Alexander G Robling

Summary

Affiliation: Indiana University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi Shorter, more frequent mechanical loading sessions enhance bone mass
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:196-202. 2002
  2. pmc Mechanical signaling for bone modeling and remodeling
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 19:319-38. 2009
  3. ncbi Genetic effects on bone mechanotransduction in congenic mice harboring bone size and strength quantitative trait loci
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 22:984-91. 2007
  4. ncbi Evidence for a skeletal mechanosensitivity gene on mouse chromosome 4
    Alexander G Robling
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    FASEB J 17:324-6. 2003
  5. ncbi Mechanotransduction in bone: genetic effects on mechanosensitivity in mice
    A G Robling
    Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    Bone 31:562-9. 2002
  6. ncbi Recovery periods restore mechanosensitivity to dynamically loaded bone
    A G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Exp Biol 204:3389-99. 2001
  7. ncbi Rac1 mediates the osteoclast gains-in-function induced by haploinsufficiency of Nf1
    Jincheng Yan
    Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 17:936-48. 2008
  8. pmc The p85alpha subunit of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in osteoclast maturation and migration
    Veerendra Munugalavadla
    Department of Pediatrics, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, 2 Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 28:7182-98. 2008
  9. pmc Sost downregulation and local Wnt signaling are required for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading
    Xiaolin Tu
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Bone 50:209-17. 2012
  10. pmc Immortalization and characterization of osteoblast cell lines generated from wild-type and Nmp4-null mouse bone marrow stromal cells using murine telomerase reverse transcriptase (mTERT)
    Marta B Alvarez
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine IUSM, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Cell Physiol 227:1873-82. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi Shorter, more frequent mechanical loading sessions enhance bone mass
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:196-202. 2002
    ..We investigated whether the osteogenic response to a simulated high-impact exercise program lasting 4 months could be enhanced by dividing the daily protocol into brief sessions of loading, separated by recovery periods...
  2. pmc Mechanical signaling for bone modeling and remodeling
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 19:319-38. 2009
    ..Collectively, these data highlight the complex yet finely orchestrated process of mechanically regulated bone homeostasis...
  3. ncbi Genetic effects on bone mechanotransduction in congenic mice harboring bone size and strength quantitative trait loci
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 22:984-91. 2007
    ..Bone size was not consistently associated with mechano-responsiveness, indicating that the genetic regulation of mechanotransduction is a complex process that involves a number of genes and is sex-specific...
  4. ncbi Evidence for a skeletal mechanosensitivity gene on mouse chromosome 4
    Alexander G Robling
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    FASEB J 17:324-6. 2003
    ..Collectively, the results might explain why 4T mice have wider femora and ulnae than do B6 control mice and suggest that mouse Chr. 4 contains a genetic locus that modulates the mechanosensitivity of bone tissue...
  5. ncbi Mechanotransduction in bone: genetic effects on mechanosensitivity in mice
    A G Robling
    Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    Bone 31:562-9. 2002
    ..Identification of the genes that exert their influence on mechanosensitivity could ultimately lead to therapies that enhance bone mass and reduce fracture susceptibility...
  6. ncbi Recovery periods restore mechanosensitivity to dynamically loaded bone
    A G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Exp Biol 204:3389-99. 2001
    ..The results demonstrate the importance of recovery periods for (i) restoring mechanosensitivity to bone cells and (ii) maximizing the osteogenic effects of mechanical loading (exercise) regimens...
  7. ncbi Rac1 mediates the osteoclast gains-in-function induced by haploinsufficiency of Nf1
    Jincheng Yan
    Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Hum Mol Genet 17:936-48. 2008
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rac1 critically contributes to increased osteoclast function induced by haploinsufficiency of Nf1 and implicate Rac1 as a rational therapeutic target for osteoporosis...
  8. pmc The p85alpha subunit of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in osteoclast maturation and migration
    Veerendra Munugalavadla
    Department of Pediatrics, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, 2 Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 28:7182-98. 2008
    ..These results highlight the importance of the full-length version of the p85alpha subunit of class I(A) PI3-K in controlling multiple aspects of osteoclast functions...
  9. pmc Sost downregulation and local Wnt signaling are required for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading
    Xiaolin Tu
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Bone 50:209-17. 2012
    ..Thus, downregulation of Sost/sclerostin in osteocytes is an obligatory step in the mechanotransduction cascade that activates Wnt signaling and directs osteogenesis to where bone is structurally needed...
  10. pmc Immortalization and characterization of osteoblast cell lines generated from wild-type and Nmp4-null mouse bone marrow stromal cells using murine telomerase reverse transcriptase (mTERT)
    Marta B Alvarez
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine IUSM, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Cell Physiol 227:1873-82. 2012
    ..These immortalized cell lines will provide a valuable tool for disentangling the complex functional roles underlying Nmp4/CIZ regulation of bone anabolism...
  11. pmc Anabolic and catabolic regimens of human parathyroid hormone 1-34 elicit bone- and envelope-specific attenuation of skeletal effects in Sost-deficient mice
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS 5035, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Endocrinology 152:2963-75. 2011
    ..Furthermore, Sost deletion protects some trabecular compartments, but not cortical compartments, from bone loss induced by high-dose PTH infusion...
  12. pmc Nmp4/CIZ suppresses the response of bone to anabolic parathyroid hormone by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts
    Paul Childress
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine IUSM, Medical Science Bldg, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 89:74-89. 2011
    ....
  13. ncbi HMGB1 is a bone-active cytokine
    Jieping Yang
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Cell Physiol 214:730-9. 2008
    ..Our data suggest that apoptotic bone cells release HMGB1, that within the marrow HMGB1 is a bone resorption signal, and that intramembraneous and endochondral osteoblasts exhibit differential responses to this cytokine...
  14. pmc RAGE supports parathyroid hormone-induced gains in femoral trabecular bone
    Binu K Philip
    Dept of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 46202, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298:E714-25. 2010
    ..Specifically, RAGE is required for hormone-mediated improvement of femoral trabecular architecture but not intrinsically necessary for increasing cortical thickness...
  15. ncbi Biomechanical and molecular regulation of bone remodeling
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Annu Rev Biomed Eng 8:455-98. 2006
    ..Many of these processes have implications for bone health, disease, and the feasibility of living in weightless environments (e.g., spaceflight)...
  16. pmc Nmp4/CIZ suppresses parathyroid hormone-induced increases in trabecular bone
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine IUSM, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
    J Cell Physiol 219:734-43. 2009
    ..These data support our hypothesis that Nmp4/CIZ is a transcriptional attenuator that suppresses osteoid synthesis and PTH-mediated acquisition of cancellous bone. J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 734-743, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  17. pmc Mechanical stimulation and intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment induce disproportional osteogenic, geometric, and biomechanical effects in growing mouse bone
    Maureen E McAteer
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Dr, MS 5035, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 86:389-96. 2010
    ..Furthermore, exercise studies in which only small changes in bone mass are detected might be more beneficial to bone health and fracture resistance than has commonly been presumed...
  18. ncbi The Wnt co-receptor LRP5 is essential for skeletal mechanotransduction but not for the anabolic bone response to parathyroid hormone treatment
    Kimihiko Sawakami
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Biomechanics and Biomaterials Research Center, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:23698-711. 2006
    ....
  19. ncbi Is HMGB1 an osteocyte alarmin?
    Joseph P Bidwell
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Cell Biochem 103:1671-80. 2008
    ..In this prospectus we will review HMGB1 activity at the immune-bone interface and propose a role for HMGB1 as an osteocyte alarmin and mediator of normal remodeling and inflammatory bone loss...
  20. ncbi Mechanical stimulation of bone in vivo reduces osteocyte expression of Sost/sclerostin
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:5866-75. 2008
    ....
  21. pmc Mechanobiology of the skeleton
    Charles H Turner
    Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Sci Signal 2:pt3. 2009
    ..In particular, focal adhesion kinase and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 appear to be sensors of mechanical loads in bone cells...
  22. pmc Nmp4/CIZ: road block at the intersection of PTH and load
    Paul Childress
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Bone 46:259-66. 2010
    ..Here we describe Nmp4/CIZ within the context of the PTH-induced anabolic response and consider the place of this molecule in the hierarchy of the PTH-load response network...
  23. ncbi Cellular accommodation and the response of bone to mechanical loading
    Jennifer L Schriefer
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Biomech 38:1838-45. 2005
    ..After the initial weeks of loading, bone stopped responding so the degree of adaptation was proportional to the initial peak load magnitude...
  24. ncbi Bone mass and strength: phenotypic and genetic relationship to alcohol preference in P/NP and HAD/LAD rats
    Imranul Alam
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:1769-76. 2005
    ..In this study, we determined whether there is a relationship between alcohol preference and high bone mass or strength and whether bone mass-regulating genes segregate during selective breeding of alcohol preferring rats...
  25. pmc Absence of Cx43 selectively from osteocytes enhances responsiveness to mechanical force in mice
    Nicoletta Bivi
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    J Orthop Res 31:1075-81. 2013
    ..These findings suggest that osteocytes lacking Cx43 are "primed" to respond to mechanical stimulation and that absence of Cx43 in osteocytes unleashes bone formation, by a mechanism that might involve accumulation of β-catenin...
  26. ncbi Nmp4/CIZ contributes to fluid shear stress induced MMP-13 gene induction in osteoblasts
    Kanokwan Charoonpatrapong-Panyayong
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine IUSM, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Cell Biochem 102:1202-13. 2007
    ..We conclude that the PTH regulatory region of MMP-13 also contributes to FSS response and that Nmp4/CIZ plays similar but distinct roles in mediating hormone- and FSS-driven induction of MMP-13 in bone cells...
  27. ncbi Inhibition of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) transporter reduces bone accrual during growth
    Stuart J Warden
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University, 1140 West Michigan Street, CF 326, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Endocrinology 146:685-93. 2005
    ..These findings indicate a role for the 5-HTT in the regulation of bone accrual in the growing skeleton and point to a need for further research into the prescription of SSRIs to children and adolescents...
  28. ncbi A comparison of mechanical properties derived from multiple skeletal sites in mice
    Jennifer L Schriefer
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    J Biomech 38:467-75. 2005
    ..Of the bones tested, the radius was preferred for mechanical testing because of its high aspect ratio, minimal measurement error, and low variability...
  29. ncbi Mechanisms by which exercise improves bone strength
    Charles H Turner
    Orthopaedic Research Laboratories and Biomechanics and Biomaterials Research Center, Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis, 541 Clinical Drive, Room 541, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Bone Miner Metab 23:16-22. 2005
    ..Experimental protocols that insert "rest" periods to reduce the effects of desensitization can double anabolic responses to mechanical loading. Exercises that reduce desensitization may provide an effective means to build bone strength...
  30. pmc Sclerostin inhibition reverses skeletal fragility in an Lrp5-deficient mouse model of OPPG syndrome
    Rajendra Kedlaya
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Sci Transl Med 5:211ra158. 2013
    ..Regardless of the mechanism, our results suggest that humans with OPPG might benefit from sclerostin neutralization therapies. ..
  31. pmc Inactivation of Lrp5 in osteocytes reduces young's modulus and responsiveness to the mechanical loading
    Liming Zhao
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Bone 54:35-43. 2013
    ..In summary, Lrp5-mediated Wnt signaling significantly contributes to maintenance of mechanical properties and bone mass...
  32. pmc The haploinsufficient hematopoietic microenvironment is critical to the pathological fracture repair in murine models of neurofibromatosis type 1
    Xiaohua Wu
    Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24917. 2011
    ..Collectively, these data provide evidence of a combinatory effect between nullizygous loss of Nf1 in osteoblast progenitors and haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells in the development of non-malignant NF1 manifestations...
  33. pmc The emerging role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the skeleton and its mediation of the skeletal effects of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5)
    Stuart J Warden
    Department of Physical Therapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Bone 46:4-12. 2010
    ..This paper discusses the mounting evidence for skeletal effects of 5-HT and the ability of gut-derived 5-HT to satisfactorily explain the skeletal effects of LRP5...
  34. pmc Is bone's response to mechanical signals dominated by muscle forces?
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:2044-9. 2009
    ....
  35. pmc Mechanotransduction in bone tissue: The A214V and G171V mutations in Lrp5 enhance load-induced osteogenesis in a surface-selective manner
    Paul J Niziolek
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    Bone 51:459-65. 2012
    ....
  36. pmc Iron deficiency drives an autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) phenotype in fibroblast growth factor-23 (Fgf23) knock-in mice
    Emily G Farrow
    Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E1146-55. 2011
    ....
  37. ncbi Improved bone structure and strength after long-term mechanical loading is greatest if loading is separated into short bouts
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 17:1545-54. 2002
    ..Modest increases in aBMD and BMC can improve biomechanical properties substantially if the new bone formation is localized to the most biomechanically relevant sites, as occurs during load-induced bone formation...
  38. ncbi Designing exercise regimens to increase bone strength
    Charles H Turner
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 31:45-50. 2003
    ..A collection of studies from the clinic and laboratory have provided new insights into how bone building effects of exercise can be maximized. From the available data we have calculated an "osteogenic index" for exercises...
  39. ncbi The skeletal responsiveness to mechanical loading is enhanced in mice with a null mutation in estrogen receptor-beta
    L K Saxon
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293:E484-91. 2007
    ..001). We conclude that estrogen signaling through ER-beta suppresses the mechanical loading response on the periosteal surface of long bones...
  40. ncbi Exercise as an anabolic stimulus for bone
    Charles H Turner
    Orthopaedic Research Laboratories and Biomechanics and Biomaterials Research Center, Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 10:2629-41. 2004
    ..A drug therapy that suppresses desensitization pathways may provide an effective means to build bone strength...
  41. ncbi Mechanotransduction in bone does not require a functional cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene
    Imranul Alam
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 20:438-46. 2005
    ..However, using mice with a null mutation of the COX-2 gene, we found that a functional COX-2 gene is not required for mechanotransduction. This paradoxical finding may have resulted, in part, from mechanically induced COX-1 activity...
  42. pmc Hyperactivation of p21ras and PI3K cooperate to alter murine and human neurofibromatosis type 1-haploinsufficient osteoclast functions
    Feng Chun Yang
    Department of Pediatrics, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:2880-91. 2006
    ..Collectively, our results identify a what we believe to be a novel cellular and biochemical NF1-haploinsufficient phenotype in osteoclasts that has potential implications for the pathogenesis of NF1 bone disease...
  43. ncbi HMGB1 expression and release by bone cells
    Kanokwan Charoonpatrapong
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine IUSM, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    J Cell Physiol 207:480-90. 2006
    ..PTH-induced HMGB1 discharge by UMR cells exhibits similar release kinetics as reported for activated macrophages. These data confirm the presence of the HMGB1/RAGE signaling axis in bone...
  44. pmc Exercises for improving bone strength
    C H Turner
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, 1120 South Drive, FH 115, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Br J Sports Med 39:188-9. 2005
  45. ncbi Do bone cells behave like a neuronal network?
    C H Turner
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine and The Biomechanics and Biomaterials Research Center, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    Calcif Tissue Int 70:435-42. 2002
    ..mechanical loading, disuse, and PTH, compared with long bones. We speculate that the history of weight bearing imparts long-term cellular memory to the bone cell network that modulates the cellular response to a wide variety of stimuli...
  46. ncbi Mechanical stimulation in vivo reduces osteocyte expression of sclerostin
    A G Robling
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46032, USA
    J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 6:354. 2006
  47. doi The interaction of biological factors with mechanical signals in bone adaptation: recent developments
    Alexander G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, MS 5035, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA
    Curr Osteoporos Rep 10:126-31. 2012
    ..These and other recent mechanisms are reviewed to provide a synthesis of recent experimental findings, in the larger context of whole bone adaptation...
  48. ncbi The effects of dynamic axial loading on the rat growth plate
    Naoko Ohashi
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 17:284-92. 2002
    ..Only the largest load (17N) caused morphological changes in the distal growth plate cartilage. There was no association found between mineralization and type X collagen localization or capillary invasion and VEGF expression...
  49. ncbi Mechanosensitivity of the rat skeleton decreases after a long period of loading, but is improved with time off
    L K Saxon
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, IUPUI, Room 600, 541 Clinical Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Bone 36:454-64. 2005
    ..Having time off increases bone formation and improves the resistance to fracture...
  50. pmc Reduced gravitational loading does not account for the skeletal effect of botulinum toxin-induced muscle inhibition suggesting a direct effect of muscle on bone
    Stuart J Warden
    Center for Translational Musculoskeletal Research, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Bone 54:98-105. 2013
    ..This effect may be relevant in the development of strategies targeting musculoskeletal health...
  51. ncbi Mechanical loading of diaphyseal bone in vivo: the strain threshold for an osteogenic response varies with location
    Y F Hsieh
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202, USA
    J Bone Miner Res 16:2291-7. 2001
    ..The threshold strain is largest distally, where locomotor bone strains are typically higher and smallest proximally where locomotor bone strains are lower...
  52. ncbi Effects of biomechanical stress on bones in animals
    David B Burr
    Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Bone 30:781-6. 2002
    ..The data also suggest that activities involving higher loading rates are more effective for increasing bone formation, even if the duration of the activity is short...
  53. ncbi Late progression of renal pathology and cyst enlargement is reduced by rapamycin in a mouse model of nephronophthisis
    Vincent H Gattone
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Kidney Int 76:178-82. 2009
    ..Our study shows that rapamycin can prevent the late- but not the early-stage progression of renal pathology and deterioration of renal functional in this model of nephronophthisis, presumably by inhibiting mTOR activity...
  54. ncbi Modulation of appositional and longitudinal bone growth in the rat ulna by applied static and dynamic force
    A G Robling
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
    Bone 29:105-13. 2001
    ....
  55. ncbi Dentin matrix protein 1 gene cis-regulation: use in osteocytes to characterize local responses to mechanical loading in vitro and in vivo
    Wuchen Yang
    Department of Periodontics and Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:20680-90. 2005
    ..Thus, the 8-kb region of the DMP1 gene is a target for mechanotransduction in osteocytes, and its cis-regulatory activity may be correlated to local strain in bone...