A Pascual-Leone

Summary

Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The brain that plays music and is changed by it
    A Pascual-Leone
    Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 930:315-29. 2001
  2. pmc Transcranial magnetic stimulation: studying the brain-behaviour relationship by induction of 'virtual lesions'
    A Pascual-Leone
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:1229-38. 1999
  3. ncbi request reprint [Cognitive and behavioral disorders in Parkinson disease]
    A Pascual-Leone
    Unidad de NeurologĂ­a del Comportamiento, Universidad de Harvard, Boston, MA, USA
    Rev Neurol 29:152-7. 1999
  4. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation in cognitive neuroscience--virtual lesion, chronometry, and functional connectivity
    A Pascual-Leone
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:232-7. 2000
  5. ncbi request reprint Chronometry of parietal and prefrontal activations in verbal working memory revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation
    F M Mottaghy
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, 330 Brookline Avenue, Kirstein Building KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroimage 18:565-75. 2003
  6. ncbi request reprint Phase-specific modulation of cortical motor output during movement observation
    M Gangitano
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroreport 12:1489-92. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Intracortical inhibition and facilitation in human facial motor area: difference between upper and lower facial area
    M Kobayashi
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue KS452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 112:1604-11. 2001
  8. pmc Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is as effective as fluoxetine in the treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease
    F Fregni
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1171-4. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Feeling by sight or seeing by touch?
    Lotfi Merabet
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuron 42:173-9. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Exploring paradoxical functional facilitation with TMS
    Hugo Theoret
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Suppl Clin Neurophysiol 56:211-9. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint The brain that plays music and is changed by it
    A Pascual-Leone
    Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 930:315-29. 2001
    ..These plastic changes are fundamental to the accomplishment of skillful playing, but they pose a risk for the development of motor control dysfunctions that may give rise to overuse syndromes and focal, task-specific dystonia...
  2. pmc Transcranial magnetic stimulation: studying the brain-behaviour relationship by induction of 'virtual lesions'
    A Pascual-Leone
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:1229-38. 1999
    ..TMS can enhance the results of other neuroimaging techniques by establishing the causal link between brain activity and task performance, and by exploring functional brain connectivity...
  3. ncbi request reprint [Cognitive and behavioral disorders in Parkinson disease]
    A Pascual-Leone
    Unidad de NeurologĂ­a del Comportamiento, Universidad de Harvard, Boston, MA, USA
    Rev Neurol 29:152-7. 1999
    ..Most patients with Parkinson's disease have cognitive and behavior disorders during the course of their illness...
  4. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation in cognitive neuroscience--virtual lesion, chronometry, and functional connectivity
    A Pascual-Leone
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:232-7. 2000
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Chronometry of parietal and prefrontal activations in verbal working memory revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation
    F M Mottaghy
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, 330 Brookline Avenue, Kirstein Building KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroimage 18:565-75. 2003
    ..Left- and right-sided brain areas might be involved in parallel processing of semantic and object features of the stimuli, respectively...
  6. ncbi request reprint Phase-specific modulation of cortical motor output during movement observation
    M Gangitano
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroreport 12:1489-92. 2001
    ..The presence of such an effect is consistent with the notion of a mirror neuron system in premotor areas that couples action execution and action observation also in terms of temporal coding...
  7. ncbi request reprint Intracortical inhibition and facilitation in human facial motor area: difference between upper and lower facial area
    M Kobayashi
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue KS452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 112:1604-11. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: The bi-hemispheric control of volitional movement and the modulation from brainstem projections appear to markedly influence intracortical inhibitory and excitatory systems in the motor cortical representation of o. oculi...
  8. pmc Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is as effective as fluoxetine in the treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease
    F Fregni
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 75:1171-4. 2004
    ..To study the efficacy of 15 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treating depression in patients with Parkinson's disease...
  9. ncbi request reprint Feeling by sight or seeing by touch?
    Lotfi Merabet
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuron 42:173-9. 2004
    ..The differential effect of rTMS on task performance and corroborative clinical evidence suggest that occipital cortex is engaged in tactile tasks requiring fine spatial discrimination...
  10. ncbi request reprint Exploring paradoxical functional facilitation with TMS
    Hugo Theoret
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Suppl Clin Neurophysiol 56:211-9. 2003
  11. ncbi request reprint Effects of single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on functional brain activity: a combined event-related TMS and evoked potential study
    G Thut
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Kirstein Building KS 454, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 114:2071-80. 2003
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Repetitive TMS of the motor cortex improves ipsilateral sequential simple finger movements
    M Kobayashi
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neurology 62:91-8. 2004
    ..The authors hypothesize that reducing cortical excitability of M1 by rTMS may improve motor performance in the ipsilateral hand by releasing the contralateral M1 from transcallosal inhibition...
  13. ncbi request reprint Increased variability of paced finger tapping accuracy following repetitive magnetic stimulation of the cerebellum in humans
    H Theoret
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave KS 454, Boston MA 02215, USA
    Neurosci Lett 306:29-32. 2001
    ..This method of 'virtual lesions' can expand the study of the role of the cerebellum in motor control and cognition...
  14. ncbi request reprint Enhanced visual spatial attention ipsilateral to rTMS-induced 'virtual lesions' of human parietal cortex
    C C Hilgetag
    Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, 700 Albany Street W746, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    Nat Neurosci 4:953-7. 2001
    ..These results underline the potential of focal brain dysfunction to produce behavioral improvement and give experimental support to models of interhemispheric competition in the distributed brain network for spatial attention...
  15. ncbi request reprint Transient tinnitus suppression induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation
    F Fregni
    Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Eur J Neurol 13:996-1001. 2006
    ..These effects were short lasting. These results replicate the findings of the previous study and, in addition, show preliminary evidence that anodal tDCS of LTA induces a similar transient tinnitus reduction as high-frequency rTMS...
  16. ncbi request reprint Ipsilateral motor cortex activation on functional magnetic resonance imaging during unilateral hand movements is related to interhemispheric interactions
    Masahito Kobayashi
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroimage 20:2259-70. 2003
    ..Instead, IpsiLM1 may reveal an enhanced interhemispheric inhibition from the right hemisphere upon the left to suppress superfluous, excessive activation...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effects of musical training on speech-induced modulation in corticospinal excitability
    Kuang Lin Lin
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 454, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroreport 13:899-902. 2002
    ..However, the musicians also showed significant facilitation in the left FDI, while controls did not. These results illustrate striking effects of musical training on lateralization of motor and language functions...
  18. ncbi request reprint Modulation of intracortical neuronal circuits in human hand motor area by digit stimulation
    Masahito Kobayashi
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave KS452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Exp Brain Res 149:1-8. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that indirect pathways, probably through somatosensory cortex and other areas, enhance intracortical motor excitability in a somatotopically organized manner...
  19. ncbi request reprint Tactile spatial resolution in blind braille readers
    R W Van Boven
    Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL, USA
    Neurology 54:2230-6. 2000
    ..To determine if blind people have heightened tactile spatial acuity...
  20. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroplasticity
    A Pascual-Leone
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Neuropsychologia 37:207-17. 1999
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Lateral visual field stimulation reveals extrastriate cortical activation in the contralateral hemisphere: an fMRI study
    Fredric Schiffer
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, and the Developmental Biopsychiatry Research Program, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Psychiatry Res 131:1-9. 2004
    ..LSTM appears to increase contralateral fMRI activation in striate and extrastriate cortical areas as predicted by earlier studies reporting differential cognitive and/or emotional effects from unilateral sensory or motor stimulation...
  22. ncbi request reprint Diminishing risk-taking behavior by modulating activity in the prefrontal cortex: a direct current stimulation study
    Shirley Fecteau
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Neurosci 27:12500-5. 2007
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Dissociable networks for the expectancy and perception of emotional stimuli in the human brain
    Felix Bermpohl
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02132, USA
    Neuroimage 30:588-600. 2006
    ..This dissociation may reflect a distinction between anticipatory and perceptive components of emotional stimulus processing...
  24. ncbi request reprint Alpha-band electroencephalographic activity over occipital cortex indexes visuospatial attention bias and predicts visual target detection
    Gregor Thut
    Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Neurosci 26:9494-502. 2006
    ..They suggest that the momentary direction of attention, predicting spatial biases in imminent visual processing, can be estimated from a lateralization index of posterior alpha-activity...
  25. ncbi request reprint Unconscious modulation of motor cortex excitability revealed with transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Hugo Theoret
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Exp Brain Res 155:261-4. 2004
    ..These data confirm previous reports showing specific motor neural responses associated with an unseen visual stimulus and establish TMS as a valuable tool in the study of the neural correlates of consciousness...
  26. pmc Off-line learning of motor skill memory: a double dissociation of goal and movement
    Daniel A Cohen
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18237-41. 2005
    ..Consolidation is not a single process; instead, there are multiple routes to off-line learning, and the engagement of these distinct mechanisms is determined by when consolidation takes place...
  27. ncbi request reprint Motor facilitation while observing hand actions: specificity of the effect and role of observer's orientation
    Fumiko Maeda
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Neurophysiol 87:1329-35. 2002
    ..The degree of modulation depends on hand orientation. The modulation is maximal when the observed action corresponds to the orientation of the observer...
  28. ncbi request reprint Repetitive TMS temporarily alters brain diffusion
    F M Mottaghy
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Neurology 60:1539-41. 2003
    ..These findings provide a physiologic correlate to the reported behavioral consequences of off-line 1-Hz rTMS and reveal the transitory nature of the effects...
  29. ncbi request reprint Left hand advantage in a self-face recognition task
    J P Keenan
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuropsychologia 37:1421-5. 1999
    ..These results are in agreement with previous research indicating that self-directed awareness is correlated with right prefrontal activity...
  30. ncbi request reprint Studies in cognition: the problems solved and created by transcranial magnetic stimulation
    E M Robertson
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Cogn Neurosci 15:948-60. 2003
    ..Although TMS can help bridge the gap between psychological models and brain-based arguments of cognitive functions, hypothesis-driven carefully designed experiments that acknowledge the current limitations of TMS are critical...
  31. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation of primary motor cortex affects mental rotation
    G Ganis
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University and Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Cereb Cortex 10:175-80. 2000
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Fast backprojections from the motion to the primary visual area necessary for visual awareness
    A Pascual-Leone
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Kirstein Hall KS454, Boston MA 02115, USA
    Science 292:510-2. 2001
    ..We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to probe the timing and function of feedback from human area MT+/V5 to V1 and found its action to be early and critical for awareness of visual motion...
  33. ncbi request reprint Effects of antidepressant treatment with rTMS and fluoxetine on brain perfusion in PD
    F Fregni
    Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neurology 66:1629-37. 2006
    ..Although depression is highly prevalent in Parkinson disease (PD), little is known about the neural correlates associated with depression and antidepressant treatment in PD...
  34. ncbi request reprint Time-dependent changes in cortical excitability after prolonged visual deprivation
    Naomi B Pitskel
    Department of Neurology, Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Neuroreport 18:1703-7. 2007
    ..Thus, light deprivation is characterized by a transient increase in visual cortical excitability, followed by a sustained decrease in visual cortex excitability that quickly returns to baseline levels after re-exposure to light...
  35. ncbi request reprint Modulation of steady-state auditory evoked potentials by cerebellar rTMS
    Maria A Pastor
    Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Exp Brain Res 175:702-9. 2006
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the parietal cortex on metabolic brain activity: a 14C-2DG tracing study in the cat
    Antoni Valero-Cabre
    Cerebral Dynamics, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Exp Brain Res 163:1-12. 2005
    ..Thus, in the anesthetized animal, the impact of rTMS is upon a distributed network of structures connected to the primary site of application...
  37. ncbi request reprint Opposite impact on 14C-2-deoxyglucose brain metabolism following patterns of high and low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the posterior parietal cortex
    Antoni Valero-Cabre
    Laboratory of Cerebral Dynamics, Plasticity and Rehabilitation, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Exp Brain Res 176:603-15. 2007
    ..The findings are consistent with previous differential electrophysiological and behavioral effects of low and high frequency rTMS patterns and provide support to uses of rTMS in neuromodulation...
  38. ncbi request reprint Reciprocal modulation and attenuation in the prefrontal cortex: an fMRI study on emotional-cognitive interaction
    Georg Northoff
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 21:202-12. 2004
    ..Reciprocal modulation and attenuation in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex might constitute the neurophysiologic basis for emotional-cognitive interaction as observed in both healthy and psychiatric subjects...
  39. ncbi request reprint How do we modulate our emotions? Parametric fMRI reveals cortical midline structures as regions specifically involved in the processing of emotional valences
    Alexander Heinzel
    Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02215, USA
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 25:348-58. 2005
    ..We conclude that the psychological concept of emotional valence may be related to neural processing in cortical midline regions...
  40. ncbi request reprint Attentional modulation of emotional stimulus processing: an fMRI study using emotional expectancy
    Felix Bermpohl
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Hum Brain Mapp 27:662-77. 2006
    ..This enhancement effect is not present in neutral pictures and might parallel accentuated subjective feeling states...
  41. ncbi request reprint Correlation of cerebral blood flow and treatment effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed patients
    Felix M Mottaghy
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Psychiatry Res 115:1-14. 2002
    ..Brain SPECT can provide information about mechanisms of action of rTMS and may have predictive value for the antidepressant efficacy of rTMS...
  42. doi request reprint Psychopathy and the mirror neuron system: preliminary findings from a non-psychiatric sample
    Shirley Fecteau
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Psychiatry Res 160:137-44. 2008
    ..These data suggest the existence of a functional link between 'motor empathy' and psychopathy...
  43. doi request reprint Impaired interhemispheric interactions in patients with major depression
    Sami Bajwa
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Nerv Ment Dis 196:671-7. 2008
    ..Our findings showing a decreased interhemispheric modulation in patients with major depression are consistent with the notion that mood disorders are associated with slow interhemispheric switching mechanisms...
  44. pmc Neuronavigation increases the physiologic and behavioral effects of low-frequency rTMS of primary motor cortex in healthy subjects
    S Bashir
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Division of Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Brain Topogr 24:54-64. 2011
    ..Our findings highlight the spatial specificity of inter-hemispheric TMS effects, illustrate the superiority of navigated rTMS for certain applications, and have implications for therapeutic applications of rTMS...
  45. ncbi request reprint Hand response differences in a self-face identification task
    J P Keenan
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuropsychologia 38:1047-53. 2000
    ..The data suggest that participants are inclined to identify images as their own when the right hemisphere is preferentially accessed...
  46. ncbi request reprint Modulation of spinal cord excitability by subthreshold repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex in humans
    A Valero-Cabre
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroreport 12:3845-8. 2001
    ..Sham stimulation did not induce any noticeable change in M or H waves. Slow rTMS might facilitate monosynaptic spinal cord reflexes by inhibiting the cortico-spinal projections modulating spinal excitability...
  47. ncbi request reprint The role of area 17 in visual imagery: convergent evidence from PET and rTMS
    S M Kosslyn
    Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 284:167-70. 1999
    ..In sum, the PET results showed that when patterns of stripes are visualized, Area 17 is activated, and the rTMS results showed that such activation underlies information processing...
  48. ncbi request reprint Safety of rTMS to non-motor cortical areas in healthy participants and patients
    Katsuyuki Machii
    Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:455-71. 2006
    ..We reviewed the literature and our own data to assess the safety of rTMS to non-motor areas...
  49. ncbi request reprint A randomized, sham-controlled, proof of principle study of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 54:3988-98. 2006
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Combined activation and deactivation of visual cortex during tactile sensory processing
    Lotfi B Merabet
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 430, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Neurophysiol 97:1633-41. 2007
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Inter- and intra-individual variability of paired-pulse curves with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
    Fumiko Maeda
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Kirstein Building KS 454, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston MA, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 113:376-82. 2002
    ..Here we evaluate the reproducibility and inter-hemispheric variability of measures of cortical excitability using the 'conventional' paired-pulse (PP) TMS technique...
  52. ncbi request reprint Transcranial direct current stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patients
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Neuroreport 16:1551-5. 2005
    ..These results suggest that the appropriate modulation of bihemispheric brain structures can promote motor function recovery...
  53. ncbi request reprint A controlled clinical trial of cathodal DC polarization in patients with refractory epilepsy
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, U S A
    Epilepsia 47:335-42. 2006
    ..To study the effects of cathodal DC polarization in patients with refractory epilepsy and malformations of cortical development (MCDs) as indexed by seizure frequency and epileptiform EEG discharges...
  54. ncbi request reprint Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation coupled with repetitive electrical stimulation on cortical spreading depression
    Felipe Fregni
    Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Exp Neurol 204:462-6. 2007
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint Immediate placebo effect in Parkinson's disease--is the subjective relief accompanied by objective improvement?
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass, USA
    Eur Neurol 56:222-9. 2006
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint A randomized clinical trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with refractory epilepsy
    Felipe Fregni
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Ann Neurol 60:447-55. 2006
    ..To study the antiepileptic effects of rTMS in patients with refractory epilepsy and malformations of cortical development in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial...
  57. ncbi request reprint Hand motor recovery after stroke: tuning the orchestra to improve hand motor function
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cogn Behav Neurol 19:21-33. 2006
    ..This paper reviews the stroke characteristics that can predict a good recovery and compensations across brain areas that can be implemented after a stroke to accelerate motor function recovery...
  58. ncbi request reprint Noninvasive cortical stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation in Parkinson's disease
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Mov Disord 21:1693-702. 2006
    ..These results confirm and extend the notion that cortical brain stimulation might improve motor function in patients with PD...
  59. ncbi request reprint A sham-controlled trial of a 5-day course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patients
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, KS 452, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Stroke 37:2115-22. 2006
    ..We therefore conducted a randomized, sham-controlled, phase II trial to evaluate whether five sessions of low-frequency rTMS can increase the magnitude and duration of these effects and whether this approach is safe...
  60. pmc Concepts are more than percepts: the case of action verbs
    Marina Bedny
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Neurosci 28:11347-53. 2008
    ..We conclude that concepts are abstracted away from sensory-motor experience and organized according to conceptual properties...
  61. ncbi request reprint Homeostatic effects of plasma valproate levels on corticospinal excitability changes induced by 1Hz rTMS in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
    Felipe Fregni
    Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:1217-27. 2006
    ..Therefore, we aimed to study the effects of 1 Hz rTMS on corticospinal excitability in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in two different conditions: low- or high-plasma valproate levels...
  62. ncbi request reprint A sham-controlled, phase II trial of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of central pain in traumatic spinal cord injury
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Pain 122:197-209. 2006
    ..We discuss potential mechanisms for pain amelioration after tDCS, such as a secondary modulation of thalamic nuclei activity...
  63. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression in neurologic disorders
    Felipe Fregni
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Psychiatry Rep 7:381-90. 2005
    ..Lastly, a framework that includes the parameters of stimulation (intensity, frequency, number of pulses, and site of stimulation) for the treatment of depression in neurologic diseases is proposed...
  64. ncbi request reprint The plastic human brain cortex
    Alvaro Pascual-Leone
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Annu Rev Neurosci 28:377-401. 2005
    ..The challenge we face is to learn enough about the mechanisms of plasticity to modulate them to achieve the best behavioral outcome for a given subject...
  65. ncbi request reprint Off-line learning and the primary motor cortex
    Edwin M Robertson
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Neurosci 25:6372-8. 2005
    ..Off-line improvements of similar magnitude are not supported by similar mechanisms; instead, the mechanisms engaged may depend on brain state...
  66. ncbi request reprint Modulation of premotor mirror neuron activity during observation of unpredictable grasping movements
    Massimo Gangitano
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Division of Behavioural Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2193-202. 2004
    ..They further support the notion of the role of the mirror system as neural substrate for the observing-execution matching system and extend the current knowledge regarding mechanisms that trigger the internal representation of an action...
  67. ncbi request reprint Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of human area MT/V5 disrupts perception and storage of the motion aftereffect
    Hugo Theoret
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 454, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuropsychologia 40:2280-7. 2002
    ..These data provide experimental support for the notion that MT/V5 subserves perception and storage of the motion aftereffect...
  68. pmc Baseline cortical excitability determines whether TMS disrupts or facilitates behavior
    Juha Silvanto
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Neurophysiol 99:2725-30. 2008
    ..Our findings provide further evidence for the view that the effects of TMS are modulated by the initial activation state of the targeted neural population...
  69. ncbi request reprint Cortical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex with transcranial direct current stimulation reduces cue-provoked smoking craving: a randomized, sham-controlled study
    Felipe Fregni
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02215, USA
    J Clin Psychiatry 69:32-40. 2008
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint Current concepts in procedural consolidation
    Edwin M Robertson
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Kirstein Building KS 454, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 5:576-82. 2004
  71. ncbi request reprint Modulation in motor threshold after a severe episode of gastrointestinal distress
    Felipe Fregni
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J ECT 20:50-1. 2004
  72. doi request reprint Cumulative sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) build up facilitation to subsequent TMS-mediated behavioural disruptions
    Antoni Valero-Cabre
    Laboratory for Cerebral Dynamics, Plasticity and Rehabilitation, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 27:765-74. 2008
    ..Such a phenomenon allows a behavioural effect of progressively higher magnitude, but equal duration, in response to individual TMS interventions...
  73. pmc Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex modulates the desire for specific foods
    Felipe Fregni
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue KS 454, Boston, MA, 02215, USA
    Appetite 51:34-41. 2008
    ..These changes were not related to mood changes after any type of tDCS treatment. The effects of tDCS on food craving might be related to a modulation of neural circuits associated with reward and decision-making...
  74. ncbi request reprint Awareness modifies the skill-learning benefits of sleep
    Edwin M Robertson
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Biol 14:208-12. 2004
    ..These results show a behavioral dissociation, based upon an individual's awareness for having learned a sequence of finger movements. Offline learning is sleep dependent for explicit skills but time dependent for implicit skills...
  75. ncbi request reprint Behavioral and neuroplastic changes in the blind: evidence for functionally relevant cross-modal interactions
    Hugo Theoret
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Physiol Paris 98:221-33. 2004
    ..These issues have important implications for the development of visual prosthesis aimed at restoring some degree of vision in the blind...
  76. ncbi request reprint What blindness can tell us about seeing again: merging neuroplasticity and neuroprostheses
    Lotfi B Merabet
    Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 6:71-7. 2005
    ..However, success in developing functional visual prostheses requires an understanding of how to communicate effectively with the visually deprived brain in order to merge what is perceived visually with what is generated electrically...
  77. ncbi request reprint Shape conveyed by visual-to-auditory sensory substitution activates the lateral occipital complex
    Amir Amedi
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:687-9. 2007
    ..Recognizing objects by their typical sounds or learning to associate specific soundscapes with specific objects do not activate this region. This suggests that LOtv is driven by the presence of shape information...
  78. ncbi request reprint Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex enhances working memory
    Felipe Fregni
    Harvard Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330, Brookline Avenue, KS 452, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Exp Brain Res 166:23-30. 2005
    ..Furthermore, this effect depends on the stimulation polarity and is specific to the site of stimulation. This result may be helpful to develop future interventions aiming at clinical benefits...
  79. ncbi request reprint Antiepileptic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with cortical malformations: an EEG and clinical study
    Felipe Fregni
    Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 83:57-62. 2005
    ..To study the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on epileptic EEG discharges in patients with refractory epilepsy and malformations of cortical development (MCDs)...
  80. ncbi request reprint The time course of off-line motor sequence learning
    Daniel Z Press
    Behavioral Neurology Unit and Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 25:375-8. 2005
    ..Only those re-tested 4 h or 12 h after initial testing showed off-line improvements. This demonstrates that implicitly acquired skills can increase between sessions and the process occurs over hours...
  81. ncbi request reprint Disrupting the brain to guide plasticity and improve behavior
    Alvaro Pascual-Leone
    Department of Neurology, Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Prog Brain Res 157:315-329. 2006
    ..Such interventions to guide behavior or treat pathological symptomatology might be more immediate in their behavioral repercussion and thus more effective than approaches intent on addressing underlying genetic predispositions...
  82. ncbi request reprint Recent advances in the treatment of chronic pain with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques
    Felipe Fregni
    Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02115, USA
    Lancet Neurol 6:188-91. 2007
    ..However, recent advancements in the techniques of non-invasive brain stimulation have enhanced their modulatory effects and thus become a new, attractive alternative for chronic pain treatment...
  83. ncbi request reprint 'Who is the ideal candidate?': decisions and issues relating to visual neuroprosthesis development, patient testing and neuroplasticity
    Lotfi B Merabet
    Department of Neurology, Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Neural Eng 4:S130-5. 2007
    ..Specifically, an understanding of the adaptive and compensatory changes that occur within the brain could assist in guiding the development of post-implantation rehabilitative strategies and optimize behavioral outcomes...
  84. pmc The 'when' pathway of the right parietal lobe
    Lorella Battelli
    Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 11:204-10. 2007
    ..We propose that the disruption of this mechanism is the underlying cause of a wide range of seemingly unrelated tasks being impaired in right parietal patients...
  85. ncbi request reprint Impact of TMS on the primary motor cortex and associated spinal systems
    Antoni Valero-Cabre
    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag 24:29-35. 2005
  86. ncbi request reprint Negative BOLD differentiates visual imagery and perception
    Amir Amedi
    Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Neuron 48:859-72. 2005
    ..We suggest that pure visual imagery corresponds to the isolated activation of visual cortical areas with concurrent deactivation of "irrelevant" sensory processing that could disrupt the image created by our "mind's eye."..
  87. ncbi request reprint Intracranial measurement of current densities induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the human brain
    Tim Wagner
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave KS 454, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neurosci Lett 354:91-4. 2004
    ..The induced currents decayed with distance form the coil and varied with alterations in coil orientations. These results provide novel insight into the physical and neurophysiological processes of TMS...
  88. pmc The neurocognitive connection between physical activity and eating behaviour
    R J Joseph
    Center for the Study of Nutrition Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Obes Rev 12:800-12. 2011
    ..Understanding how physical activity and eating behaviours interact on a neurocognitive level may help to maintain a healthy lifestyle in an obesogenic environment...
  89. ncbi request reprint A sham stimulation-controlled trial of rTMS of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patients
    C G Mansur
    Harvard Center for Non Invasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neurology 64:1802-4. 2005
    ..Patients showed a significant decrease in simple and choice reaction time and improved performance of the Purdue Pegboard test with their affected hand after rTMS of the motor cortex in the intact hemisphere as compared with sham rTMS...
  90. pmc Non-invasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature
    F Fregni
    Harvard Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1614-23. 2005
    ..TMS, across applied stimulation sites and parameters, can exert a significant, albeit modest, positive effect on the motor function of patients with PD. ECT also may exert a significant effect on motor function in PD patients...
  91. ncbi request reprint Prefrontal cortex: procedural sequence learning and awareness
    E M Robertson
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Behavioral Neurology Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 454, 02215, Boston, MA, USA
    Curr Biol 13:R65-7. 2003
    ..A recent study, however, finds activation of the prefrontal cortex during such tasks regardless of awareness. So what is the neurophysiological basis of awareness, and what is the role of the prefrontal cortex in sequence learning?..
  92. ncbi request reprint Differential effects of low-frequency rTMS at the occipital pole on visual-induced alpha desynchronization and visual-evoked potentials
    G Thut
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Kirstein Building KS 454, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Neuroimage 18:334-47. 2003
    ..This is consistent with the idea that alpha desynchronization serves an integrative role through a corticocortical "gating function."..
  93. pmc Transcranial magnetic stimulation coregistered with MRI: a comparison of a guided versus blind stimulation technique and its effect on evoked compound muscle action potentials
    L D Gugino
    Department of Anesthesia, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, CWN L1, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 112:1781-92. 2001
    ..The latter consists of the conventional placement of the TMS coil on the optimal scalp position for activation of the first dorsal interossei (FDI) muscle...
  94. ncbi request reprint Age-related differences in movement representation
    S Hutchinson
    Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Neuroimage 17:1720-8. 2002
    ..This study has important implications for functional imaging experiments of neurological disorders in older subjects...
  95. ncbi request reprint Segregation of areas related to visual working memory in the prefrontal cortex revealed by rTMS
    F M Mottaghy
    Laboratory for Magnetic Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, 330 Brookline Avenue, Kirstein Building KS 454, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cereb Cortex 12:369-75. 2002
    ..Transient disruption of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affected performance in both tasks. These findings provide evidence of domain-specific segregation of WM functions in widely separated areas of prefrontal cortex...
  96. ncbi request reprint [Transcranial magnetic stimulation: the foundation and potential of modulating specific neuronal networks]
    A Pascual-Leone
    Berenson Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachussets 02215, USA
    Rev Neurol 46:S3-10. 2008
    ..To offer an introduction to the neurophysiologic technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
  97. ncbi request reprint [Transcranial magnetic stimulation]
    J M Tormos
    , , Universidad de Harvard, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Rev Neurol 29:165-71. 1999
    ....
  98. pmc Transient suppression of seizures by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a case of Rasmussen's encephalitis
    Alexander Rotenberg
    Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epilepsy Behav 13:260-2. 2008
    ..Thus, we present this case to illustrate a potential utility of combined continuous EEG recording and rTMS in seizure treatment...
  99. ncbi request reprint Comparison of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy in unipolar non-psychotic refractory depression: a randomized, single-blind study
    Moacyr Alexandro Rosa
    Institute of Psychiatry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo SP, Brazil
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 9:667-76. 2006
    ....
  100. ncbi request reprint rTMS to the supplementary motor area disrupts bimanual coordination
    Sukhvinder S Obhi
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at University College London, London, UK WC1N 3AR
    Motor Control 6:319-32. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that the rostral parts of the SMA play an important role in aspects of functional bimanual tasks, which involve tight temporal coordination between different motor actions of the two hands...
  101. ncbi request reprint Prefrontal lesions impair the implicit and explicit learning of sequences on visuomotor tasks
    Marian Gomez Beldarrain
    Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital de Galdacano, 48960 Galdacano, Vizcaya, Spain
    Exp Brain Res 142:529-38. 2002
    ..1) To verify whether the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is specifically involved in visuomotor sequence learning as opposed to other forms of motor learning and (2) to establish the role of executive functions in visuomotor sequence learning...