Stephen R Cole

Summary

Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Regression models for unconstrained, partially or fully constrained continuation odds ratios
    S R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 30:1379-82. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint Marginal structural models for estimating the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation on CD4 cell count
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 162:471-8. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Effect of acyclovir on herpetic ocular recurrence using a structural nested model
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street Room E7640, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States
    Contemp Clin Trials 26:300-10. 2005
  4. ncbi request reprint Multiple-imputation for measurement-error correction
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, 615 Norht Wolfe Street, E7640, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:1074-81. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Combined analysis of retrospective and prospective occurrences in cohort studies: HIV-1 serostatus and incident pneumonia
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:1442-6. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Accounting for leadtime in cohort studies: evaluating when to initiate HIV therapies
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Stat Med 23:3351-63. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Confidence intervals for biomarker-based human immunodeficiency virus incidence estimates and differences using prevalent data
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 165:94-100. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Estimation of cumulative odds ratios
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 14:172-8. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Determining the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load using a marginal structural left-censored mean model
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:219-27. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Fallibility in estimating direct effects
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 31:163-5. 2002

Detail Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint Regression models for unconstrained, partially or fully constrained continuation odds ratios
    S R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 30:1379-82. 2001
    ..Finally, we present a brief discussion of statistical software to implement the method...
  2. ncbi request reprint Marginal structural models for estimating the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation on CD4 cell count
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 162:471-8. 2005
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Effect of acyclovir on herpetic ocular recurrence using a structural nested model
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street Room E7640, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States
    Contemp Clin Trials 26:300-10. 2005
    ..41 times that of the non-exposed (test-based 95% CI: 0.28, 0.72), or 34% larger than the intent-to-treat estimate. Notwithstanding excellent compliance, intent-to-treat estimates may notably undervalue the causal effect of a treatment...
  4. ncbi request reprint Multiple-imputation for measurement-error correction
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, 615 Norht Wolfe Street, E7640, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:1074-81. 2006
    ..There are many methods for measurement-error correction. These methods remain rarely used despite the ubiquity of measurement error...
  5. ncbi request reprint Combined analysis of retrospective and prospective occurrences in cohort studies: HIV-1 serostatus and incident pneumonia
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 35:1442-6. 2006
    ..The authors show how information collected on retrospective occurrence times may be combined with prospective occurrence times in the analysis of recurrent events from cohort studies...
  6. ncbi request reprint Accounting for leadtime in cohort studies: evaluating when to initiate HIV therapies
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Stat Med 23:3351-63. 2004
    ..70; 95 per cent CI 0.35, 1.42). Methods presented here offer an approach to analysing prevalent cohort studies and provide procedures to maximize the usefulness of observational data...
  7. ncbi request reprint Confidence intervals for biomarker-based human immunodeficiency virus incidence estimates and differences using prevalent data
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 165:94-100. 2007
    ..The Monte Carlo-based CI may be preferable to competing methods because of the ease of extension to the incidence difference or to exploration of departures from assumptions...
  8. ncbi request reprint Estimation of cumulative odds ratios
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 14:172-8. 2004
    ..Standard estimation of ordered odds ratios requires the constraint that the etiologic effects of exposure are homogenous across thresholds of the ordered response. We present a method to relax this often-unrealistic constraint...
  9. ncbi request reprint Determining the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load using a marginal structural left-censored mean model
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:219-27. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the clinically important protective effect of HAART on dampening viral load appears to be rapid, present at CD4 cell counts greater than 350 cells/mm(3), and sustained beyond 6 years...
  10. ncbi request reprint Fallibility in estimating direct effects
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 31:163-5. 2002
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 158:687-94. 2003
    ..Standard Cox analysis failed to detect a clear net benefit, because it does not appropriately adjust for time-dependent covariates, such as HIV RNA level and CD4 cell count, that are simultaneously confounders and intermediate variables...
  12. pmc Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on incident AIDS using calendar period as an instrumental variable
    Lauren E Cain
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:1124-32. 2009
    ..These methods may help resolve discrepancies between observational and randomized evidence...
  13. pmc The effects of opiate use and hepatitis C virus infection on risk of diabetes mellitus in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
    Andrea A Howard
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 54:152-9. 2010
    ..Opiate use is common in HIV-infected and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals, however, its contribution to the risk of diabetes mellitus is not well understood...
  14. pmc Bayesian posterior distributions without Markov chains
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:368-75. 2012
    ..The transparency of the proposed approach comes at a price of being less broadly applicable than MCMC...
  15. pmc A comparison of ad hoc methods to account for non-cancer AIDS and deaths as competing risks when estimating the effect of HAART on incident cancer AIDS among HIV-infected men
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Clin Epidemiol 63:459-67. 2010
    ....
  16. pmc Marginal structural models for case-cohort study designs to estimate the association of antiretroviral therapy initiation with incident AIDS or death
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:381-90. 2012
    ..Marginal structural model analysis of case-cohort study designs provides a cost-efficient design coupled with an accurate analytic method for research settings in which there is time-varying confounding...
  17. pmc Time scale and adjusted survival curves for marginal structural cox models
    Daniel Westreich
    Department of Epidemiology, Universityof North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NorthCarolina, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 171:691-700. 2010
    ..In the present example, use of time on treatment yielded a hazard ratio further from the null and more precise than use of time on study as the time scale...
  18. pmc Assessing the component associations of the healthy worker survivor bias: occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality
    Ashley I Naimi
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 23:334-41. 2013
    ..Together, these associations result in time-varying confounding affected by prior exposure. We illustrate how these associations can be assessed using standard regression methods...
  19. ncbi request reprint Cumulative exposure to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors is associated with insulin resistance markers in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
    Todd T Brown
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    AIDS 19:1375-83. 2005
    ..To estimate insulin resistance and its relationship to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a cohort of HIV-infected persons with comparison to HIV-seronegative controls...
  20. pmc Competing risk regression models for epidemiologic data
    Bryan Lau
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:244-56. 2009
    ..71, 95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.13 and (sd)RH = 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.62, 2.51). Methods for competing risks should be used by epidemiologists, with the choice of method guided by the scientific question...
  21. doi request reprint Regression models for the effects of exposure rate and cumulative exposure
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Epidemiology 23:892-9. 2012
    ..23 (0.53-3.76). The proposed approach may provide better understanding of relationships between a protracted exposure and disease and is readily implemented using existing statistical software...
  22. pmc Enrollment, retention, and visit attendance in the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research HIV clinical cohort, 2001-2007
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7435, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 26:875-81. 2010
    ..The UNC CFAR clinical cohort has ample enrollment with retention and visit attendance modestly influenced by factors such as disease severity...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on multiple AIDS-defining illnesses among male HIV seroconverters
    Lauren E Cain
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street E7640, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:310-5. 2006
    ..34 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.45) relative to the reference calendar period. HAART protects against initial and subsequent AIDS-defining illnesses, whose inclusion in analysis markedly increased the precision of the estimated hazard ratio...
  24. ncbi request reprint Estimating biomarker-based HIV incidence using prevalence data in high risk groups with missing outcomes
    Haitao Chu
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Biom J 48:772-9. 2006
    ..Our methods can be applied to estimate the incidence of other diseases from prevalence data using similar testing algorithms when missing data is present...
  25. pmc Joint effects of alcohol consumption and high-risk sexual behavior on HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men
    Petra M Sander
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    AIDS 27:815-23. 2013
    ..To estimate the effects of alcohol consumption and number of unprotected receptive anal intercourse partners on HIV seroconversion while appropriately accounting for time-varying confounding...
  26. pmc Estimating the effects of multiple time-varying exposures using joint marginal structural models: alcohol consumption, injection drug use, and HIV acquisition
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Center for Population Health and Clinical Epidemiology, Brown University Program in Public Health, Providence, RI 02912, USA
    Epidemiology 23:574-82. 2012
    ..12). The P values for multiplicative and additive interaction were 0.7620 and 0.9200, respectively, indicating a lack of departure from effects that multiply or add. We could not rule out interaction on either scale due to imprecision...
  27. pmc Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
    Gypsyamber D'Souza
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:491-9. 2008
    ..To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study)...
  28. pmc Limitation of inverse probability-of-censoring weights in estimating survival in the presence of strong selection bias
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:569-77. 2011
    ..Approaches to improve correction methods are discussed...
  29. pmc Determinants of alcohol consumption in HIV-uninfected injection drug users
    Petra M Sander
    Department of Epidemiology, The Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 111:173-6. 2010
    ..This study demonstrates that in a large urban cohort of persons with a history of injection drug use, risky drug use and sexual risk behavior are associated with subsequent alcohol consumption...
  30. ncbi request reprint Structural accelerated failure time models for survival analysis in studies with time-varying treatments
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14:477-91. 2005
    ..The parameters of nested structural models are estimated by g-estimation and those of marginal structural models by inverse probability weighting...
  31. pmc Relationship of immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy with non-AIDS defining cancer incidence
    Elizabeth L Yanik
    aUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina bNorthwestern University, Chicago, Illinois cUniversity of Washington, Seattle, Washington dUniversity of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama eJohns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland fUniversity of California, San Diego gUniversity of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 28:979-87. 2014
    ..To estimate the association between immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and non-AIDS defining cancer (NADC) incidence in HIV-infected patients...
  32. pmc Lagging exposure information in cumulative exposure-response analyses
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 174:1416-22. 2011
    ..Lagging exposure assignment by a constant will lead to bias toward the null if the distribution of latency periods is not a fixed constant. Direct estimation of latency periods can minimize bias and improve confidence interval coverage...
  33. pmc Effect of HAART on incident cancer and noncancer AIDS events among male HIV seroconverters
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E7133, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:485-90. 2008
    ..To explore the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the prevention of AIDS-defining cancers relative to other AIDS-defining events...
  34. doi request reprint Longitudinal anthropometric patterns among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women
    Jessica E Justman
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:312-9. 2008
    ..Previous studies suggest that indicators of central adiposity such as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference may be altered by HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, or both...
  35. ncbi request reprint Effect of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy on survival of women initiated on highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Yolanda Barron
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    AIDS 18:1579-84. 2004
    ..To estimate the effect of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy (ART) on survival, among women who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
  36. pmc Generalizing evidence from randomized clinical trials to target populations: The ACTG 320 trial
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 172:107-15. 2010
    ..The proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results...
  37. pmc Incidence and timing of cancer in HIV-infected individuals following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy
    Elizabeth L Yanik
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 57:756-64. 2013
    ..Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but patterns of cancer incidence after combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation remain poorly characterized...
  38. doi request reprint Random effects regression models for trends in standardised mortality ratios
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Occup Environ Med 70:133-9. 2013
    ..However, because the distribution of people with respect to age usually changes as calendar time advances, comparisons of SMRs across calendar periods can produce misleading results...
  39. doi request reprint Quantification of CD4 responses to combined antiretroviral therapy over 5 years among HIV-infected children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
    Andrew Edmonds
    Department of Epidemiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, McGavran Greenberg Hall, CB 7435, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 61:90-8. 2012
    ..We sought to describe this relationship...
  40. pmc HIV-1 protease inhibitors and clinical malaria: a secondary analysis of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5208 study
    Kimberly A Porter
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:995-1000. 2012
    ..Additional research concerning the effects of PI-based therapy on the incidence of malaria diagnosed by more specific criteria and among groups at a higher risk for severe disease is warranted...
  41. pmc Evaluating competing adverse and beneficial outcomes using a mixture model
    Bryan Lau
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Stat Med 27:4313-27. 2008
    ....
  42. pmc Illustrating bias due to conditioning on a collider
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 39:417-20. 2010
    ..In both examples, conditioning on the common effect imparts an association between two otherwise independent variables; we call this selection bias...
  43. pmc A prospective study of alcohol consumption and HIV acquisition among injection drug users
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27559 7435, USA
    AIDS 25:221-8. 2011
    ..to estimate the effect of alcohol consumption on HIV acquisition while appropriately accounting for confounding by time-varying risk factors...
  44. doi request reprint A simulation study of control sampling methods for nested case-control studies of genetic and molecular biomarkers and prostate cancer progression
    Ming Hsi Wang
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Department of Medicine, Saint Agnes Hospital, Room E6132, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18:706-11. 2009
    ..Thus, we examined the validity of relative risk (RR) estimates of prostate cancer progression using three methods for control sampling from cohorts of men with prostate cancer generated by Monte Carlo simulation...
  45. pmc Lack of association of herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity with the progression of HIV infection in the HERS cohort
    Brooke E Hoots
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:837-44. 2011
    ..These data do not support a clinically meaningful effect of baseline HSV-2 seropositivity on the trajectories of HIV plasma viral loads or CD4 counts...
  46. doi request reprint Meta-analysis of randomized trials on the association of prophylactic acyclovir and HIV-1 viral load in individuals coinfected with herpes simplex virus-2
    Christina Ludema
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
    AIDS 25:1265-9. 2011
    ..To summarize the randomized evidence regarding the association between acyclovir use and HIV-1 replication as measured by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among individuals coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2...
  47. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
    Todd T Brown
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Arch Intern Med 165:1179-84. 2005
    ..The risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not been well defined...
  48. pmc Hematologic, hepatic, renal, and lipid laboratory monitoring after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in the United States, 2000-2010
    Elizabeth L Yanik
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27517, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63:216-20. 2013
    ..However, only 40% received 1 or more lipid tests. Monitoring was more frequent in specific subgroups, likely reflecting better clinic attendance or clinician perception of higher susceptibility to toxicities...
  49. pmc Sensitivity analyses for sparse-data problems-using weakly informative bayesian priors
    Ghassan B Hamra
    Department of Epidemiology, UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Epidemiology 24:233-9. 2013
    ..Advancements in implementation of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation make this sensitivity analysis easily accessible to the practicing epidemiologist...
  50. ncbi request reprint Sample size and statistical power assessing the effect of interventions in the context of mixture distributions with detection limits
    Haitao Chu
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Stat Med 25:2647-57. 2006
    ..A Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed methods...
  51. pmc Constructing inverse probability weights for marginal structural models
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 168:656-64. 2008
    ..However, as with all methods, diagnostics and sensitivity analyses are essential for proper use...
  52. pmc Lung cancer incidence and mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug users
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 55:510-5. 2010
    ..To examine the impact of HIV on lung cancer incidence and survival...
  53. pmc Parametric mixture models to evaluate and summarize hazard ratios in the presence of competing risks with time-dependent hazards and delayed entry
    Bryan Lau
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Stat Med 30:654-65. 2011
    ..An application to the Women's Interagency HIV Study is provided to investigate injection drug use and the time to either the initiation of effective antiretroviral therapy, or clinical disease progression as a competing event...
  54. pmc Sexual activity and Kaposi's sarcoma among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human herpesvirus type 8-coinfected men
    Eric W Nawar
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 18:517-21. 2008
    ..Here, we explore sexual activity as a proxy for a sexually transmitted determinant beyond HIV-1 and HHV-8...
  55. pmc Hemoglobin decline in children with chronic kidney disease: baseline results from the chronic kidney disease in children prospective cohort study
    Jeffrey J Fadrowski
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, David M Rubenstein Child Health Building, Room 3055, 200 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 3:457-62. 2008
    ..The level of glomerular filtration rate at which hemoglobin declines in chronic kidney disease is poorly described in the pediatric population...
  56. pmc Association of germline microRNA SNPs in pre-miRNA flanking region and breast cancer risk and survival: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study
    Jeannette T Bensen
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 24:1099-109. 2013
    ..Common germline variation in the 5' region proximal to precursor (pre-) miRNA gene sequences is evaluated for association with breast cancer risk and survival among African Americans and Caucasians...
  57. ncbi request reprint Effect on mortality and virological response of delaying antiretroviral therapy initiation in children receiving tuberculosis treatment
    Marcel Yotebieng
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA
    AIDS 24:1341-9. 2010
    ..To estimate the effect of delaying antiretroviral treatment (ART) for 15, 30, or 60 days after tuberculosis (TB) treatment initiation on mortality and virological suppression...
  58. ncbi request reprint The association of anemia and hypoalbuminemia with accelerated decline in GFR among adolescents with chronic kidney disease
    Susan L Furth
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins Children s Center, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Pediatr Nephrol 22:265-71. 2007
    ..73 m(2)) (95% CI: 11 to 22 [0.18 to 0.37]). Further study is needed to evaluate whether treatment of anemia or hypoalbuminemia, as outlined in current clinical care guidelines for CKD, may slow the progression of CKD in adolescents...
  59. doi request reprint Postnatal HIV-1 transmission after cessation of infant extended antiretroviral prophylaxis and effect of maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Taha E Taha
    Dept of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Infect Dis 200:1490-7. 2009
    ..The association between postnatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after infant extended antiretroviral prophylaxis was assessed...
  60. pmc A meta-analysis of the incidence of non-AIDS cancers in HIV-infected individuals
    Meredith S Shiels
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 52:611-22. 2009
    ..To estimate summary standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of non-AIDS cancers among HIV-infected individuals compared with general population rates overall and stratified by gender, AIDS, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era...
  61. ncbi request reprint Temporal changes in the outcomes of HIV-exposed infants in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of rapidly evolving guidelines for care (2007-2013)
    Lydia Feinstein
    aThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA bKinshasa School of Public Health, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo cThe University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    AIDS 28:S301-11. 2014
    ..We describe HIV-exposed infant outcomes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2007 and 2013...
  62. pmc Alcohol consumption trajectory patterns in adult women with HIV infection
    Robert L Cook
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, PO Box 100231, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    AIDS Behav 17:1705-12. 2013
    ..Clinicians and those providing alcohol-related interventions might target those with depression, current use of tobacco or illicit drugs, HCV infection, or a previous history of drinking problems...
  63. pmc Missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 177:562-8. 2013
    ..16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations...
  64. pmc A comparison of methods to estimate the hazard ratio under conditions of time-varying confounding and nonpositivity
    Ashley I Naimi
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, UNC Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Epidemiology 22:718-23. 2011
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity analysis of misclassification: a graphical and a Bayesian approach
    Haitao Chu
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 16:834-41. 2006
    ..Misclassification can produce bias in measures of association. Sensitivity analyses have been suggested to explore the impact of such bias, but do not supply formally justified interval estimates...
  66. pmc Invited Commentary: Causal diagrams and measurement bias
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:959-62; discussion 963-4. 2009
    ..g., "adiposity"). The authors conclude that causal diagrams need to be used to represent biases arising not only from confounding and selection but also from measurement...
  67. doi request reprint Nonparametric estimator of relative time with application to the Acyclovir Prevention Trial
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Clin Trials 6:320-8. 2009
    ..Relative hazard is a central measure of association in randomized clinical trials. Relative time (RT) is a competing measure that is rarely used...
  68. pmc Invited commentary: positivity in practice
    Daniel Westreich
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 171:674-7; discussion 678-81. 2010
    ..In addition, the commentators illustrate positivity in simple 2 x 2 tables, as well as detail some ways in which epidemiologists may examine their data for nonpositivity and deal with violations of positivity in practice...
  69. pmc Copy-years viremia as a measure of cumulative human immunodeficiency virus viral burden
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 171:198-205. 2010
    ..Copy-years viremia, a novel measure of cumulative viral burden, may provide prognostic information beyond traditional single measures of viremia...
  70. pmc Effect of tuberculosis on the survival of HIV-infected men in a country with low tuberculosis incidence
    Hugo Lopez-Gatell
    Directorate of Epidemiology, Ministry of Health, Mexico, Mexico
    AIDS 22:1869-73. 2008
    ..2-4.7). Results underscore the importance of avoiding TB by using preventive interventions such as treatment of latent TB infection, particularly in populations with a large prevalence of HIV/TB co-infected individuals...
  71. ncbi request reprint Effect of tuberculosis on the survival of women infected with human immunodeficiency virus
    H Lopez-Gatell
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 165:1134-42. 2007
    ..9, 95% CI: 0.9, 17; interaction p = 0.91). Although results were imprecise because few women incurred TB, irrespective of HAART exposure, incident TB increases the hazard of AIDS-related death among HIV-infected women...
  72. pmc Hierarchical latency models for dose-time-response associations
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 173:695-702. 2011
    ....
  73. ncbi request reprint Adjusted survival curves with inverse probability weights
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street E 7014, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 75:45-9. 2004
    ..When the weights are non-parametrically estimated, this method is equivalent to direct standardization of the survival curves to the combined study population...
  74. ncbi request reprint The effect of HIV infection on overdose mortality
    Cunlin Wang
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    AIDS 19:935-42. 2005
    ..To quantify the association of HIV infection with overdose mortality and explore the potential mechanisms...
  75. doi request reprint Effects of time-varying exposures adjusting for time-varying confounders: the case of alcohol consumption and risk of incident human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Chanelle J Howe
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina, McGavran Greenberg Hall, Campus Box 7435, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Int J Public Health 55:227-8. 2010
    ..Discuss issues related to time-varying exposures using as an example the recently meta-analyzed literature (Baliunas et al. in Int J Public Health, 2009) on alcohol consumption and risk of HIV infection...
  76. pmc Influenza vaccine effectiveness in patients on hemodialysis: an analysis of a natural experiment
    Leah J McGrath
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7435, USA
    Arch Intern Med 172:548-54. 2012
    ..Observational studies of vaccine effectiveness (VE) are challenging because vaccinated subjects may be healthier than unvaccinated subjects...
  77. doi request reprint Model averaging in the analysis of leukemia mortality among Japanese A-bomb survivors
    David B Richardson
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Radiat Environ Biophys 51:93-5; discussion 97-100. 2012
    ....
  78. pmc Intrinsic breast tumor subtypes, race, and long-term survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study
    Katie M O'Brien
    Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 16:6100-10. 2010
    ....
  79. ncbi request reprint Changes in physical and psychosocial functioning among adolescents with chronic kidney disease
    Jeffrey Fadrowski
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 21287, USA
    Pediatr Nephrol 21:394-9. 2006
    ..We conclude that decline in kidney function is associated with a subsequent decline in health-related quality of life, particularly in terms of physical activity...
  80. pmc Retinal microvascular abnormalities and cognitive decline: the ARIC 14-year follow-up study
    S R Lesage
    University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Neurology, 22 S Greene St, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Neurology 73:862-8. 2009
    ..To better understand the role of SVD in cognitive function, we investigated the relationship between retinal microvascular abnormalities and longitudinal changes in cognitive function in a community-based study...
  81. pmc Design and methods of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study
    Susan L Furth
    Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins Children s Center, Baltimore MD, USA
    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 1:1006-15. 2006
    ..The primary outcome is the rate of decline of GFR. The CKiD study will be the largest North American multicenter study of pediatric CKD...
  82. pmc Use of multiple imputation in the epidemiologic literature
    Mark A Klebanoff
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 7510, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 168:355-7. 2008
    ..To form a bridge between current and future practice, the authors suggest details that should be included in articles that utilize these procedures...
  83. ncbi request reprint Anthropometrics and examiner-reported body habitus abnormalities in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
    Frank J Palella
    Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Div of Infectious Diseases, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 38:903-7. 2004
    ....
  84. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral therapy exposure and incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
    Phyllis C Tien
    San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Infectious Disease Section, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 111W 4150 Clement Street, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    AIDS 21:1739-45. 2007
    ..To determine the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a nationally representative cohort of HIV-infected women and a comparison group of HIV-uninfected women...
  85. ncbi request reprint Re: "Confidence intervals for biomarker-based human immunodeficiency virus incidence estimates and differences using prevalent data"
    Stephen R Cole
    Am J Epidemiol 166:861-2. 2007
  86. ncbi request reprint Incidence of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in the women's interagency HIV study
    Phyllis C Tien
    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 34:461-6. 2003
    ..To estimate the incidence of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study...
  87. ncbi request reprint Impact of HIV infection and HAART on serum lipids in men
    Sharon A Riddler
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    JAMA 289:2978-82. 2003
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint Use of a marginal structural model to determine the effect of aspirin on cardiovascular mortality in the Physicians' Health Study
    Nancy R Cook
    Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 155:1045-53. 2002
    ..65, 1.25). Although the numbers of cardiovascular deaths were insufficient to evaluate this endpoint definitively, use of such methods holds much potential for controlling time-varying confounders affected by previous exposure...
  89. ncbi request reprint A general approach for sample size and statistical power calculations assessing of interventions using a mixture model in the presence of detection limits
    Lei Nie
    Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Biomathematics, Georgetown University, 4000 Reservoir Road, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Contemp Clin Trials 27:483-91. 2006
    ..The simulation results illustrate that the proposed methods provide adequate sample size estimates. However, when the aforementioned irregularity occurs, our methods are restricted and further research is needed...
  90. ncbi request reprint Prospective study of attitudinal and relationship predictors of sexual risk in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
    David G Ostrow
    David Ostrow and Associates, Chicago MACS Howard Brown Health Center and Northwestern University School of Medicine, 5455 N Sheridan Rd, Suite 1207, Chicago, IL 60640, USA
    AIDS Behav 12:127-38. 2008
    ..We conclude that HIV prevention efforts should target modifiable attitudes (reduced concern about HIV and safer sex fatigue) and increases in sexual risk-taking of MSM, particularly among HIV+ men having sex with serodiscordant partners...
  91. ncbi request reprint Survival analysis for recurrent event data: an application to childhood infectious diseases
    Lauren E Cain
    Stat Med 25:1431-3; author reply 1433. 2006
  92. pmc Association between syphilis, antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2, and recreational drug use and hepatitis B virus infection in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
    Phyllis C Tien
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:1363-70. 2004
    ..Liver disease is a leading cause of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women; however, risk factors for hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection in this population have not been well studied...
  93. ncbi request reprint Relation of stavudine discontinuation to anthropometric changes among HIV-infected women
    Phyllis C Tien
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 44:43-8. 2007
    ..To characterize changes in regional anthropometry associated with stavudine exposure and discontinuation...
  94. pmc A symptom survey and quality of life questionnaire for nasolacrimal duct obstruction in children
    Jonathan M Holmes
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Ophthalmology 113:1675-80. 2006
    ..To develop and validate a new parental questionnaire addressing symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in childhood nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO)...
  95. ncbi request reprint Impact of patching and atropine treatment on the child and family in the amblyopia treatment study
    Jonathan M Holmes
    Arch Ophthalmol 121:1625-32. 2003
    ..To assess the psychosocial impact on the child and family of patching and atropine as treatments for moderate amblyopia in children younger than 7 years...
  96. ncbi request reprint Many participants in fecal occult blood test population screening have a higher-than-average risk for colorectal cancer
    Daniel L Worthley
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia, Australia
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 18:1079-83. 2006
    ..This study investigated the prevalence of higher-than-average risk characteristics, and rate of prior colonoscopy, in participants in fecal occult blood test screening programs...
  97. ncbi request reprint Comparison of a brush-sampling fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin with a sensitive guaiac-based fecal occult blood test in detection of colorectal neoplasia
    Alicia Smith
    Bowel Health Service, Repatriation General Hospital Daw Park, South Australia, Australia
    Cancer 107:2152-9. 2006
    ....
  98. ncbi request reprint Sample size calculation using exact methods in diagnostic test studies
    Haitao Chu
    J Clin Epidemiol 60:1201-2; author reply 1202. 2007
  99. doi request reprint Prevalence and predictors of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
    Magdalena E Sobieszczyk
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 48:272-80. 2008
    ..To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSynd) among participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study and to describe the association of MetSynd with HIV infection, antiretroviral therapies, and sociodemographic factors...
  100. ncbi request reprint Bivariate meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity with sparse data: a generalized linear mixed model approach
    Haitao Chu
    J Clin Epidemiol 59:1331-2; author reply 1332-3. 2006
  101. ncbi request reprint Fecal DNA for colorectal-cancer screening
    Daniel L Worthley
    N Engl J Med 352:1384-5; author reply 1384-5. 2005

Research Grants1

  1. Structural Models to Bridge Observational and Randomized Evidence: HAART and AIDS
    Stephen Cole; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed research has significance beyond the HIV/AIDS community, as results may be used as a framework in other biomedical fields suffering from a fracture between observational and randomized evidence. ..