M A Nowak

Summary

Affiliation: Institute for Advanced Study
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc The evolution of language
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8028-33. 1999
  2. ncbi request reprint Fairness versus reason in the ultimatum game
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Science 289:1773-5. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Evolution of universal grammar
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Science 291:114-8. 2001
  4. pmc Evolutionary biology of language
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:1615-22. 2000
  5. ncbi request reprint The evolution of syntactic communication
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Nature 404:495-8. 2000
  6. ncbi request reprint Computational and evolutionary aspects of language
    Martin A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Nature 417:611-7. 2002
  7. pmc The role of chromosomal instability in tumor initiation
    Martin A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:16226-31. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary language game
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA
    J Theor Biol 200:147-62. 1999
  9. pmc A new theory of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte memory: implications for HIV treatment
    D Wodarz
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:329-43. 2000
  10. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary dynamics of grammar acquisition
    N L Komarova
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    J Theor Biol 209:43-59. 2001

Detail Information

Publications83

  1. pmc The evolution of language
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8028-33. 1999
    ..We argue that grammar originated as a simplified rule system that evolved by natural selection to reduce mistakes in communication. Our theory provides a systematic approach for thinking about the origin and evolution of human language...
  2. ncbi request reprint Fairness versus reason in the ultimatum game
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Science 289:1773-5. 2000
    ..We show that fairness will evolve if the proposer can obtain some information on what deals the responder has accepted in the past. Hence, the evolution of fairness, similarly to the evolution of cooperation, is linked to reputation...
  3. ncbi request reprint Evolution of universal grammar
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Science 291:114-8. 2001
    ..We calculate the condition under which natural selection favors the emergence of rule-based, generative grammars that underlie complex language...
  4. pmc Evolutionary biology of language
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:1615-22. 2000
    ..I will discuss how natural selection can lead to the emergence of arbitrary signs, the formation of words and syntactic communication...
  5. ncbi request reprint The evolution of syntactic communication
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Nature 404:495-8. 2000
    ..This result might explain why only humans evolved syntactic communication and hence complex language...
  6. ncbi request reprint Computational and evolutionary aspects of language
    Martin A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Nature 417:611-7. 2002
    ..Universal grammar specifies the restricted set of languages learnable by the human brain. Evolutionary dynamics can be formulated to describe the cultural evolution of language and the biological evolution of universal grammar...
  7. pmc The role of chromosomal instability in tumor initiation
    Martin A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:16226-31. 2002
    ..Specifically, we calculate the conditions for CIN to initiate the process of colorectal tumorigenesis before the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes...
  8. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary language game
    M A Nowak
    Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA
    J Theor Biol 200:147-62. 1999
    ..Mistakes increase the overall efficacy of parental and role model learning: in a world with errors evolutionary adaptation is more efficient. Our model also provides a simple explanation why homonomy is common while synonymy is rare...
  9. pmc A new theory of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte memory: implications for HIV treatment
    D Wodarz
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:329-43. 2000
    ..Based on our models we suggest conceptual treatment regimes which ensure establishment of CTL memory. This would allow the immune response to control HIV in the long term in the absence of continued therapy...
  10. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary dynamics of grammar acquisition
    N L Komarova
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    J Theor Biol 209:43-59. 2001
    ..We calculate the maximum size of the search space that is compatible with coherent communication in a population. Thus, we specify the conditions for the evolution of universal grammar...
  11. pmc Natural selection of the critical period for language acquisition
    N L Komarova
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 268:1189-96. 2001
    ..This result is obtained analytically by means of a Nash equilibrium analysis of language acquisition devices. Interestingly, the evolutionarily stable learning period does not maximize the average fitness of the population...
  12. pmc Correlates of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated virus control: implications for immunosuppressive infections and their treatment
    D Wodarz
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355:1059-70. 2000
    ..We show how mathematical models can help us devise therapy regimens that can restore CTL memory in HIV patients and result in long-term immunological control of the virus in the absence of life-long treatment...
  13. pmc HIV-1 dynamics revisited: biphasic decay by cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing?
    R A Arnaout
    Theoretical Biology Program, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 267:1347-54. 2000
    ..We propose a method to test this idea, and develop a framework that is readily applicable to treatment of other infections...
  14. pmc Specific therapy regimes could lead to long-term immunological control of HIV
    D Wodarz
    Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:14464-9. 1999
    ..Whether such treatment regimes would lead to long-term immunologic control deserves investigation under carefully controlled conditions...
  15. ncbi request reprint Nash equilibria for an evolutionary language game
    P E Trapa
    School of Mathematics, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    J Math Biol 41:172-88. 2000
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint The evolutionary dynamics of the lexical matrix
    N L Komarova
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Bull Math Biol 63:451-84. 2001
    ..Our analytic investigations are supplemented by numerical simulations that describe both incomplete and incorrect learning, and other extensions...
  17. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary dynamics of HIV-induced subversion of the immune response
    D Wodarz
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Immunol Rev 168:75-89. 1999
    ..These insights are important for understanding the disease process itself and for designing effective treatment regimes...
  18. pmc The spatial ultimatum game
    K M Page
    Institute for Advanced Study, 310 Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 267:2177-82. 2000
    ..We first show that in a non-spatial setting, natural selection chooses the unfair, rational solution. In a spatial setting, however, much fairer outcomes evolve...
  19. ncbi request reprint Mutation-selection networks of cancer initiation: tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability
    Natalia L Komarova
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    J Theor Biol 223:433-50. 2003
    ..In this case, CIN is an early event and a driving force of cancer progression. The techniques developed in this paper can be used to study arbitrarily complex mutation-selection networks of the somatic evolution of cancer...
  20. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of genetic instability in sporadic and familial colorectal cancer
    Natalia L Komarova
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Cancer Biol Ther 1:685-92. 2002
    ..For a wide range of parameter values, we find support for the radical hypothesis that genetic instability initiates colonic tumorigenesis. We compare sporadic and hereditary forms of colorectal cancer...
  21. ncbi request reprint Competitive exclusion and coexistence of universal grammars
    W Garrett Mitchener
    Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Fine Hall, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 1000, USA
    Bull Math Biol 65:67-93. 2003
    ..An interesting finding is that less specific UGs can resist invasion by more specific UGs if learning is more accurate. In other words, accurate learning stabilizes UGs that admit large numbers of candidate grammars...
  22. ncbi request reprint The different effects of apoptosis and DNA repair on tumorigenesis
    Joshua B Plotkin
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    J Theor Biol 214:453-67. 2002
    ..We find that the loss of DNA repair or the loss of apoptosis both hasten tumorigenesis, but in characteristically different ways...
  23. ncbi request reprint Language evolution and information theory
    J B Plotkin
    Institut for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA
    J Theor Biol 205:147-59. 2000
    ..We develop a general model of word formation and demonstrate the connection between the error limit and Shannon's noisy coding theorem...
  24. pmc Adherence and drug resistance: predictions for therapy outcome
    L M Wahl
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 267:835-43. 2000
    ..We derive results specific to the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection, but emphasize that our method is applicable to a range of viral or other infections treated by chemotherapy...
  25. ncbi request reprint A generalized adaptive dynamics framework can describe the evolutionary Ultimatum Game
    K M Page
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    J Theor Biol 209:173-9. 2001
    ..This approach can describe the long-term dynamics of the Ultimatum Game and also explain the evolution of fairness in a one-parameter Ultimatum Game...
  26. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary preservation of redundant duplicated genes
    D C Krakauer
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 10:555-9. 1999
    ..In all cases, some form of symmetry breaking is required to maintain functional redundancy indefinitely...
  27. pmc Chaos and language
    W Garrett Mitchener
    Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton University, New Jersey, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 271:701-4. 2004
    ..Hence, language dynamical equations mimic complicated and unpredictable changes of languages over time. In terms of evolutionary game theory, we note that imperfect learning can induce chaotic switching among strict Nash equilibria...
  28. pmc Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1
    D Wodarz
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 268:1215-21. 2001
    ..Virus-mediated impairment of specific CTL production in HIV-1 infection can account for the negative correlation observed...
  29. ncbi request reprint Unifying evolutionary dynamics
    Karen M Page
    Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ, 08540, U S A
    J Theor Biol 219:93-8. 2002
    ..From these equations, we obtain as special cases adaptive dynamics, evolutionary game dynamics, the Lotka-Volterra equation of ecology and the quasispecies equation of molecular evolution...
  30. pmc Via freedom to coercion: the emergence of costly punishment
    Christoph Hauert
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 316:1905-7. 2007
    ..Paradoxically, the freedom to withdraw from the common enterprise leads to enforcement of social norms. Joint enterprises that are compulsory rather than voluntary are less likely to lead to cooperation...
  31. pmc Genetic progression and the waiting time to cancer
    Niko Beerenwinkel
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Comput Biol 3:e225. 2007
    ..The complexity of cancer progression can be understood as the result of multiple sequential mutations, each of which has a relatively small but positive effect on net cell growth...
  32. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of tumor suppressor gene inactivation
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:10635-8. 2004
    ..Small lesions without genetic instability can take a very long time to inactivate the next TSG, whereas the same lesions with genetic instability pose a much greater risk for cancer progression...
  33. pmc Win-stay, lose-shift in language learning from peers
    Frederick A Matsen
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, One Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18053-7. 2004
    ..Moreover, for many graphs, it is sufficient to have an aspiration level demanding only two other individuals to use the same language...
  34. ncbi request reprint Can chromosomal instability initiate tumorigenesis?
    Franziska Michor
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Semin Cancer Biol 15:43-9. 2005
    ..If two tumor suppressor genes have to be inactivated in rate-limiting steps, then CIN is likely to emerge before the inactivation of the first tumor suppressor gene...
  35. ncbi request reprint Population genetics of tumor suppressor genes
    Yoh Iwasa
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozoki 6 10 1, Higashi ku, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    J Theor Biol 233:15-23. 2005
    ..The inactivation of the first and of the second allele can occur at equal or different rates. Our calculations provide insights into basic aspects of population genetics determining cancer initiation and progression...
  36. ncbi request reprint Stochastic dynamics of metastasis formation
    Franziska Michor
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 240:521-30. 2006
    ..Our theory shows how to calculate the expected number of metastases that are formed by a tumor...
  37. pmc Genetic instability and clonal expansion
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 241:26-32. 2006
    ....
  38. pmc Evolution of resistance during clonal expansion
    Yoh Iwasa
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Genetics 172:2557-66. 2006
    ..Hence a tumor subject to high rates of apoptosis will show a higher incidence of resistance than expected on its detection size only...
  39. pmc A symmetry of fixation times in evoultionary dynamics
    Christine Taylor
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 243:245-51. 2006
    ..This does not hold for Wright-Fisher models, nor when the mutants start from multiple copies...
  40. pmc The one-third law of evolutionary dynamics
    Hisashi Ohtsuki
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 249:289-95. 2007
    ..We also show that the one-third law implies that the average Malthusian fitness of A is positive...
  41. pmc Evolutionary games on cycles
    Hisashi Ohtsuki
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    Proc Biol Sci 273:2249-56. 2006
    ..In this setting, all three update rules lead to identical conditions in the limit of weak selection, where we find the '1/3-law' of well-mixed populations...
  42. pmc Stochastic payoff evaluation increases the temperature of selection
    Arne Traulsen
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 244:349-56. 2007
    ..A simple mean-field approximation is derived that captures the average effect of the payoff stochasticity. Correction terms to the mean-field theory are computed and discussed...
  43. pmc Evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations with strong selection and weak mutation
    Drew Fudenberg
    Department of Economics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Theor Popul Biol 70:352-63. 2006
    ..We determine which language will be spoken in finite large populations. The results have an intuitive interpretation but would not be expected from an analysis of the replicator dynamics...
  44. pmc Stochastic tunnels in evolutionary dynamics
    Yoh Iwasa
    Department of Biology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    Genetics 166:1571-9. 2004
    ..Although our theory is developed for cancer genetics, stochastic tunnels are general phenomena that could arise in many circumstances...
  45. ncbi request reprint Mutation landscapes
    Akira Sasaki
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University Graduate Schools, Fukuoka, 812 8581, Japan
    J Theor Biol 224:241-7. 2003
    ..Instead, the target of selection is an optimum distribution of mutation rates, a 'mutational quasispecies'...
  46. ncbi request reprint Cell biology: Developmental predisposition to cancer
    Steven A Frank
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 2525, USA
    Nature 422:494. 2003
  47. ncbi request reprint The significance of unstable chromosomes in colorectal cancer
    Harith Rajagopalan
    Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 3:695-701. 2003
    ..Here, we explore experimental and theoretical evidence for the initiation of chromosomal instability in very early colorectal cancers, and reflect on the role that chromosomal instability could have in colorectal tumorigenesis...
  48. ncbi request reprint Somatic selection for and against cancer
    Franziska Michor
    Program in Theoretical Biology and Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 225:377-82. 2003
    ..If both deleterious and advantageous mutations participate in tumor initiation, then we find an intermediate optimum for the compartment size...
  49. pmc The linear process of somatic evolution
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:14966-9. 2003
    ..This design can slow down the rate of somatic evolution dramatically and therefore delay the onset of cancer...
  50. ncbi request reprint Local regulation of homeostasis favors chromosomal instability
    Franziska Michor
    Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Curr Biol 13:581-4. 2003
    ..Thus, small compartments protect against mutations in tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes but promote the emergence of genetic instability...
  51. pmc Evolutionary dynamics of escape from biomedical intervention
    Yoh Iwasa
    Department of Biology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    Proc Biol Sci 270:2573-8. 2003
    ..Our theory shows how to estimate the probability of success or failure of biomedical intervention, such as drug treatment and vaccination, against rapidly evolving organisms...
  52. ncbi request reprint Prisoners of the dilemma
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, One Brattle Square, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 427:491. 2004
  53. ncbi request reprint Problems of somatic mutation and cancer
    Steven A Frank
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine CA 92717, USA
    Bioessays 26:291-9. 2004
    ..We consider how various aspects of tissue architecture and cellular competition affect the pace of mutation accumulation. We also discuss the rise and fall of somatic mutation rates during cancer progression...
  54. ncbi request reprint Bacterial game dynamics
    Martin A Nowak
    Nature 418:138-9. 2002
  55. pmc Analytical results for individual and group selection of any intensity
    Arne Traulsen
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA
    Bull Math Biol 70:1410-24. 2008
    ..This approach also works for group selection (= multi-level selection). We discuss the difference between our approach and that of inclusive fitness theory...
  56. pmc Five rules for the evolution of cooperation
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 314:1560-3. 2006
    ..For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation...
  57. pmc Upstream reciprocity and the evolution of gratitude
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 274:605-9. 2007
    ..Our analysis shows that gratitude and other positive emotions, which increase the willingness to help others, can evolve in the competitive world of natural selection...
  58. pmc Coevolution of strategy and structure in complex networks with dynamical linking
    Jorge M Pacheco
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Phys Rev Lett 97:258103. 2006
    ..For intermediate ranges, we investigate numerically the detailed interplay determined by these two time scales and show that the scope of validity of the analytical results extends to a much wider ratio of time scales than expected...
  59. pmc Pairwise comparison and selection temperature in evolutionary game dynamics
    Arne Traulsen
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, One Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 246:522-9. 2007
    ..For some payoff matrices the distribution of fixation times can become so broad that the average value is no longer very meaningful...
  60. pmc Gambling for global goods
    Anna Dreber
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2261-2. 2008
  61. pmc Tit-for-tat or win-stay, lose-shift?
    Lorens A Imhof
    Statistische Abteilung, Universitat Bonn, D 53113 Bonn, Germany
    J Theor Biol 247:574-80. 2007
    ..TFT is never selected in this evolutionary process, but lowers the selection threshold for WSLS...
  62. ncbi request reprint Empathy leads to fairness
    Karen M Page
    Bioinformatics Unit, Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, U K
    Bull Math Biol 64:1101-16. 2002
    ..Here we study the Ultimatum Game in an evolutionary context and show that empathy can lead to the evolution of fairness. Empathy means that individuals make offers which they themselves would be prepared to accept...
  63. pmc Repeated games and direct reciprocity under active linking
    Jorge M Pacheco
    ATP Group and CFTC, Departamento de Física da Faculdade de Ciências, P 1649 003 Lisboa Codex, Portugal
    J Theor Biol 250:723-31. 2008
    ..We derive analytical conditions for evolutionary stability...
  64. ncbi request reprint Evolution: the good, the bad and the lonely
    Franziska Michor
    Nature 419:677, 679. 2002
  65. pmc The fastest evolutionary trajectory
    Arne Traulsen
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    J Theor Biol 249:617-23. 2007
    ..We discuss deviations for large mutation rates and including back mutations. For very large mutation rates, the optimum fitness landscape is flat and has a single peak at type B...
  66. pmc Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of language
    Erez Lieberman
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 449:713-6. 2007
    ..Our study provides a quantitative analysis of the regularization process by which ancestral forms gradually yield to an emerging linguistic rule...
  67. pmc Transforming the dilemma
    Christine Taylor
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Evolution 61:2281-92. 2007
    ..The transformed matrices can be used in standard frameworks of evolutionary dynamics such as the replicator equation or stochastic processes of game dynamics in finite populations...
  68. pmc Stochastic dynamics of invasion and fixation
    Arne Traulsen
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 74:011909. 2006
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Theory is available light
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Curr Biol 14:R406-7. 2004
  70. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of cancer progression
    Franziska Michor
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, One Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 4:197-205. 2004
  71. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations
    Christine Taylor
    Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Bull Math Biol 66:1621-44. 2004
    ..For finite populations, there are eight selection scenarios. For a fixed payoff matrix a number of these scenarios can occur for different population sizes. We discuss several examples with unexpected behavior...
  72. ncbi request reprint Linear model of colon cancer initiation
    Franziska Michor
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    Cell Cycle 3:358-62. 2004
    ..We study the consequences of mutations in different cell types and calculate the conditions for CIN to precede APC inactivation. We find that early emergence of CIN is very likely in colorectal tumorigenesis...
  73. ncbi request reprint Evolutionary dynamics on graphs
    Erez Lieberman
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 433:312-6. 2005
    ..Evolutionary graph theory has many fascinating applications ranging from ecology to multi-cellular organization and economics...
  74. ncbi request reprint Stochastic evolutionary dynamics on two levels
    Arne Traulsen
    Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian Albrechts Universitat, Olshausenstr 40, D 24098 Kiel, Germany
    J Theor Biol 235:393-401. 2005
    ..We also study opposing selection on two or more levels by analysing the evolutionary dynamics of hierarchically embedded Moran processes...
  75. ncbi request reprint Dynamics of colorectal cancer
    Franziska Michor
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Semin Cancer Biol 15:484-93. 2005
    ..An early emergence of genetic instability could drive most of the somatic evolution of cancer. Here, we review mathematical models of colorectal tumorigenesis and discuss the role of genetic instability...
  76. pmc Why are phenotypic mutation rates much higher than genotypic mutation rates?
    Reinhard Burger
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Mathematics and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Genetics 172:197-206. 2006
    ..Despite its simplicity, our model can explain part of the huge difference between genotypic and phenotypic mutation rates that is observed in nature. The relevant data are summarized...
  77. pmc Evolutionary game dynamics with non-uniform interaction rates
    Christine Taylor
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Mathematics, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Theor Popul Biol 69:243-52. 2006
    ..For the Prisoner's Dilemma, non-uniform interaction rates allow the coexistence between cooperators and defectors. For the snowdrift game, non-uniform interaction rates change the equilibrium frequency of cooperators...
  78. pmc Evolutionary game dynamics in a Wright-Fisher process
    Lorens A Imhof
    Statistische Abteilung, Universitat Bonn, Germany
    J Math Biol 52:667-81. 2006
    ..In the limit of weak selection, we obtain the 1/3 law: if A and B are strict Nash equilibria then selection favors replacement of B by A, if the unstable equilibrium occurs at a frequency of A which is less than 1/3...
  79. pmc Evolution of cooperation by multilevel selection
    Arne Traulsen
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Departments of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10952-5. 2006
    ..The parameters b and c denote the benefit and cost of the altruistic act, whereas n and m denote the maximum group size and the number of groups. The model can be extended to more than two levels of selection and to include migration...
  80. pmc The replicator equation on graphs
    Hisashi Ohtsuki
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812 8581, Japan
    J Theor Biol 243:86-97. 2006
    ..We discuss the application of our theory to four particular examples, the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Snow-Drift game, a coordination game and the Rock-Scissors-Paper game...
  81. ncbi request reprint Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations
    Martin A Nowak
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Nature 428:646-50. 2004
    ..We specify the conditions required for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation and define evolutionary stability in finite populations...
  82. pmc Patterns of cell division and the risk of cancer
    Steven A Frank
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 2525, USA
    Genetics 163:1527-32. 2003
    ....
  83. pmc Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks
    Feng Fu
    Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, One Brattle Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 78:026117. 2008
    ..Our results highlight the importance of the consideration of reputation (indirect reciprocity) on the promotion of cooperation when individuals can adjust their partnerships...