Marc Lipsitch

Summary

Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Recognition of pneumolysin by Toll-like receptor 4 confers resistance to pneumococcal infection
    Richard Malley
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1966-71. 2003
  2. pmc Pandemic influenza: risk of multiple introductions and the need to prepare for them
    Christina E Mills
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 3:e135. 2006
  3. pmc Patterns of antigenic diversity and the mechanisms that maintain them
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J R Soc Interface 4:787-802. 2007
  4. pmc No coexistence for free: neutral null models for multistrain pathogens
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemics 1:2-13. 2009
  5. pmc Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia II. Weather-based prediction systems perform comparably to early detection systems in identifying times for interventions
    Hailay D Teklehaimanot
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Malar J 3:44. 2004
  6. pmc Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia I. Patterns of lagged weather effects reflect biological mechanisms
    Hailay D Teklehaimanot
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Malar J 3:41. 2004
  7. pmc Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachussetts 02115, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:347-54. 2002
  8. pmc Pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic resistance in young children before 13-valent conjugate vaccine
    Peter C Wroe
    Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:249-54. 2012
  9. pmc Re-emergence of the type 1 pilus among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Massachusetts, USA
    Gili Regev-Yochay
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Vaccine 28:4842-6. 2010
  10. pmc Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide structure predicts serotype prevalence
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000476. 2009

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications114 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Recognition of pneumolysin by Toll-like receptor 4 confers resistance to pneumococcal infection
    Richard Malley
    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1966-71. 2003
    ..We conclude that the interaction of pneumolysin with TLR4 is critically involved in the innate immune response to pneumococcus...
  2. pmc Pandemic influenza: risk of multiple introductions and the need to prepare for them
    Christina E Mills
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 3:e135. 2006
  3. pmc Patterns of antigenic diversity and the mechanisms that maintain them
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J R Soc Interface 4:787-802. 2007
    ....
  4. pmc No coexistence for free: neutral null models for multistrain pathogens
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemics 1:2-13. 2009
    ..Neutral models can be a parsimonious starting point for studying mechanisms of strain coexistence; implications for past and future studies are discussed...
  5. pmc Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia II. Weather-based prediction systems perform comparably to early detection systems in identifying times for interventions
    Hailay D Teklehaimanot
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Malar J 3:44. 2004
    ..Early warning methods that provide earlier alerts (usually by the use of weather variables) may permit control measures to interrupt transmission earlier in the epidemic, perhaps at the expense of some level of accuracy...
  6. pmc Weather-based prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in epidemic-prone regions of Ethiopia I. Patterns of lagged weather effects reflect biological mechanisms
    Hailay D Teklehaimanot
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Malar J 3:41. 2004
    ..The impact of temperature on the duration of a mosquito's life cycle and the sporogonic phase of the parasite could explain the inconsistent findings...
  7. pmc Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance: a population perspective
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachussetts 02115, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 8:347-54. 2002
    ..These mechanisms can operate even when treatment has a modest, or even negative, effect on an individual host's colonization with resistant organisms...
  8. pmc Pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic resistance in young children before 13-valent conjugate vaccine
    Peter C Wroe
    Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, MA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:249-54. 2012
    ....
  9. pmc Re-emergence of the type 1 pilus among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Massachusetts, USA
    Gili Regev-Yochay
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Vaccine 28:4842-6. 2010
    ..These emerging piliated non-VT strains are mostly novel clones, with some exceptions. The rise in pilus type 1 frequency across multiple distinct genetic backgrounds suggests that the pilus may confer an intrinsic advantage...
  10. pmc Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide structure predicts serotype prevalence
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000476. 2009
    ....
  11. pmc The pneumococcal pilus predicts the absence of Staphylococcus aureus co-colonization in pneumococcal carriers
    Gili Regev-Yochay
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:760-3. 2009
    ..aureus were significantly lower for individuals carrying a piliated versus a nonpiliated S. pneumoniae strain, suggesting the pilus may be a determinant of the negative association...
  12. pmc Protection against nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae is mediated by antigen-specific CD4+ T cells
    Krzysztof Trzcinski
    Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, 665 Huntington Avenue, Building 1, Room 903, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 76:2678-84. 2008
    ..These results are consistent with the recruitment and/or activation of phagocytic or other nonspecific effectors by antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells...
  13. pmc When to start antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
    Rochelle P Walensky
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard University Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, and Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Ann Intern Med 151:157-66. 2009
    ..The results of international clinical trials that are assessing when to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) will not be available for several years...
  14. pmc Genomic epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime in the USA: a retrospective observational study
    Yonatan H Grad
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Electronic address
    Lancet Infect Dis 14:220-6. 2014
    ..We assessed the relatedness between isolates in the USA and reconstructed likely spread of lineages through different sexual networks...
  15. pmc Population genomics of post-vaccine changes in pneumococcal epidemiology
    Nicholas J Croucher
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 45:656-63. 2013
    ..These alterations resulted in little overall effect on accessory genome composition at the population level, contrasting with the decrease in pneumococcal disease rates after the vaccine's introduction...
  16. ncbi request reprint Epidemiologic evidence for serotype-specific acquired immunity to pneumococcal carriage
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1511-8. 2008
    ..We found no evidence of specific protection for type 6B, group 15, or type 19F. Our findings imply that at least some serotypes generate anti-capsular antibodies that can reduce the risk of carriage in unimmunized toddlers...
  17. pmc Surface charge of Streptococcus pneumoniae predicts serotype distribution
    Yuan Li
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Infect Immun 81:4519-24. 2013
    ..The results indicated that zeta potential is strongly influenced by pneumococcal capsule type but is unlikely to be the only important mechanism by which capsule interacts with host. ..
  18. pmc Niche and neutral effects of acquired immunity permit coexistence of pneumococcal serotypes
    Sarah Cobey
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 335:1376-80. 2012
    ..Our model can be used to explain the effects of pneumococcal vaccination and indicates general factors that regulate the diversity of pathogens...
  19. pmc SpxB is a suicide gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and confers a selective advantage in an in vivo competitive colonization model
    Gili Regev-Yochay
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Bacteriol 189:6532-9. 2007
    ..We conclude that a suicide gene of pneumococcus is spxB, which induces an apoptosis-like death in pneumococci and confers a selective advantage in nasopharyngeal cocolonization...
  20. pmc Serotype specific invasive capacity and persistent reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease
    Inci Yildirim
    Department of Pediatrics, Boston University, School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    Vaccine 29:283-8. 2010
    ..g. 33F, 22F) as successful colonizers resulting in increased IPD incidence due to replacement serotypes...
  21. pmc Strain characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and invasive disease isolates during a cluster-randomized clinical trial of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1221-7. 2007
    ..If sustained, such patterns provide some cause for optimism that rapid evolution of PCV escape strains with drug resistance or high virulence is unlikely...
  22. pmc In vitro bactericidal activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae and bactericidal susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cocolonized versus noncocolonized children
    Gili Regev-Yochay
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:747-9. 2008
    ..Thus, in vitro killing is not the major determinant of the pattern of cocolonization...
  23. pmc Prediction of serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in unvaccinated and vaccinated populations
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 22:199-207. 2011
    ..We sought to develop a statistical tool to predict the relative frequency of different serotypes among disease isolates in the pre- and post-Prevnar-7 eras using the limited amount of data that is widely available...
  24. pmc Distinct effects on diversifying selection by two mechanisms of immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Yuan Li
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002989. 2012
    ..The results could provide new insight into pneumococcal vaccine design...
  25. pmc Antibody-independent, CD4+ T-cell-dependent protection against pneumococcal colonization elicited by intranasal immunization with purified pneumococcal proteins
    Alan Basset
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Boston, Enders 861 3, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 75:5460-4. 2007
    ..Overall, our results show that intranasal immunization with a mixture of pneumococcal proteins protects against colonization in an antibody-independent, CD4+ T-cell-dependent manner...
  26. pmc Serotype replacement in disease after pneumococcal vaccination
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Lancet 378:1962-73. 2011
    ..We conclude by discussing the future potential for serotype replacement in disease and the need for continuing surveillance...
  27. pmc Test and treat DC: forecasting the impact of a comprehensive HIV strategy in Washington DC
    Rochelle P Walensky
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:392-400. 2010
    ..We forecast outcomes of this approach if implemented in Washington DC...
  28. pmc Estimating incidence curves of several infections using symptom surveillance data
    Edward Goldstein
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e23380. 2011
    ..We illustrate this method by numerical simulations and by using data from a survey conducted on the University of Michigan campus. Last, we describe the data needs to make such estimates accurate...
  29. pmc Transmission dynamics and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 300:1966-70. 2003
    ..Public-health efforts to reduce transmission are expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the size of the epidemic...
  30. pmc Within-host selection is limited by an effective population of Streptococcus pneumoniae during nasopharyngeal colonization
    Yuan Li
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Infect Immun 81:4534-43. 2013
    ..We hypothesized that such a small N(e) may reduce the effectiveness of within host selection for pneumococcus...
  31. pmc Estimating rates of carriage acquisition and clearance and competitive ability for pneumococcal serotypes in Kenya with a Markov transition model
    Marc Lipsitch
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 23:510-9. 2012
    ..Animal studies suggest that carriage induces an acquired immune response that reduces duration of colonization in a nonserotype-specific fashion...
  32. pmc Epidemiology and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus colonization in children in the post-PCV7 era
    Grace M Lee
    Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 9:110. 2009
    ..aureus and MRSA colonization in young children in the context of widespread use of PCV7; and (2) examine risk factors for S. aureus colonization in the post-PCV7 era, including the absence of vaccine-type S. pneumoniae colonization...
  33. ncbi request reprint Serum antipneumococcal antibodies and pneumococcal colonization in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Richard Malley
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:928-35. 2007
    ..We thus conclude that, in adult patients with COPD, resistance to pneumococcal colonization is unlikely to be determined by higher serum antibody concentrations to pneumococcal antigens...
  34. pmc Predicting the epidemic sizes of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B: a statistical method
    Edward Goldstein
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 8:e1001051. 2011
    ..We use publicly available US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) influenza surveillance data between 1997 and 2009 to study the temporal dynamics of influenza over this period...
  35. pmc Targeting imperfect vaccines against drug-resistance determinants: a strategy for countering the rise of drug resistance
    Regina Joice
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e68940. 2013
    ..Resistance-conferring accessory gene products or resistant alleles of essential genes could be valuable as components of vaccines even if their specific protective effect is weak...
  36. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutation rate estimates from different lineages predict substantial differences in the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis
    Christopher B Ford
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Nat Genet 45:784-90. 2013
    ..These data suggest that interventions to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis should target bacterial as well as treatment-related risk factors. ..
  37. pmc Comparative genomics of recent Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4: short-term evolution of an emerging pathogen
    Yonatan H Grad
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    MBio 4:e00452-12. 2013
    ..Moreover, the presence of closely related HUS-associated E. coli O104:H4 isolates supports the contention that fully virulent O104:H4 isolates are widespread and emphasizes the possibility of future food-borne E. coli O104:H4 outbreaks...
  38. pmc Antibodies to conserved pneumococcal antigens correlate with, but are not required for, protection against pneumococcal colonization induced by prior exposure in a mouse model
    Krzysztof Trzcinski
    Department of Epidemiology and Immunology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 73:7043-6. 2005
    ..Concentrations of antibodies to conserved pneumococcal antigens may be correlates of protection without being effectors of protection...
  39. pmc Development, calibration and performance of an HIV transmission model incorporating natural history and behavioral patterns: application in South Africa
    Alethea W McCormick
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e98272. 2014
    ..This model, which includes detailed behavioral patterns and HIV natural history, closely fits HIV prevalence estimates. ..
  40. pmc Pathogen diversity and hidden regimes of apparent competition
    Sarah Cobey
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Am Nat 181:12-24. 2013
    ..Studies of microbial communities might therefore benefit from the use of varied approaches to infer the presence of indirect interactions...
  41. pmc Searching for sharp drops in the incidence of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza by single year of age
    Jessica Hartman Jacobs
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e42328. 2012
    ....
  42. pmc Improving the estimation of influenza-related mortality over a seasonal baseline
    Edward Goldstein
    Department of Epidemiology, Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 23:829-38. 2012
    ....
  43. pmc Factors related to increasing prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and other antimicrobial drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States
    Edward Goldstein
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 18:1290-7. 2012
    ....
  44. pmc Evolution, safety, and highly pathogenic influenza viruses
    Marc Lipsitch
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 336:1529-31. 2012
    ..Thus, we propose that future experiments with virulent pathogens whose accidental or deliberate release could lead to extensive spread in human populations should be limited by explicit risk-benefit considerations...
  45. pmc Cholera modeling: challenges to quantitative analysis and predicting the impact of interventions
    Yonatan H Grad
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Epidemiology 23:523-30. 2012
    ..We specify sensitivity analyses that would be necessary to improve confidence in model-based quantitative prediction, and suggest types of monitoring in future epidemic settings that would improve analysis and prediction...
  46. pmc Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: the impact of speed on survival
    Rochelle P Walensky
    The Divisions of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1324-32. 2008
    ..Only 33% of eligible human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in South Africa receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sought to estimate the impact of alternative ART scale-up scenarios on patient outcomes from 2007-2012...
  47. pmc Antibiotics in agriculture: when is it time to close the barn door?
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:5752-4. 2002
  48. ncbi request reprint Potential benefits of a serodiagnostic test for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to prevent neonatal HSV-1 infection
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 29:399-405. 2002
    ..Changes in sexual practices have led to an increase in the incidence of genital herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections. Such infections affect an estimated 400 newborns each year, with serious consequences...
  49. pmc Carried pneumococci in Massachusetts children: the contribution of clonal expansion and serotype switching
    William P Hanage
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:302-8. 2011
    ..Vaccination against 7 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae has led to the near extinction of vaccine serotypes in both disease and asymptomatic carriage. In carriage, vaccine serotypes have been replaced by nonvaccine serotypes...
  50. pmc Pre-dispensing of antivirals to high-risk individuals in an influenza pandemic
    Edward Goldstein
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 4:101-12. 2010
    ....
  51. pmc Construction of otherwise isogenic serotype 6B, 7F, 14, and 19F capsular variants of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain TIGR4
    Krzysztof Trzcinski
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 69:7364-70. 2003
    ..The constructed capsular variants of TIGR4 are suitable for use in studies on the role of S. pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in immunity, colonization, and pathogenesis...
  52. pmc Age-specific immunoglobulin g (IgG) and IgA to pneumococcal protein antigens in a population in coastal kenya
    Catherine Laine
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 72:3331-5. 2004
    ..001). No decline was observed in the sera of the elderly. Anti-protein IgG concentrations were only weakly correlated (0.30 < r < 0.56; P < 0.0001), as were IgA concentrations (0.24 < r < 0.54; P < 0.0001)...
  53. pmc Oseltamivir for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection in households, Milwaukee, 2009
    Edward Goldstein
    Department of Epidemiology, Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Infect Dis 10:211. 2010
    ....
  54. pmc Single-step capsular transformation and acquisition of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Krzysztof Trzcinski
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Bacteriol 186:3447-52. 2004
    ..This suggests that in natural settings selection by host immunity and selection by antibiotics may be interrelated because of "hitchhiking" effects due to linkage of resistance determinants and the capsule locus...
  55. pmc Antibody-independent, interleukin-17A-mediated, cross-serotype immunity to pneumococci in mice immunized intranasally with the cell wall polysaccharide
    Richard Malley
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 74:2187-95. 2006
    ..C-Ps also protected in a model of fatal aspiration pneumonia by heavily capsulated serotype 3. These findings suggest a novel immunization strategy against S. pneumoniae...
  56. pmc Historical intensity of natural selection for resistance to tuberculosis
    Marc Lipsitch
    Departments of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genetics 161:1599-607. 2002
    ..Natural selection by PTB deaths during the European TB epidemic alone cannot account for the presently low level of TB disease observed among Europeans and their descendants just prior to the appearance of antibiotic treatment...
  57. pmc Little evidence for genetic susceptibility to influenza A (H5N1) from family clustering data
    Virginia E Pitzer
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1074-6. 2007
    ..We show that, by chance alone, a high proportion of clusters are expected to be limited to blood relatives when infection is a rare event...
  58. ncbi request reprint Incremental increase in fitness cost with increased beta -lactam resistance in pneumococci evaluated by competition in an infant rat nasal colonization model
    Krzysztof Trzcinski
    Department of Epidemiology and Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Infect Dis 193:1296-303. 2006
    ....
  59. pmc Beneficial and perverse effects of isoniazid preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection in HIV-tuberculosis coinfected populations
    Ted Cohen
    Division of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities, Brigham and Women s Hospital, One Brigham Circle, 1620 Tremont Street, Boston, MA 02120, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7042-7. 2006
    ....
  60. pmc Capsule homology does not increase the frequency of transformation of linked penicillin binding proteins PBP 1a and PBP 2x in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Krzysztof Trzcinski
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Room 903, Building 1, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1591-2. 2005
    ..Transformation rates in homologous donor-recipient pairs were no higher than expected, falsifying this hypothesis...
  61. pmc CD4+ T cells mediate antibody-independent acquired immunity to pneumococcal colonization
    Richard Malley
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4848-53. 2005
    ..Thus, we find that immunity to pneumococcal colonization can be induced in the absence of antibody, independent of the capsular type, and this protection requires the presence of CD4(+) T cells at the time of challenge...
  62. pmc Effect of human leukocyte antigen heterozygosity on infectious disease outcome: the need for allele-specific measures
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    BMC Med Genet 4:2. 2003
    ....
  63. pmc Antiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Med 4:e15. 2007
    ..Nonetheless, antiviral resistance has received little attention when evaluating these plans...
  64. pmc Are anticapsular antibodies the primary mechanism of protection against invasive pneumococcal disease?
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    PLoS Med 2:e15. 2005
    ....
  65. pmc Alert threshold algorithms and malaria epidemic detection
    Hailay Desta Teklehaimanot
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:1220-6. 2004
    ..The comparative method developed here may be useful for testing other proposed alert thresholds and for application in other populations...
  66. ncbi request reprint Modeling community- and individual-level effects of child-care center attendance on pneumococcal carriage
    Susan S Huang
    Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1215-22. 2005
    ..This variation is not fully explained by risk factors at the individual level but may be explained by factors producing effects at both the individual and community levels, such as child-care center (CCC) attendance...
  67. ncbi request reprint Invited commentary: real-time tracking of control measures for emerging infections
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 160:517-9; discussion 520. 2004
  68. ncbi request reprint Estimating variability in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome to household contacts in Hong Kong, China
    Virginia E Pitzer
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:355-63. 2007
    ..This study suggests that the probability of transmission of SARS is dependent upon characteristics of the index patients and does not simply reflect temporal variability in the viral load of SARS cases...
  69. pmc Patient sharing and population genetic structure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Weixiong Ke
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:6763-8. 2012
    ..These findings suggest that concerted efforts among hospitals that share large numbers of patients may be synergistic to prevent MRSA transmission...
  70. pmc Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus replacing methicillin-susceptible S. aureus?
    Elizabeth Mostofsky
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:2199-214. 2011
    ..So far, evidence indicates that MSSA still accounts for many infections. Therefore, eradication of MRSA alone is not sufficient to address the public health burden of S. aureus...
  71. pmc Secular trends in Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in adults in the United States: evidence for sustained race/ethnic disparities
    Yonatan H Grad
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 175:54-9. 2012
    ..The factors driving the decline in H. pylori seroprevalence appear to be acting preferentially on the non-Hispanic white population...
  72. pmc Modelling seasonal variations in the age and incidence of Kawasaki disease to explore possible infectious aetiologies
    Virginia E Pitzer
    Department of Epidemiology and Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Biol Sci 279:2736-43. 2012
    ....
  73. pmc First-line antiretroviral therapy after single-dose nevirapine exposure in South Africa: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the OCTANE trial
    Andrea L Ciaranello
    Division of Infectious Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 02114, USA
    AIDS 25:479-92. 2011
    ..nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) among women previously exposed to single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. However, lopinavir/ritonavir is 12 times costlier than nevirapine...
  74. pmc Improving the evidence base for decision making during a pandemic: the example of 2009 influenza A/H1N1
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Biosecur Bioterror 9:89-115. 2011
    ..We describe other inputs to decision making besides epidemiologic and surveillance data, and we conclude with key lessons of the 2009 pandemic for designing and planning surveillance in the future...
  75. pmc Reconstructing influenza incidence by deconvolution of daily mortality time series
    Edward Goldstein
    Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21825-9. 2009
    ..s...
  76. pmc Association of the pneumococcal pilus with certain capsular serotypes but not with increased virulence
    Alan Basset
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Enders 861 3, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1684-9. 2007
    ..3% after 2000; P = 0.019). Therefore, our data show that the pilus is present in a minority of strains and is associated with certain serotypes and that its frequency has been reduced by the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine...
  77. pmc Estimation of the reproductive number and the serial interval in early phase of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic in the USA
    Laura Forsberg White
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    Influenza Other Respir Viruses 3:267-76. 2009
    ..Appropriate public health responses to this pandemic depend in part on early estimates of key epidemiological parameters of the virus in defined populations...
  78. pmc Exploring the relationship between incidence and the average age of infection during seasonal epidemics
    Virginia E Pitzer
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Theor Biol 260:175-85. 2009
    ....
  79. ncbi request reprint The analysis of hospital infection data using hidden Markov models
    Ben Cooper
    Department of Epidemiology, Kresge Building, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Biostatistics 5:223-37. 2004
    ..Compared to the standard hidden Markov model, the new approach is more parsimonious, is more biologically plausible, and allows key epidemiological parameters to be estimated...
  80. pmc A Modified Janus Cassette (Sweet Janus) to Improve Allelic Replacement Efficiency by High-Stringency Negative Selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Yuan Li
    Department of Epidemiology and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e100510. 2014
    ..Results also suggested the sacB gene alone can function as a counter-selectable marker in the Gram-positive pneumococcus, which will have the advantage of not requiring a streptomycin-resistant strain for allelic replacement. ..
  81. pmc Estimating the per-exposure effect of infectious disease interventions
    Justin J O'Hagan
    From the aDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA bCenter for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA and cDepartment of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    Epidemiology 25:134-8. 2014
    ..With greater care paid to the parameterization of transmission models, their results can be better understood and can thereby be of greater value to decision-makers. ..
  82. pmc Genomic epidemiology of the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreaks in Europe, 2011
    Yonatan H Grad
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:3065-70. 2012
    ..coli outbreak populations, or uneven distribution of diversity in the seed populations that led to each outbreak...
  83. pmc Quantifying the risks and benefits of efavirenz use in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA
    H E Hsu
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    HIV Med 12:97-108. 2011
    ..The aim of the study was to quantify the benefits (life expectancy gains) and risks (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA...
  84. pmc Use of cumulative incidence of novel influenza A/H1N1 in foreign travelers to estimate lower bounds on cumulative incidence in Mexico
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e6895. 2009
    ..Accordingly, the total number of cases will be underestimated and disease severity overestimated. This problem is manifest in the current epidemic of novel influenza A/H1N1...
  85. pmc Too little of a good thing: a paradox of moderate infection control
    Ted Cohen
    Division of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Epidemiology 19:588-9. 2008
    ..For those pathogens that cause more severe disease among hosts of an older age, interventions that limit transmission can paradoxically increase the burden of disease in a population...
  86. pmc Association of serotype with risk of death due to pneumococcal pneumonia: a meta-analysis
    Daniel M Weinberger
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 51:692-9. 2010
    ..We evaluated whether risk of death due to IPD is a stable serotype-associated property across studies and then compared the pooled effect estimates with epidemiologic and biological correlates...
  87. ncbi request reprint Geographic diversity and temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States
    Althea W McCormick
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Med 9:424-30. 2003
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza
    Christina E Mills
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 432:904-6. 2004
    ..But because influenza is frequently transmitted before a specific diagnosis is possible and there is a dearth of global antiviral and vaccine stores, aggressive transmission reducing measures will probably be required...
  89. pmc The US 2009 A(H1N1) influenza epidemic: quantifying the impact of school openings on the reproductive number
    Karen E Huang
    From the aDepartment of Epidemiology, Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA bDepartment of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA and cDepartment of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY
    Epidemiology 25:203-6. 2014
    ..There is limited information on differences in the dynamics of influenza transmission during time periods when schools are open compared with periods when they are closed...
  90. pmc Upgrading antibiotic use within a class: tradeoff between resistance and treatment success
    Y Claire Wang
    Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:9655-60. 2006
    ..We discuss the implications of these considerations in regard to antibiotic choices for Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  91. pmc Interference between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus: In vitro hydrogen peroxide-mediated killing by Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Gili Regev-Yochay
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Bacteriol 188:4996-5001. 2006
    ..These results provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the interspecies interference observed in epidemiologic studies...
  92. pmc Oseltamivir and risk of lower respiratory tract complications in patients with flu symptoms: a meta-analysis of eleven randomized clinical trials
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:277-9. 2011
    ....
  93. pmc Use of whole genome sequencing to estimate the mutation rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latent infection
    Christopher B Ford
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Genet 43:482-6. 2011
    ..We show that Mtb continues to acquire mutations during disease latency, which may explain why isoniazid monotherapy for latent tuberculosis is a risk factor for the emergence of isoniazid resistance...
  94. pmc The effect of antiretroviral therapy on secondary transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men
    Alethea W McCormick
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 44:1115-22. 2007
    ..However, the potential reduction in secondary transmission associated with ART may be offset by the longer duration of infectiousness...
  95. pmc Negative controls: a tool for detecting confounding and bias in observational studies
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 21:383-8. 2010
    ....
  96. pmc Generation interval contraction and epidemic data analysis
    Eben Kenah
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Math Biosci 213:71-9. 2008
    ..This approach leads naturally to partial likelihoods for epidemic data that are very similar to those that arise in survival analysis, opening a promising avenue of methodological research in infectious disease epidemiology...
  97. ncbi request reprint Multiple equilibria: tuberculosis transmission require unrealistic assumptions
    Marc Lipsitch
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 6028, USA
    Theor Popul Biol 63:169-70. 2003
  98. pmc The influence of hitchhiking and deleterious mutation upon asexual mutation rates
    Michael E Palmer
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genetics 173:461-72. 2006
    ..We close by commenting on the importance of other factors, such as spatiotemporal variation, and on the origin of variation in mutation rates...
  99. pmc Interleukin-17A mediates acquired immunity to pneumococcal colonization
    Ying Jie Lu
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000159. 2008
    ..We conclude that IL-17A mediates pneumococcal immunity in mice and probably in humans; its elicitation in vitro could help in the development of candidate pneumococcal vaccines...
  100. ncbi request reprint Control-group selection importance in studies of antimicrobial resistance: examples applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococci, and Escherichia coli
    Anthony D Harris
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, and VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:1558-63. 2002
    ..68). The selection of control patients from the potentially suboptimal control type 1 can falsely identify certain antibiotics and overestimate the OR of the resistance-defining antibiotic...