-based study in Rakai, Uganda
    Fredrick E Makumbi
    Rakai Health Sciences Program, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda
    AIDS 19:1669-76. 2005
    ..There are limited empirical data on the prevalence and incidence of orphanhood due to parental HIV infection...
  62. ncbi request reprint Screening HIV-positive pregnant women for antiretroviral therapy: utility of self-reported symptoms
    Ruby Hn Nguyen
    Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Int J STD AIDS 17:112-5. 2006
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Maternal self-medication and provision of nevirapine to newborns by women in Rakai, Uganda
    Joseph Kagaayi
    Rakai Health Sciences Program, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:121-4. 2005
    ..5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3%-16.6%). Mothers can administer nevirapine to themselves and their newborns and can achieve low rates of perinatal HIV infection...
  64. ncbi request reprint Empirical observations underestimate the proportion of HIV infections attributable to sexually transmitted diseases in Mwanza and Rakai STD treatment trials: simulation results
    Ronald H Gray
    Sex Transm Dis 34:61; author reply 62. 2007
  65. ncbi request reprint Hormonal contraceptive use and HIV-1 infection in a population-based cohort in Rakai, Uganda
    Mohammed Kiddugavu
    Rakai Project, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda
    AIDS 17:233-40. 2003
    ..Hormonal contraceptives have been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition...
  66. ncbi request reprint Survival of HIV-infected treatment-naive individuals with documented dates of seroconversion in Rakai, Uganda
    Tom Lutalo
    Rakai Health Science Program, Entebbe, Uganda
    AIDS 21:S15-9. 2007
    ..To estimate the survival time from HIV infection to death...
  67. ncbi request reprint The effect of male circumcision on sexual satisfaction and function, results from a randomized trial of male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention, Rakai, Uganda
    Godfrey Kigozi
    Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda
    BJU Int 101:65-70. 2008
    ..To investigate the relationship between adult male circumcision and sexual satisfaction and function in men, as observational studies on the effect of adult male circumcision on sexual satisfaction show conflicting results...
  68. ncbi request reprint Unsafe injections and transmission of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa
    Marie Thoma
    Lancet 363:1650-1. 2004
  69. pmc Use of stored serum from Uganda for development and evaluation of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 testing algorithm involving multiple rapid immunoassays
    Darrell E Singer
    Division of Retrovirology, WalterReed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5312-5. 2005
    ..Stored serum samples from Uganda were utilized with a final algorithm sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% (95% confidence interval, 98.6% to 99.3%)...
  70. pmc The safety of adult male circumcision in HIV-infected and uninfected men in Rakai, Uganda
    Godfrey Kigozi
    Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda
    PLoS Med 5:e116. 2008
    ....
  71. ncbi request reprint Sexually transmitted infection management, safer sex promotion and voluntary HIV counselling and testing in the male circumcision trial, Rakai, Uganda
    Joseph Kb Matovu
    Rakai Health Sciences Programme, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Rakai, Uganda
    Reprod Health Matters 15:68-74. 2007
  72. ncbi request reprint HIV dynamics and behaviour change as determinants of the impact of sexually transmitted disease treatment on HIV transmission in the context of the Rakai trial
    Eline L Korenromp
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Department of Public Health, The Netherlands
    AIDS 16:2209-18. 2002
    ..To assess how the impact of sexually transmitted disease (STD) treatment on HIV incidence varies between stages of the HIV epidemic...
  73. ncbi request reprint Treatment of Trichomonas in pregnancy and adverse outcomes of pregnancy: a subanalysis of a randomized trial in Rakai, Uganda
    Godfrey G Kigozi
    Rakai Project, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe and Kampala, Uganda
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1398-400. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the association of presumptive Trichomonas vaginalis treatment during pregnancy and birth outcomes...
  74. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus acquisition associated with genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection: a nested case-control study in Rakai, Uganda
    David Serwadda
    Institute of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Infect Dis 188:1492-7. 2003
    ..HIV load is increased in HSV-2-positive subjects who seroconverted, suggesting a role for treatment of HSV-2 infection in HSV-2-seropositive, dually infected individuals...
  75. ncbi request reprint Voluntary HIV counseling and testing acceptance, sexual risk behavior and HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda
    Joseph K B Matovu
    Rakai Health Sciences Program, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda
    AIDS 19:503-11. 2005
    ..To assess the acceptance of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) and the effects of VCT on sexual risk behavior and HIV acquisition in Rakai, Uganda...
  76. ncbi request reprint What proportion of episodes of gonorrhoea and chlamydia becomes symptomatic?
    Eline L Korenromp
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Int J STD AIDS 13:91-101. 2002
    ..In populations with low treatment rates like Uganda, these probabilities can be very low. Here, health education should have priority in STD management programmes...
  77. pmc Responding to the human resource crisis: peer health workers, mobile phones, and HIV care in Rakai, Uganda
    Larry W Chang
    AIDS Patient Care STDS 22:173-4. 2008
  78. ncbi request reprint The Rakai Project counselling programme experience
    Joseph K B Matovu
    Rakai Project Uganda Virus Research Institute, Ministry of Health, Rakai district, Uganda
    Trop Med Int Health 7:1064-7. 2002
    ....
  79. ncbi request reprint Might male circumcision be more protective against HIV in the highly exposed? An immunological hypothesis
    Maria J Wawer
    AIDS 19:2181-2. 2005
  80. ncbi request reprint Effectiveness of syphilis treatment using azithromycin and/or benzathine penicillin in Rakai, Uganda
    Mohammed G Kiddugavu
    Rakai Health Science Program, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda
    Sex Transm Dis 32:1-6. 2005
    ..The goal of this study was to assess azithromycin and/or benzathine penicillin for treatment of syphilis...
  81. ncbi request reprint Research benefits for hypothetical HIV vaccine trials: The views of Ugandans in the Rakai District
    Christine Grady
    Department of Bioethics, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    IRB 30:1-7. 2008
  82. ncbi request reprint Knowledge about vaccines and willingness to participate in preventive HIV vaccine trials: a population-based study, Rakai, Uganda
    Noah Kiwanuka
    Rakai Project, Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 36:721-5. 2004
    ..However, there still is need for education on the potential role of preventive HIV vaccines in the control of the epidemic and the importance of vaccination for men, especially in the context of an HIV vaccine...
  83. ncbi request reprint WHO HIV clinical staging or CD4 cell counts for antiretroviral therapy eligibility assessment? An evaluation in rural Rakai district, Uganda
    Joseph Kagaayi
    Rakai Health Sciences Programme, Rakai, Uganda
    AIDS 21:1208-10. 2007
    ..Clinical criteria missed half the patients with CD4 cell counts of 200 cells/microl or less, highlighting the importance of CD4 cell measurements for the scale-up of ART provision in resource-limited settings...

Research Grants7

  1. STDS, FERTILITY, MARRIAGE AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
    Ronald Gray; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In collaboration with the U.S. Bureau of Census, data from the proposed study will be used to revise demographic projections of the effects of HIV on population growth, composition and AIDS orphanhood. ..
  2. Male Circumcision Trial for HIV Prevention, Rakai-Uganda
    Ronald Gray; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Control arm men will be offered circumcision as a service in Years 4-5, contingent on DSMB approval. ..
  3. Circumcision: HIV/STIs and behaviors in a RCT and post-RCT surveillance; Rakai
    Ronald Gray; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We thus propose to assess the long term individual and community effects of circumcision. In this proposal, we request funds for follow-up of NIH trial participants. RCCS participants will be supported by other funding. ..
  4. Genital Anaerobes, Inflammation and HIV Risk; Rakai
    LANCE BRADLEY PRICE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This could inform microbicide development. Insights into mucosal immunology may also contribute to development of future mucosal HIV vaccines. ..