Mohammed R Milad

Summary

Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Orbitofrontal thickness, retention of fear extinction, and extraversion
    Scott L Rauch
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Neuroreport 16:1909-12. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Recall of fear extinction in humans activates the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in concert
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:446-54. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Physiology, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732, USA
    Nature 420:70-4. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response
    Scott P Orr
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Service 151, 718 Smyth Road, Manchester, NH 03104, United States
    Biol Psychol 73:262-71. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint A role for the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in fear expression
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1191-4. 2007
  6. pmc Meeting report: "Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back"
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 3:6. 2013
  7. doi request reprint Deficits in conditioned fear extinction in obsessive-compulsive disorder and neurobiological changes in the fear circuit
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA
    JAMA Psychiatry 70:608-18; quiz 554. 2013
  8. pmc Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders
    Kelimer Lebron-Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 2:3. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond segregated cortico-striatal pathways
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 16:43-51. 2012
  10. ncbi request reprint The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in anxiety disorders
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1121:546-61. 2007

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications46

  1. ncbi request reprint Orbitofrontal thickness, retention of fear extinction, and extraversion
    Scott L Rauch
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Neuroreport 16:1909-12. 2005
    ..Path analysis indicates that extinction retention mediates the relationship between the medial orbitofrontal cortex thickness and extraversion, thereby illustrating one path through which brain structure influences personality...
  2. ncbi request reprint Recall of fear extinction in humans activates the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in concert
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:446-54. 2007
    ..The aim of the present study is to investigate the mediating anatomy of extinction recall in healthy humans...
  3. ncbi request reprint Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Physiology, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732, USA
    Nature 420:70-4. 2002
    ..We suggest that consolidation of extinction learning potentiates infralimbic activity, which inhibits fear during subsequent encounters with fear stimuli...
  4. ncbi request reprint Effects of beta blockade, PTSD diagnosis, and explicit threat on the extinction and retention of an aversively conditioned response
    Scott P Orr
    Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Research Service 151, 718 Smyth Road, Manchester, NH 03104, United States
    Biol Psychol 73:262-71. 2006
    ..This suggests that belief in the presence of a threat is necessary and sufficient for activating a previously established CR...
  5. ncbi request reprint A role for the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in fear expression
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1191-4. 2007
    ..This study examined the role of dACC during fear conditioning in healthy humans with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
  6. pmc Meeting report: "Depression and Anxiety Spectrum disorders: from basic science to the clinic and back"
    Suzanne N Haber
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 3:6. 2013
    ..The audience included faculty, residents, and students. The Dean of the Medical School opened the meeting, welcoming the guest speakers and participants...
  7. doi request reprint Deficits in conditioned fear extinction in obsessive-compulsive disorder and neurobiological changes in the fear circuit
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA
    JAMA Psychiatry 70:608-18; quiz 554. 2013
    ..Elevated fear and anxiety are common characteristics of this disorder. The neurobiology of fear regulation and consolidation of safety memories have not been examined in this patient population...
  8. pmc Sex differences, gonadal hormones and the fear extinction network: implications for anxiety disorders
    Kelimer Lebron-Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 2:3. 2012
    ..We end with a discussion of how knowledge to be gained from developing this line of research may have significant ramifications towards the etiology, epidemiology and treatment of anxiety disorders...
  9. doi request reprint Obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond segregated cortico-striatal pathways
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 16:43-51. 2012
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in anxiety disorders
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1121:546-61. 2007
    ..We will also review the role of the OFC in fear extinction and the implications of this role to the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders...
  11. pmc Neurobiological basis of failure to recall extinction memory in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 66:1075-82. 2009
    ..amygdala, hippocampus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)...
  12. pmc Estrous cycle phase and gonadal hormones influence conditioned fear extinction
    M R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Neuroscience 164:887-95. 2009
    ..Moreover, the elevated fear observed in female relative to male rats during extinction recall suggests that gonadal hormones may in part play a role in the higher prevalence of anxiety disorders in women...
  13. pmc The influence of gonadal hormones on conditioned fear extinction in healthy humans
    M R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Neuroscience 168:652-8. 2010
    ..Lower estradiol may impair extinction consolidation in women. These findings could have practical applications in the treatment of anxiety disorders through cognitive and behavioral therapies...
  14. pmc Presence and acquired origin of reduced recall for fear extinction in PTSD: results of a twin study
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02129, United States
    J Psychiatr Res 42:515-20. 2008
    ..Furthermore, they support the conclusion that this deficit is acquired as a result of combat trauma leading to PTSD, rather than being a predisposing factor to developing PTSD upon the stress of combat...
  15. pmc Failure of neural responses to safety cues in schizophrenia
    Daphne J Holt
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th St, Rm 2608, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:893-903. 2012
    ..In future studies, abnormalities in fear learning and extinction recall may serve as quantitative phenotypes that can be linked to genetic, symptom, or outcome profiles in schizophrenia and those at risk for the disorder...
  16. pmc Estradiol modulates medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala activity during fear extinction in women and female rats
    Mohamed A Zeidan
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 70:920-7. 2011
    ..Fear extinction requires the activation of brain regions, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and amygdala. Could estradiol modulate the activity of these brain regions during fear extinction?..
  17. doi request reprint Altered processing of contextual information during fear extinction in PTSD: an fMRI study
    Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA
    CNS Neurosci Ther 17:227-36. 2011
    ..This impairment is manifest even prior to a physiologically-measured, cue-elicited fear response, and characterized by hypoactivation in vmPFC and hyperactivation in dACC...
  18. ncbi request reprint Resting amygdala and medial prefrontal metabolism predicts functional activation of the fear extinction circuit
    Clas Linnman
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 169:415-23. 2012
    ..This study investigated whether functional variance in this network can be predicted by resting metabolism in these same regions...
  19. ncbi request reprint Fear extinction in rats: implications for human brain imaging and anxiety disorders
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Bldg 149 13th St, Charlestown, 02129, USA
    Biol Psychol 73:61-71. 2006
    ....
  20. pmc Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening
    Edward F Pace-Schott
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Electronic address
    J Psychiatr Res 47:1776-84. 2013
    ..Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear...
  21. pmc Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning
    Clas Linnman
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Biol Psychol 89:450-9. 2012
    ..We conclude that resting metabolism in limbic areas can predict some aspects of psychophysiological and neuronal reactivity during fear learning...
  22. ncbi request reprint Fear conditioning and extinction: influence of sex and menstrual cycle in healthy humans
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Behav Neurosci 120:1196-203. 2006
    ..On Day 2, men and early cycle women expressed greater extinction memory than midcycle women. These data confirm sex differences in conditioned fear acquisition and suggest that midcycle hormones attenuate extinction recall...
  23. pmc Thickness of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans is correlated with extinction memory
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10706-11. 2005
    ..e., greater extinction memory). These results suggest that the size of the vmPFC might explain individual differences in the ability to modulate fear among humans...
  24. doi request reprint Test-retest reliability during fear acquisition and fear extinction in humans
    Mohamed A Zeidan
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    CNS Neurosci Ther 18:313-7. 2012
    ..We, therefore, sought to test the within-subject reliability of a previously used 2-day, classical fear conditioning and extinction paradigm...
  25. pmc Extinction memory is impaired in schizophrenia
    Daphne J Holt
    Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Program, Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 65:455-63. 2009
    ..To investigate this possibility, we measured the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and delayed recall of extinction in schizophrenia and control subjects...
  26. pmc Sleep promotes generalization of extinction of conditioned fear
    Edward F Pace-Schott
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Center for Sleep and Cognition, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Sleep 32:19-26. 2009
    ..To examine the effects of sleep on fear conditioning, extinction, extinction recall, and generalization of extinction recall in healthy humans...
  27. pmc Blockade of estrogen by hormonal contraceptives impairs fear extinction in female rats and women
    Bronwyn M Graham
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 73:371-8. 2013
    ..Hormonal contraceptives (HCs) inhibit estrogen production; yet, their effects on fear extinction are unknown...
  28. doi request reprint Biological studies of post-traumatic stress disorder
    Roger K Pitman
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA harvard edu
    Nat Rev Neurosci 13:769-87. 2012
    ....
  29. ncbi request reprint Context modulation of memory for fear extinction in humans
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Psychophysiology 42:456-64. 2005
    ..This finding demonstrates context dependency of extinction recall in humans...
  30. pmc Hemispheric differences in amygdala contributions to response monitoring
    Frida E Polli
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Neuroreport 20:398-402. 2009
    ....
  31. pmc Learning and reconsolidation implicate different synaptic mechanisms
    Yan Li
    Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:4798-803. 2013
    ....
  32. pmc Cannabinoid facilitation of fear extinction memory recall in humans
    Christine A Rabinak
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Neuropharmacology 64:396-402. 2013
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'...
  33. doi request reprint Two weeks of pretreatment with escitalopram facilitates extinction learning in healthy individuals
    Eric Bui
    Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Laboratoire du Stress Traumatique EA4560, CHU de Toulouse and Université Toulouse 3, Toulouse, France
    Hum Psychopharmacol 28:447-56. 2013
    ..We aimed to examine whether pretreatment with escitalopram would be associated with reduced fear acquisition and enhanced extinction learning in a fear conditioning paradigm, compared with placebo...
  34. pmc Sex differences in the neurobiology of fear conditioning and extinction: a preliminary fMRI study of shared sex differences with stress-arousal circuitry
    Kelimer Lebron-Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th St, Charlestown, MA, 02129, USA
    Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 2:7. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  35. pmc Unconditioned responses and functional fear networks in human classical conditioning
    Clas Linnman
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Behav Brain Res 221:237-45. 2011
    ..The hippocampus and the anterior insula may serve as hubs facilitating the switch between engagement of a defensive immediate fear network and a resting network...
  36. ncbi request reprint Interactions of time of day and sleep with between-session habituation and extinction memory in young adult males
    Edward F Pace-Schott
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Exp Brain Res 232:1443-58. 2014
    ..We conclude that: (1) sleep augments between-session habituation, as does morning testing; (2) extinction recall is predicted by concurrent between-session habituation; and (3) both phenomena may be influenced by sleep...
  37. doi request reprint Reprint of: resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning
    Clas Linnman
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Biol Psychol 92:26-35. 2013
    ..We conclude that resting metabolism in limbic areas can predict some aspects of psychophysiological and neuronal reactivity during fear learning...
  38. pmc An fMRI study of unconditioned responses in post-traumatic stress disorder
    Clas Linnman
    Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA, USA
    Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 1:8. 2011
    ..abstract:..
  39. doi request reprint Systemic mifepristone blocks reconsolidation of cue-conditioned fear; propranolol prevents this effect
    Roger K Pitman
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, MGH East, 120 Second Avenue, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    Behav Neurosci 125:632-8. 2011
    ..Concurrent administration of propranolol prevents this effect. Postreactivation mifepristone may be a promising treatment for PTSD, but not necessarily in combination with propranolol...
  40. doi request reprint Fear extinction as a model for translational neuroscience: ten years of progress
    Mohammed R Milad
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02129, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 63:129-51. 2012
    ..Here we review the major advances and highlight new approaches to understanding and exploiting fear extinction. Research in fear extinction could serve as a model for translational research in other areas of behavioral neuroscience...
  41. doi request reprint The study of fear extinction: implications for anxiety disorders
    Bronwyn M Graham
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 168:1255-65. 2011
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of estradiol synthesis impairs fear extinction in male rats
    Bronwyn M Graham
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Learn Mem 21:347-50. 2014
    ..Our data suggest that estradiol may be just as important in the regulation of fear extinction in males as it is in females. ..
  43. ncbi request reprint Device-based brain stimulation to augment fear extinction: implications for PTSD treatment and beyond
    Marie France Marin
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    Depress Anxiety 31:269-78. 2014
    ....
  44. doi request reprint A causal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: disentangling predisposed from acquired neural abnormalities
    Roee Admon
    Center for Depression, Anxiety and Stress Research, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Trends Cogn Sci 17:337-47. 2013
    ....
  45. pmc Correlations between psychological tests and physiological responses during fear conditioning and renewal
    Karen G Martinez
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, P, O, Box 365067, San Juan, PR, 00936, USA
    Biol Mood Anxiety Disord 2:16. 2012
    ..abstract:..
  46. ncbi request reprint Delayed recall of fear extinction in rats with lesions of ventral medial prefrontal cortex
    Kelimer Lebrón
    Department of Physiology, Ponce School of Medicine, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732, USA
    Learn Mem 11:544-8. 2004
    ..We suggest that the vmPFC accelerates extinction by permitting access to recently learned extinction trials, thereby maximizing behavioral flexibility...

Research Grants3

  1. Prefrontal Neuronal Responses During Extinction of Fear
    Mohammed Milad; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This proposed study will bring us closer to understanding the mechanisms of fear extinction. Facilitation of extinction processes in patients with disorders such as PTSD could potentially help in curing such disorders. ..
  2. Influence of Gonadal Hormones on Fear Extinction
    Mohammed Milad; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This proposal will also examine the influence of progesterone administration on boosting the brain's signal for safety. Findings from this proposal may help the development of sex-specific treatments for anxiety disorders...