Stephen R Cole

Summary

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Adjusted survival curves with inverse probability weights
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street E 7014, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 75:45-9. 2004
  2. pmc Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS using calendar period as an instrumental variable
    Lauren E Cain
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:1124-32. 2009
  3. pmc The effects of opiate use and hepatitis C virus infection on risk of diabetes mellitus in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
    Andrea A Howard
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 54:152-9. 2010
  4. pmc Bayesian posterior distributions without Markov chains
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:368-75. 2012
  5. pmc A comparison of ad hoc methods to account for non-cancer AIDS and deaths as competing risks when estimating the effect of HAART on incident cancer AIDS among HIV-infected men
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 63:459-67. 2010
  6. pmc Marginal structural models for case-cohort study designs to estimate the association of antiretroviral therapy initiation with incident AIDS or death
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:381-90. 2012
  7. pmc Time scale and adjusted survival curves for marginal structural cox models
    Daniel Westreich
    Department of Epidemiology, Universityof North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NorthCarolina, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 171:691-700. 2010
  8. pmc Assessing the component associations of the healthy worker survivor bias: occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality
    Ashley I Naimi
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 23:334-41. 2013
  9. ncbi request reprint Cumulative exposure to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with insulin resistance markers in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
    Todd T Brown
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 19:1375-83. 2005
  10. doi request reprint Regression models for the effects of exposure rate and cumulative exposure
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Epidemiology 23:892-9. 2012

Detail Information

Publications76

  1. ncbi request reprint Adjusted survival curves with inverse probability weights
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street E 7014, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 75:45-9. 2004
    ..When the weights are non-parametrically estimated, this method is equivalent to direct standardization of the survival curves to the combined study population...
  2. pmc Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS using calendar period as an instrumental variable
    Lauren E Cain
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:1124-32. 2009
    ..These methods may help resolve discrepancies between observational and randomized evidence...
  3. pmc The effects of opiate use and hepatitis C virus infection on risk of diabetes mellitus in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
    Andrea A Howard
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 54:152-9. 2010
    ..Opiate use is common in HIV-infected and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals, however, its contribution to the risk of diabetes mellitus is not well understood...
  4. pmc Bayesian posterior distributions without Markov chains
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:368-75. 2012
    ..The transparency of the proposed approach comes at a price of being less broadly applicable than MCMC...
  5. pmc A comparison of ad hoc methods to account for non-cancer AIDS and deaths as competing risks when estimating the effect of HAART on incident cancer AIDS among HIV-infected men
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 63:459-67. 2010
    ....
  6. pmc Marginal structural models for case-cohort study designs to estimate the association of antiretroviral therapy initiation with incident AIDS or death
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:381-90. 2012
    ..Marginal structural model analysis of case-cohort study designs provides a cost-efficient design coupled with an accurate analytic method for research settings in which there is time-varying confounding...
  7. pmc Time scale and adjusted survival curves for marginal structural cox models
    Daniel Westreich
    Department of Epidemiology, Universityof North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NorthCarolina, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 171:691-700. 2010
    ..In the present example, use of time on treatment yielded a hazard ratio further from the null and more precise than use of time on study as the time scale...
  8. pmc Assessing the component associations of the healthy worker survivor bias: occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality
    Ashley I Naimi
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 23:334-41. 2013
    ..Together, these associations result in time-varying confounding affected by prior exposure. We illustrate how these associations can be assessed using standard regression methods...
  9. ncbi request reprint Cumulative exposure to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with insulin resistance markers in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
    Todd T Brown
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 19:1375-83. 2005
    ..To estimate insulin resistance and its relationship to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a cohort of HIV-infected persons with comparison to HIV-seronegative controls...
  10. doi request reprint Regression models for the effects of exposure rate and cumulative exposure
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Epidemiology 23:892-9. 2012
    ..23 (0.53-3.76). The proposed approach may provide better understanding of relationships between a protracted exposure and disease and is readily implemented using existing statistical software...
  11. ncbi request reprint Marginal structural models for estimating the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation on CD4 cell count
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 162:471-8. 2005
    ....
  12. pmc Enrollment, retention, and visit attendance in the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research HIV clinical cohort, 2001-2007
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7435, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26:875-81. 2010
    ..The UNC CFAR clinical cohort has ample enrollment with retention and visit attendance modestly influenced by factors such as disease severity...
  13. pmc Joint effects of alcohol consumption and high-risk sexual behavior on HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men
    Petra M Sander
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    AIDS 27:815-23. 2013
    ..To estimate the effects of alcohol consumption and number of unprotected receptive anal intercourse partners on HIV seroconversion while appropriately accounting for time-varying confounding...
  14. pmc Competing risk regression models for epidemiologic data
    Bryan Lau
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:244-56. 2009
    ..71, 95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.13 and (sd)RH = 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.62, 2.51). Methods for competing risks should be used by epidemiologists, with the choice of method guided by the scientific question...
  15. pmc Estimating the effects of multiple time-varying exposures using joint marginal structural models: alcohol consumption, injection drug use, and HIV acquisition
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Center for Population Health and Clinical Epidemiology, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Epidemiology 23:574-82. 2012
    ..12). The P values for multiplicative and additive interaction were 0.7620 and 0.9200, respectively, indicating a lack of departure from effects that multiply or add. We could not rule out interaction on either scale due to imprecision...
  16. pmc Determinants of alcohol consumption in HIV-uninfected injection drug users
    Petra M Sander
    Department of Epidemiology, The Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 111:173-6. 2010
    ..This study demonstrates that in a large urban cohort of persons with a history of injection drug use, risky drug use and sexual risk behavior are associated with subsequent alcohol consumption...
  17. pmc Limitation of inverse probability-of-censoring weights in estimating survival in the presence of strong selection bias
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:569-77. 2011
    ..Approaches to improve correction methods are discussed...
  18. pmc Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
    Gypsyamber D'Souza
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:491-9. 2008
    ..To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study)...
  19. ncbi request reprint Confidence intervals for biomarker-based human immunodeficiency virus incidence estimates and differences using prevalent data
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 165:94-100. 2007
    ..The Monte Carlo-based CI may be preferable to competing methods because of the ease of extension to the incidence difference or to exploration of departures from assumptions...
  20. ncbi request reprint Estimating biomarker-based HIV incidence using prevalence data in high risk groups with missing outcomes
    Haitao Chu
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Biom J 48:772-9. 2006
    ..Our methods can be applied to estimate the incidence of other diseases from prevalence data using similar testing algorithms when missing data is present...
  21. pmc Relationship of immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy with non-AIDS defining cancer incidence
    Elizabeth L Yanik
    aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina bNorthwestern University, Chicago, Illinois cUniversity of Washington, Seattle, Washington dUniversity of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama eJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland fUniversity of California, San Diego gUniversity of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 28:979-87. 2014
    ..To estimate the association between immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and non-AIDS defining cancer (NADC) incidence in HIV-infected patients...
  22. pmc Lagging exposure information in cumulative exposure-response analyses
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 174:1416-22. 2011
    ..Lagging exposure assignment by a constant will lead to bias toward the null if the distribution of latency periods is not a fixed constant. Direct estimation of latency periods can minimize bias and improve confidence interval coverage...
  23. pmc Generalizing evidence from randomized clinical trials to target populations: The ACTG 320 trial
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 172:107-15. 2010
    ..The proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results...
  24. ncbi request reprint Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on multiple AIDS-defining illnesses among male HIV seroconverters
    Lauren E Cain
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street E7640, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:310-5. 2006
    ..34 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.45) relative to the reference calendar period. HAART protects against initial and subsequent AIDS-defining illnesses, whose inclusion in analysis markedly increased the precision of the estimated hazard ratio...
  25. ncbi request reprint Determining the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load using a marginal structural left-censored mean model
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:219-27. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the clinically important protective effect of HAART on dampening viral load appears to be rapid, present at CD4 cell counts greater than 350 cells/mm(3), and sustained beyond 6 years...
  26. pmc Effect of HAART on incident cancer and noncancer AIDS events among male HIV seroconverters
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E7133, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:485-90. 2008
    ..To explore the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the prevention of AIDS-defining cancers relative to other AIDS-defining events...
  27. doi request reprint Longitudinal anthropometric patterns among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women
    Jessica E Justman
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:312-9. 2008
    ..Previous studies suggest that indicators of central adiposity such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference may be altered by HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, or both...
  28. pmc Incidence and timing of cancer in HIV-infected individuals following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy
    Elizabeth L Yanik
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 57:756-64. 2013
    ..Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but patterns of cancer incidence after combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation remain poorly characterized...
  29. doi request reprint Random effects regression models for trends in standardised mortality ratios
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Occup Environ Med 70:133-9. 2013
    ..However, because the distribution of people with respect to age usually changes as calendar time advances, comparisons of SMRs across calendar periods can produce misleading results...
  30. doi request reprint Quantification of CD4 responses to combined antiretroviral therapy over 5 years among HIV-infected children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
    Andrew Edmonds
    Department of Epidemiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, McGavran Greenberg Hall, CB 7435, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 61:90-8. 2012
    ..We sought to describe this relationship...
  31. pmc HIV-1 protease inhibitors and clinical malaria: a secondary analysis of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5208 study
    Kimberly A Porter
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:995-1000. 2012
    ..Additional research concerning the effects of PI-based therapy on the incidence of malaria diagnosed by more specific criteria and among groups at a higher risk for severe disease is warranted...
  32. ncbi request reprint Accounting for leadtime in cohort studies: evaluating when to initiate HIV therapies
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Stat Med 23:3351-63. 2004
    ..70; 95 per cent CI 0.35, 1.42). Methods presented here offer an approach to analysing prevalent cohort studies and provide procedures to maximize the usefulness of observational data...
  33. pmc Illustrating bias due to conditioning on a collider
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 39:417-20. 2010
    ..In both examples, conditioning on the common effect imparts an association between two otherwise independent variables; we call this selection bias...
  34. pmc Evaluating competing adverse and beneficial outcomes using a mixture model
    Bryan Lau
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Stat Med 27:4313-27. 2008
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Combined analysis of retrospective and prospective occurrences in cohort studies: HIV-1 serostatus and incident pneumonia
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:1442-6. 2006
    ..The authors show how information collected on retrospective occurrence times may be combined with prospective occurrence times in the analysis of recurrent events from cohort studies...
  36. ncbi request reprint Structural accelerated failure time models for survival analysis in studies with time-varying treatments
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14:477-91. 2005
    ..The parameters of nested structural models are estimated by g-estimation and those of marginal structural models by inverse probability weighting...
  37. doi request reprint A simulation study of control sampling methods for nested case-control studies of genetic and molecular biomarkers and prostate cancer progression
    Ming Hsi Wang
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Department of Medicine, Saint Agnes Hospital, Room E6132, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:706-11. 2009
    ..Thus, we examined the validity of relative risk (RR) estimates of prostate cancer progression using three methods for control sampling from cohorts of men with prostate cancer generated by Monte Carlo simulation...
  38. pmc Lack of association of herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity with the progression of HIV infection in the HERS cohort
    Brooke E Hoots
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:837-44. 2011
    ..These data do not support a clinically meaningful effect of baseline HSV-2 seropositivity on the trajectories of HIV plasma viral loads or CD4 counts...
  39. doi request reprint Meta-analysis of randomized trials on the association of prophylactic acyclovir and HIV-1 viral load in individuals coinfected with herpes simplex virus-2
    Christina Ludema
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    AIDS 25:1265-9. 2011
    ..To summarize the randomized evidence regarding the association between acyclovir use and HIV-1 replication as measured by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among individuals coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2...
  40. pmc Sensitivity analyses for sparse-data problems-using weakly informative bayesian priors
    Ghassan B Hamra
    Department of Epidemiology, UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Epidemiology 24:233-9. 2013
    ..Advancements in implementation of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation make this sensitivity analysis easily accessible to the practicing epidemiologist...
  41. pmc Parametric mixture models to evaluate and summarize hazard ratios in the presence of competing risks with time-dependent hazards and delayed entry
    Bryan Lau
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Stat Med 30:654-65. 2011
    ..An application to the Women's Interagency HIV Study is provided to investigate injection drug use and the time to either the initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy, or clinical disease progression as a competing event...
  42. pmc A prospective study of alcohol consumption and HIV acquisition among injection drug users
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27559 7435, USA
    AIDS 25:221-8. 2011
    ..to estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on HIV acquisition while appropriately accounting for confounding by time-varying risk factors...
  43. pmc Hemoglobin decline in children with chronic kidney disease: baseline results from the chronic kidney disease in children prospective cohort study
    Jeffrey J Fadrowski
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, David M Rubenstein Child Health Building, Room 3055, 200 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3:457-62. 2008
    ..The level of glomerular filtration rate at which hemoglobin declines in chronic kidney disease is poorly described in the pediatric population...
  44. pmc Sexual activity and Kaposi's sarcoma among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human herpesvirus type 8-coinfected men
    Eric W Nawar
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 18:517-21. 2008
    ..Here, we explore sexual activity as a proxy for a sexually transmitted determinant beyond HIV-1 and HHV-8...
  45. pmc Constructing inverse probability weights for marginal structural models
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 168:656-64. 2008
    ..However, as with all methods, diagnostics and sensitivity analyses are essential for proper use...
  46. pmc Lung cancer incidence and mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug users
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:510-5. 2010
    ..To examine the impact of HIV on lung cancer incidence and survival...
  47. pmc Association of germline microRNA SNPs in pre-miRNA flanking region and breast cancer risk and survival: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study
    Jeannette T Bensen
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 24:1099-109. 2013
    ..Common germline variation in the 5' region proximal to precursor (pre-) miRNA gene sequences is evaluated for association with breast cancer risk and survival among African Americans and Caucasians...
  48. pmc Hematologic, hepatic, renal, and lipid laboratory monitoring after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in the United States, 2000-2010
    Elizabeth L Yanik
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27517, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63:216-20. 2013
    ..However, only 40% received 1 or more lipid tests. Monitoring was more frequent in specific subgroups, likely reflecting better clinic attendance or clinician perception of higher susceptibility to toxicities...
  49. ncbi request reprint Effect on mortality and virological response of delaying antiretroviral therapy initiation in children receiving tuberculosis treatment
    Marcel Yotebieng
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
    AIDS 24:1341-9. 2010
    ..To estimate the effect of delaying antiretroviral treatment (ART) for 15, 30, or 60 days after tuberculosis (TB) treatment initiation on mortality and virological suppression...
  50. doi request reprint Postnatal HIV-1 transmission after cessation of infant extended antiretroviral prophylaxis and effect of maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Taha E Taha
    Dept of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 200:1490-7. 2009
    ..The association between postnatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after infant extended antiretroviral prophylaxis was assessed...
  51. ncbi request reprint Multiple-imputation for measurement-error correction
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, 615 Norht Wolfe Street, E7640, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:1074-81. 2006
    ..There are many methods for measurement-error correction. These methods remain rarely used despite the ubiquity of measurement error...
  52. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
    Todd T Brown
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Arch Intern Med 165:1179-84. 2005
    ..The risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not been well defined...
  53. pmc A meta-analysis of the incidence of non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected individuals
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 52:611-22. 2009
    ..To estimate summary standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of non-AIDS cancers among HIV-infected individuals compared with general population rates overall and stratified by gender, AIDS, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era...
  54. ncbi request reprint Temporal changes in the outcomes of HIV-exposed infants in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of rapidly evolving guidelines for care (2007-2013)
    Lydia Feinstein
    aThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA bKinshasa School of Public Health, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo cThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    AIDS 28:S301-11. 2014
    ..We describe HIV-exposed infant outcomes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2007 and 2013...
  55. pmc Missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 177:562-8. 2013
    ..16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations...
  56. pmc A comparison of methods to estimate the hazard ratio under conditions of time-varying confounding and nonpositivity
    Ashley I Naimi
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, UNC Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Epidemiology 22:718-23. 2011
    ....
  57. pmc Invited commentary: positivity in practice
    Daniel Westreich
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 171:674-7; discussion 678-81. 2010
    ..In addition, the commentators illustrate positivity in simple 2 x 2 tables, as well as detail some ways in which epidemiologists may examine their data for nonpositivity and deal with violations of positivity in practice...
  58. pmc Copy-years viremia as a measure of cumulative human immunodeficiency virus viral burden
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 171:198-205. 2010
    ..Copy-years viremia, a novel measure of cumulative viral burden, may provide prognostic information beyond traditional single measures of viremia...
  59. ncbi request reprint Sample size and statistical power assessing the effect of interventions in the context of mixture distributions with detection limits
    Haitao Chu
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Stat Med 25:2647-57. 2006
    ..A Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed methods...
  60. pmc Invited Commentary: Causal diagrams and measurement bias
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:959-62; discussion 963-4. 2009
    ..g., "adiposity"). The authors conclude that causal diagrams need to be used to represent biases arising not only from confounding and selection but also from measurement...
  61. ncbi request reprint Effect of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy on survival of women initiated on highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Yolanda Barron
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS 18:1579-84. 2004
    ..To estimate the effect of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy (ART) on survival, among women who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  62. doi request reprint Nonparametric estimator of relative time with application to the Acyclovir Prevention Trial
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Clin Trials 6:320-8. 2009
    ..Relative hazard is a central measure of association in randomized clinical trials. Relative time (RT) is a competing measure that is rarely used...
  63. pmc Alcohol consumption trajectory patterns in adult women with HIV infection
    Robert L Cook
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, PO Box 100231, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    AIDS Behav 17:1705-12. 2013
    ..Clinicians and those providing alcohol-related interventions might target those with depression, current use of tobacco or illicit drugs, HCV infection, or a previous history of drinking problems...
  64. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity analysis of misclassification: a graphical and a Bayesian approach
    Haitao Chu
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 16:834-41. 2006
    ..Misclassification can produce bias in measures of association. Sensitivity analyses have been suggested to explore the impact of such bias, but do not supply formally justified interval estimates...
  65. pmc Hierarchical latency models for dose-time-response associations
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:695-702. 2011
    ....
  66. doi request reprint Effects of time-varying exposures adjusting for time-varying confounders: the case of alcohol consumption and risk of incident human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina, McGavran Greenberg Hall, Campus Box 7435, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Int J Public Health 55:227-8. 2010
    ..Discuss issues related to time-varying exposures using as an example the recently meta-analyzed literature (Baliunas et al. in Int J Public Health, 2009) on alcohol consumption and risk of HIV infection...
  67. ncbi request reprint Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 158:687-94. 2003
    ..Standard Cox analysis failed to detect a clear net benefit, because it does not appropriately adjust for time-dependent covariates, such as HIV RNA level and CD4 cell count, that are simultaneously confounders and intermediate variables...
  68. ncbi request reprint The association of anemia and hypoalbuminemia with accelerated decline in GFR among adolescents with chronic kidney disease
    Susan L Furth
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins Children s Center, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Nephrol 22:265-71. 2007
    ..73 m(2)) (95% CI: 11 to 22 [0.18 to 0.37]). Further study is needed to evaluate whether treatment of anemia or hypoalbuminemia, as outlined in current clinical care guidelines for CKD, may slow the progression of CKD in adolescents...
  69. ncbi request reprint Effect of acyclovir on herpetic ocular recurrence using a structural nested model
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street Room E7640, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States
    Contemp Clin Trials 26:300-10. 2005
    ..41 times that of the non-exposed (test-based 95% CI: 0.28, 0.72), or 34% larger than the intent-to-treat estimate. Notwithstanding excellent compliance, intent-to-treat estimates may notably undervalue the causal effect of a treatment...
  70. pmc Influenza vaccine effectiveness in patients on hemodialysis: an analysis of a natural experiment
    Leah J McGrath
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Arch Intern Med 172:548-54. 2012
    ..Observational studies of vaccine effectiveness (VE) are challenging because vaccinated subjects may be healthier than unvaccinated subjects...
  71. doi request reprint Model averaging in the analysis of leukemia mortality among Japanese A-bomb survivors
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Radiat Environ Biophys 51:93-5; discussion 97-100. 2012
    ....
  72. pmc Intrinsic breast tumor subtypes, race, and long-term survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study
    Katie M O'Brien
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 16:6100-10. 2010
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Survival analysis for recurrent event data: an application to childhood infectious diseases
    Lauren E Cain
    Stat Med 25:1431-3; author reply 1433. 2006
  74. ncbi request reprint Use of a marginal structural model to determine the effect of aspirin on cardiovascular mortality in the Physicians' Health Study
    Nancy R Cook
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 155:1045-53. 2002
    ..65, 1.25). Although the numbers of cardiovascular deaths were insufficient to evaluate this endpoint definitively, use of such methods holds much potential for controlling time-varying confounders affected by previous exposure...
  75. pmc Use of multiple imputation in the epidemiologic literature
    Mark A Klebanoff
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 7510, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 168:355-7. 2008
    ..To form a bridge between current and future practice, the authors suggest details that should be included in articles that utilize these procedures...
  76. pmc Effect of tuberculosis on the survival of HIV-infected men in a country with low tuberculosis incidence
    Hugo Lopez-Gatell
    Directorate of Epidemiology, Ministry of Health, Mexico, Mexico
    AIDS 22:1869-73. 2008
    ..2-4.7). Results underscore the importance of avoiding TB by using preventive interventions such as treatment of latent TB infection, particularly in populations with a large prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected individuals...