N L Letvin

Summary

Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Vaccine-elicited V3 loop-specific antibodies in rhesus monkeys and control of a simian-human immunodeficiency virus expressing a primary patient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate envelope
    N L Letvin
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:4165-75. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus
    N L Letvin
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Immunol Rev 170:127-34. 1999
  3. pmc Strategies for an HIV vaccine
    Norman L Letvin
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 41 Avenue Louis Pasteur, RE 113, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 110:15-20. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Prospects for vaccine protection against HIV-1 infection and AIDS
    Norman L Letvin
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 20:73-99. 2002
  5. ncbi request reprint Prospects for vaccines to protect against AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria
    N L Letvin
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 41 Avenue of Louis Pasteur, Research East 113, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    JAMA 285:606-11. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Control of viremia and prevention of clinical AIDS in rhesus monkeys by cytokine-augmented DNA vaccination
    D H Barouch
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 290:486-92. 2000
  7. pmc Persistent infection of macaques with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses
    J T Li
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 69:7061-7. 1995
  8. pmc Elicitation of high-frequency cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses against both dominant and subdominant simian-human immunodeficiency virus epitopes by DNA vaccination of rhesus monkeys
    D H Barouch
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:2462-7. 2001
  9. ncbi request reprint Control of viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infection by CD8+ lymphocytes
    J E Schmitz
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 283:857-60. 1999
  10. pmc Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag DNA-vaccinated rhesus monkeys develop secondary cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and control viral replication after pathogenic SIV infection
    M A Egan
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 74:7485-95. 2000

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications121 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Vaccine-elicited V3 loop-specific antibodies in rhesus monkeys and control of a simian-human immunodeficiency virus expressing a primary patient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate envelope
    N L Letvin
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:4165-75. 2001
    ..These observations suggest that the V3 loop on some primary patient HIV-1 isolates may be a partially effective target for neutralizing antibodies induced by peptide immunogens...
  2. ncbi request reprint Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the simian immunodeficiency virus
    N L Letvin
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Immunol Rev 170:127-34. 1999
    ..These studies also indicate the power of both the SIV/macaque model and MHC class I/peptide tetramers for assessing AIDS vaccine strategies...
  3. pmc Strategies for an HIV vaccine
    Norman L Letvin
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 41 Avenue Louis Pasteur, RE 113, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 110:15-20. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Prospects for vaccine protection against HIV-1 infection and AIDS
    Norman L Letvin
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 20:73-99. 2002
    ..We then describe vaccine strategies that have been explored and discuss the evidence suggesting that cellular immune responses elicited by novel vaccine modalities may attenuate clinical disease caused by HIV-1...
  5. ncbi request reprint Prospects for vaccines to protect against AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria
    N L Letvin
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 41 Avenue of Louis Pasteur, Research East 113, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    JAMA 285:606-11. 2001
    ..The application of novel vaccine technologies for eliciting this type of immunity promises to provide successful vaccines for controlling the spread of these deadly infections...
  6. ncbi request reprint Control of viremia and prevention of clinical AIDS in rhesus monkeys by cytokine-augmented DNA vaccination
    D H Barouch
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 290:486-92. 2000
    ....
  7. pmc Persistent infection of macaques with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses
    J T Li
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 69:7061-7. 1995
    ..The consistency with which SHIV infection of cynomolgus monkeys is initiated and the similarities in the neutralizing antibody response to SHIV and HIV-1 support the utility of this model system for the study of HIV-1 prophylaxis...
  8. pmc Elicitation of high-frequency cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses against both dominant and subdominant simian-human immunodeficiency virus epitopes by DNA vaccination of rhesus monkeys
    D H Barouch
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:2462-7. 2001
    ..These data demonstrate that plasmid DNA may be useful in eliciting a broad CTL response against multiple epitopes...
  9. ncbi request reprint Control of viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infection by CD8+ lymphocytes
    J E Schmitz
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 283:857-60. 1999
    ..These results confirm the importance of cell-mediated immunity in controlling HIV-1 infection and support the exploration of vaccination approaches for preventing infection that will elicit these immune responses...
  10. pmc Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag DNA-vaccinated rhesus monkeys develop secondary cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and control viral replication after pathogenic SIV infection
    M A Egan
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 74:7485-95. 2000
    ..These observations suggest that plasmid DNA may prove a useful component of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine...
  11. ncbi request reprint Emergence of CTL coincides with clearance of virus during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus monkeys
    M J Kuroda
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 162:5127-33. 1999
    ..These studies provide strong evidence for the importance of CTL in containing AIDS virus replication...
  12. pmc Comparative analysis of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in lymph nodes and peripheral blood of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys
    M J Kuroda
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 73:1573-9. 1999
    ..These observations suggest that characterization of AIDS virus-specific CTL activity by sampling of cells in the peripheral blood should provide a reasonable estimation of CTL in an individual's secondary lymphoid tissue...
  13. ncbi request reprint Effect of complement consumption by cobra venom factor on the the course of primary infection with simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys
    J E Schmitz
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 15:195-202. 1999
    ..However, we cannot rule out that the observed increased virus replication was induced by immune activation resulting from the administration of a foreign antigen to these monkeys...
  14. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope epitope-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes in simian/human immunodeficiency virus-infected and vaccinated rhesus monkeys detected using a peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II tetramer
    M J Kuroda
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 74:8751-6. 2000
    ..These epitope-specific cell populations appear to be present in peripheral blood at a very low frequency...
  15. ncbi request reprint Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CTL are present in large numbers in livers of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys
    J E Schmitz
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 164:6015-9. 2000
    ..These results demonstrate that functional SIV-specific CD8+ T cells are present in large numbers in the liver of chronically SIV-infected monkeys. Thus, the liver may be a trap for virus-specific cytotoxic T cells...
  16. ncbi request reprint Simian immunodeficiency virus evades a dominant epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response through a mutation resulting in the accelerated dissociation of viral peptide and MHC class I
    Z W Chen
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 164:6474-9. 2000
    ..Therefore, these findings suggest that AIDS viruses can evade virus-specific CTL responses through the accelerated dissociation of mutant peptide from MHC class I...
  17. pmc Use of major histocompatibility complex class I/peptide/beta2M tetramers to quantitate CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for dominant and nondominant viral epitopes in simian-human immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys
    M A Egan
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 73:5466-72. 1999
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint The TCR repertoire of an immunodominant CD8+ T lymphocyte population
    Z W Chen
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 166:4525-33. 2001
    ....
  19. pmc Prolonged dominance of clonally restricted CD4(+) T cells in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses
    Z W Chen
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 74:7442-50. 2000
    ..These results support the notions that a chronic AIDS virus infection can induce clonal expansion, in addition to depletion of CD4(+) T cells, and that some of these clones may be SIV specific...
  20. ncbi request reprint Simian immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and cell-associated viral RNA levels in distinct lymphoid compartments of SIVmac-infected rhesus monkeys
    M J Kuroda
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Blood 96:1474-9. 2000
    ..Blood. 2000;96:1474-1479)..
  21. ncbi request reprint Vaccine-elicited immune responses prevent clinical AIDS in SHIV(89.6P)-infected rhesus monkeys
    D H Barouch
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Immunol Lett 79:57-61. 2001
    ..Vaccine approaches that elicit immune responses capable of reducing plasma viral loads, but not capable of inducing sterilizing immunity, may still provide substantial clinical benefits...
  22. pmc In vivo T-lymphocyte activation and transient reduction of viral replication in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus
    Z W Chen
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:4713-20. 2001
    ..These studies provide in vivo evidence that potent T-cell stimulation driven by antigens other than the virus itself can, under some circumstances, mediate short-term reduction of viremia in AIDS virus-infected individuals...
  23. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 env DNA vaccine administered to rhesus monkeys elicits MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T helper cells that secrete IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha
    C Lekutis
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 158:4471-7. 1997
    ..Demonstration of a nucleotide vaccine eliciting a Th1-like immune response is consistent with the well documented ability of naked DNA vaccines to induce durable CD8+ CTL responses...
  24. pmc Reduction of simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P viremia in rhesus monkeys by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccination
    D H Barouch
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:5151-8. 2001
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint The T cell receptor gene usage by simian immunodeficiency virus gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys
    Z W Chen
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 156:1469-75. 1996
    ..Such a broad CTL-TCR repertoire may be advantageous for the host in containing an AIDS virus infection...
  26. ncbi request reprint Detection of viral RNA in CD4(-)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) lymphocytes in vivo in rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques
    J M Huete
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17:349-60. 2001
    ..These results broaden the range of lymphocytes that support productive SIVmac infection to include CD4(-)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) subsets, and are consistent with virus replication occurring in nonactivated cells...
  27. ncbi request reprint Alterations in T cell phenotype and human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxicity after potent antiretroviral therapy
    A Seth
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Infect Dis 183:722-9. 2001
    ..However, the overall level of antigen-specific cells that are capable of differentiating into effectors remains stable, and the recognition of new epitopes may occur...
  28. pmc Membrane-fusing capacity of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope proteins determines the efficiency of CD+ T-cell depletion in macaques infected by a simian-human immunodeficiency virus
    B Etemad-Moghadam
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 75:5646-55. 2001
    ....
  29. pmc Changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins responsible for the pathogenicity of a multiply passaged simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-HXBc2)
    M Cayabyab
    Department of Cancer Immunology AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 73:976-84. 1999
    ..Thus, changes in the envelope glycoproteins account for the ability of the passaged virus to deplete CD4(+) T lymphocytes rapidly and specify increased replicative capacity and resistance to neutralization...
  30. ncbi request reprint Clonally diverse CTL response to a dominant viral epitope recognizes potential epitope variants
    W A Charini
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 167:4996-5003. 2001
    ..Taken together, our results support the concept that the CTL response to a dominant viral epitope, although highly focused, can be clonally diverse and recognize potential epitope variants...
  31. pmc Detection of simian immunodeficiency virus Gag-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes in semen of chronically infected rhesus monkeys by cell staining with a tetrameric major histocompatibility complex class I-peptide complex
    H L Jordan
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 73:4508-12. 1999
    ..The present experiments illustrate the power of tetramer technology for evaluating antigen-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes in a mucosal tissue compartment...
  32. ncbi request reprint Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in gastrointestinal tissues of chronically SIV-infected rhesus monkeys
    J E Schmitz
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Blood 98:3757-61. 2001
    ..The present studies suggest that the CD8(+) CTL response in GI mucosal sites is comparable to that seen systemically in SIVmac-infected rhesus monkeys...
  33. pmc Antiretroviral agents restore Mycobacterium-specific T-cell immune responses and facilitate controlling a fatal tuberculosis-like disease in Macaques coinfected with simian immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium bovis BCG
    Y Shen
    Beth Israel Deaconess Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:8690-6. 2001
    ..These results provide in vivo evidence that the restoration of anti-mycobacterial immunity by antiretroviral agents can improve the clinical outcome of an AIDS virus-related tuberculosis-like disease...
  34. ncbi request reprint The KIR and CD94/NKG2 families of molecules in the rhesus monkey
    M L LaBonte
    Harvard Medical School, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Immunol Rev 183:25-40. 2001
    ..Here we review the recently described KIR and CD94/NKG2 family members in the rhesus monkey...
  35. ncbi request reprint Functional equivalency of B7-1 and B7-2 for costimulating plasmid DNA vaccine-elicited CTL responses
    S Santra
    Department of Medicine, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 165:6791-5. 2000
    ..Functional differences between B7-1 and B7-2 observed in vivo therefore may not reflect inherent differences in the interactions of CD28 with these ligands...
  36. pmc Definition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 and gp41 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes and their restricting major histocompatibility complex class I alleles in simian-human immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys
    G Voss
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 70:7335-40. 1996
    ..The characterization of the two HIV-1 Env CTL epitopes and their restricting MHC class I alleles will provide a basis for studying vaccine- and virus-elicited cytotoxic effector cell responses in rhesus monkeys...
  37. ncbi request reprint Down-regulation of macaque gammadelta + T cells in lymphoid compartments after rectal infection with SIVsmmPBj14
    Z W Chen
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Med Primatol 29:143-7. 2000
    ....
  38. pmc A commonly recognized simian immunodeficiency virus Nef epitope presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes of Indian-origin rhesus monkeys by the prevalent major histocompatibility complex class I allele Mamu-A*02
    S Robinson
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:10179-86. 2001
    ..Knowledge of this epitope and MHC class I allele substantially increases the number of available rhesus monkeys that can be used for testing prototype HIV vaccines in this important animal model...
  39. pmc Substitutions in a major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 epitope can affect CD4+ T-helper-cell function
    C Lekutis
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 72:5840-4. 1998
    ..Thus, HIV-1 variants appear to have the capacity to neutralize the function of virus-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes...
  40. pmc Characterization of molecularly cloned simian-human immunodeficiency viruses causing rapid CD4+ lymphocyte depletion in rhesus monkeys
    G B Karlsson
    Division of Human Retrovirology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 71:4218-25. 1997
    ..The availability of pathogenic proviral clones should facilitate dissection of the molecular determinants of SHIV-89.6P virulence...
  41. ncbi request reprint Progress in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine
    N L Letvin
    The author is at Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 280:1875-80. 1998
    ..Our growing understanding of the biology of HIV-1 and immune responses to this virus will continue to suggest improved vaccination approaches for exploration...
  42. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 envelope-specific CD4+ T helper cells from simian/human immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys recognize epitopes restricted by MHC class II DRB1*0406 and DRB*W201 molecules
    C Lekutis
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 159:2049-57. 1997
    ..The ability to analyze HIV-1 Env-specific CD4+ T cell responses in SHIV-infected monkeys will enhance the utility of this model for studying AIDS pathogenesis and for assessing novel HIV-1 vaccine strategies...
  43. ncbi request reprint JCV-specific cellular immune response correlates with a favorable clinical outcome in HIV-infected individuals with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    R A Du Pasquier
    Department of Neurology and Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Neurovirol 7:318-22. 2001
    ..As the quest for an effective treatment of PML continues, JCV-specific cellular immune response deserves further attention because it appears to play a crucial role in the prevention of disease progression...
  44. pmc An env gene derived from a primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate confers high in vivo replicative capacity to a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys
    K A Reimann
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 70:3198-206. 1996
    ..With the demonstration that a chimeric SHIV can replicate to high levels during primary infection in rhesus monkeys, this model can now be used to define genetic determinants of HIV-1 pathogenicity...
  45. ncbi request reprint Diversity of the killer cell Ig-like receptors of rhesus monkeys
    K L Hershberger
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 166:4380-90. 2001
    ..The extensive diversity of the rhesus monkey KIR3DL homologues and the novel KIR3DH and KIR1D molecules suggests that the KIR family of molecules has evolved rapidly during the evolution of primates...
  46. pmc Airway CD8(+) T cells induced by pulmonary DNA immunization mediate protective anti-viral immunity
    M Bivas-Benita
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Mucosal Immunol 6:156-66. 2013
    ..These findings demonstrate that pulmonary immunization with PEI-DNA is an efficient approach for inducing robust pulmonary CD8(+) T-cell populations that are effective at protecting against respiratory pathogens...
  47. doi request reprint Systemic vaccination induces clonally diverse SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell populations in systemic and mucosal compartments
    P Sircar
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Mucosal Immunol 6:93-103. 2013
    ..These findings highlight the circulation of vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell populations between systemic and mucosal compartments and the importance of the expression of specific homing molecules for localization in mucosal tissues...
  48. pmc JC virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in individuals with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    I J Koralnik
    Department of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:3483-7. 2001
    ..These data suggest that the JCV-specific cellular immune response may play a crucial role in the containment of PML. This finding may also prove useful as a favorable prognostic marker in the clinical management of these patients...
  49. ncbi request reprint Equivalent induction of telomerase-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from tumor-bearing patients and healthy individuals
    R H Vonderheide
    Department of Adult Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Res 61:8366-70. 2001
    ..These findings support clinical efforts to target the hTERT as a tumor antigen with broad therapeutic potential...
  50. ncbi request reprint CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to lentiviruses and herpesviruses
    D H Barouch
    Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Research East 113, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 13:479-82. 2001
    ..These findings underscore the importance of CD8+ CTLs in the immune control of persistent viral infections...
  51. pmc JC virus regulatory region tandem repeats in plasma and central nervous system isolates correlate with poor clinical outcome in patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    L A Pfister
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 75:5672-6. 2001
    ..These data suggest that the presence of tandem repeats in plasma and CNS JCV RR clones is associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with PML...
  52. pmc Detection of JC virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in healthy individuals
    R A Du Pasquier
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis and Department of Neurology, Research East, Room 213B, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215
    J Virol 78:10206-10. 2004
    ..These results show that a CD8+-T-cell response against JCV is commonly found in immunocompetent people and suggest that these cells might protect against the development of PML...
  53. pmc A simian immunodeficiency virus envelope V3 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope in rhesus monkeys and its restricting major histocompatibility complex class I molecule Mamu-A*02
    N Watanabe
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215
    J Virol 68:6690-6. 1994
    ..This viral CTL epitope and its restricting MHC class I molecule will facilitate the use of the SIVmac rhesus monkey model for studies of envelope-based vaccine strategies and for exploring AIDS immunopathogenesis...
  54. pmc Variable NKG2 expression in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of rhesus monkeys
    M L LaBonte
    Harvard Medical School, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 138:205-12. 2004
    ..5 years. These findings indicate the dynamic nature of NKG2 mRNA expression in the rhesus monkey...
  55. ncbi request reprint Infection of cynomolgus monkeys with a chimeric HIV-1/SIVmac virus that expresses the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins
    J Li
    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 5:639-46. 1992
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Lymphomatoid papulosis and human herpesviruses--A PCR-based evaluation for the presence of human herpesvirus 6, 7 and 8 related herpesviruses
    W Kempf
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Cutan Pathol 28:29-33. 2001
    ..Ultrastructural and clinical features of LyP suggest that it has a viral etiology. Human herpesviruses have been proposed as causative cofactors for LyP because of their oncogenic potential and their association with other lymphomas...
  57. pmc Immune biology of macaque lymphocyte populations during mycobacterial infection
    X Lai
    Tuberculosis Research Unit, Beth Israel Deaconess, Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Clin Exp Immunol 133:182-92. 2003
    ..The patterns and kinetics of CD4+, CD8+ and gammadelta T cell immune responses during BCG infection might contribute to characterizing immune protection against tuberculosis and testing new tuberculosis vaccines in primates...
  58. ncbi request reprint Postbinding functions of CD4 in HIV infection
    R E Bachelder
    Dept of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Trends Microbiol 4:359-63. 1996
    ..The CD4 molecule has been shown to assume an altered conformation on the T-cell surface following HIV binding, which may be involved in these postbinding events...
  59. ncbi request reprint Characterization of rhesus monkey CD94/NKG2 family members and identification of novel transmembrane-deleted forms of NKG2-A, B, C, and D
    M L LaBonte
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Immunogenetics 51:496-9. 2000
  60. ncbi request reprint Biochemical and molecular characterization of rhesus monkey major histocompatibility complex class II DR
    C Lekutis
    Harvard Medical School, New England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts, USA
    Hum Immunol 43:72-80. 1995
    ..In this way it has also been possible to determine which subset of the DRB sequences amplified from a B-LCL are actually expressed...
  61. ncbi request reprint Germline repertoire of the immunoglobulin V(H)3 family in rhesus monkeys
    E F Helmuth
    Viral Pathogenesis Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Immunogenetics 51:519-27. 2000
    ..The similarity of rhesus and human V(H)3 homologues reinforces the notion that humoral immunity in this nonhuman primate species is an appropriate system for modeling human antibody responses...
  62. ncbi request reprint Clinical measles after measles virus challenge in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected measles virus-vaccinated rhesus monkeys
    Sallie R Permar
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1784-93. 2007
    ....
  63. pmc Vaccination preserves CD4 memory T cells during acute simian immunodeficiency virus challenge
    Joseph J Mattapallil
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease NIAID, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 203:1533-41. 2006
    ....
  64. ncbi request reprint Expansion after epitope peptide exposure in vitro predicts cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope dominance hierarchy in lymphocytes of vaccinated mamu-a*01+ rhesus monkeys
    Ramu A Subbramanian
    Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:445-52. 2006
    ..This finding underscores the enormous challenge associated with increasing the breadth of CTL recognition through vaccination...
  65. ncbi request reprint Preservation of functional virus-specific memory CD8+ T lymphocytes in vaccinated, simian human immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys
    Paula M Acierno
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 176:5338-45. 2006
    ....
  66. pmc Systemic immunization with an ALVAC-HIV-1/protein boost vaccine strategy protects rhesus macaques from CD4+ T-cell loss and reduces both systemic and mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVKU2 RNA levels
    Ranajit Pal
    Advanced BioScience Laboratories, Inc, Kensington, Maryland 20895, USA
    J Virol 80:3732-42. 2006
    ..Thus, systemic immunization with ALVAC-HIV-1 vaccine candidates elicits anti-HIV-1 immune responses able to contain virus replication also at mucosal sites in macaques...
  67. ncbi request reprint Immunization with HIV-1 SF162-derived Envelope gp140 proteins does not protect macaques from heterologous simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P infection
    Rong Xu
    Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Virology 349:276-89. 2006
    ..Our results suggest that even small differences in HIV Envelope immunogen structure can affect the neutralizing antibody responses generated following infection...
  68. ncbi request reprint Dysfunction of simian immunodeficiency virus/simian human immunodeficiency virus-induced IL-2 expression by central memory CD4+ T lymphocytes
    Yue Sun
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 174:4753-60. 2005
    ..Persisting clinical protection in vaccinated and challenged monkeys is thus correlated with a preserved capacity of the peripheral blood central memory CD4+ T cells to express this important immunomodulatory cytokine...
  69. pmc Generation of CD8+ T-cell responses by a recombinant nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis vaccine vector expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env
    Mark J Cayabyab
    Department of Medicine, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02130, USA
    J Virol 80:1645-52. 2006
    ..Importantly, preexisting immunity to Mycobacterium bovis BCG had only a marginal effect on the immunogenicity of recombinant M. smegmatis. This mycobacterium may therefore be a useful vaccine vector...
  70. ncbi request reprint Comparative evaluation of three different intramuscular delivery methods for DNA immunization in a nonhuman primate animal model
    Srinivas S Rao
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Vaccine 24:367-73. 2006
    ....
  71. pmc Use of molecular beacons for rapid, real-time, quantitative monitoring of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope mutations in simian immunodeficiency virus
    Fred W Peyerl
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4773-9. 2005
    ..This real-time PCR technique for evaluating CTL epitope mutations may prove to be a useful tool for monitoring the genetic drift of human immunodeficiency virus and SIV in infected individuals...
  72. pmc A human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 regulatory element enhances the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA vaccines in mice and nonhuman primates
    Dan H Barouch
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 79:8828-34. 2005
    ..This strategy could therefore be explored as a potential method to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity in humans...
  73. pmc Role of genes that modulate host immune responses in the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of vaccinia virus
    Shawn S Jackson
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Research East RE 113, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 79:6554-9. 2005
    ..Improved vaccinia virus vectors can be generated by deleting additional genes to achieve a more significant viral attenuation...
  74. pmc Replication-defective adenovirus serotype 5 vectors elicit durable cellular and humoral immune responses in nonhuman primates
    Sampa Santra
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, RE113, P O Box 15732, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 79:6516-22. 2005
    ..Therefore, administration of ADV5-based vectors in DNA-primed subjects may be a preferred use of this vaccine modality for generating long-term immune protection...
  75. pmc Cross-subtype T-cell immune responses induced by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group m consensus env immunogen
    Eric A Weaver
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, 112 RPIII, Research Drive, Box 3347, DUMC, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:6745-56. 2006
    ....
  76. ncbi request reprint Germinal center function in the spleen during simian HIV infection in rhesus monkeys
    David H Margolin
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Immunol 177:1108-19. 2006
    ....
  77. pmc Clonal focusing of epitope-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys following vaccination and simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge
    Pritha Sen
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 82:805-16. 2008
    ..Circumventing this restricted CD8(+) T-lymphocyte clonal diversity may present a significant challenge in the development of an effective HIV vaccine strategy...
  78. pmc The impact of a boosting immunogen on the differentiation of secondary memory CD8+ T cells
    Avi Hai Hovav
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Virol 81:12793-802. 2007
    ..These data therefore suggest that the phenotype of secondary CD8+ T cells is determined predominantly by the boosting immunogen whereas the cytokine profile of these cells is shaped by both the priming and boosting immunogens...
  79. doi request reprint Protection of macaques against vaginal SHIV challenge by systemic or mucosal and systemic vaccinations with HIV-envelope
    Susan W Barnett
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc, 4560 Horton Street, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    AIDS 22:339-48. 2008
    ..Worldwide, the majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occur by heterosexual transmission. Thus, the development of a vaccine that can prevent intravaginal HIV infection is an important goal of AIDS vaccine research...
  80. pmc Heterologous prime/boost immunization of rhesus monkeys by using diverse poxvirus vectors
    Sampa Santra
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 81:8563-70. 2007
    ..This study supports further exploration of combining recombinant vectors of the same family in prime/boost immunization strategies to optimize vaccine-elicited cellular immune responses...
  81. pmc Memory CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss and dysfunction during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection
    Yue Sun
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 81:8009-15. 2007
    ....
  82. pmc Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin elicits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope-specific T lymphocytes at mucosal sites
    Jae Sung Yu
    Human Vaccine Institute and Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:886-93. 2007
    ..However, rBCG could prime for a protein boost by HIV-1 envelope protein. Thus, rBCG can serve as a vector for induction of anti-HIV-1 consensus Env cellular responses at mucosal sites...
  83. ncbi request reprint Analysis of TCRalphabeta combinations used by simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T cells in rhesus monkeys: implications for CTL immunodominance
    Atsuhiko Hasegawa
    Division of Immunology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 18703 Three Rivers Road, Covington, LA 70433, USA
    J Immunol 178:3409-17. 2007
    ..These findings will aid in understanding immunodominance and designing new approaches to modulate CTL responses...
  84. pmc Magnitude and quality of vaccine-elicited T-cell responses in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication in rhesus monkeys
    Yue Sun
    Department of Medicine, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 82:8812-9. 2008
    ..These observations highlight the contributions of both the quality and the magnitude of vaccine-elicited cellular immune responses in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication...
  85. ncbi request reprint Highly attenuated rabies virus-based vaccine vectors expressing simian-human immunodeficiency virus89.6P Env and simian immunodeficiency virusmac239 Gag are safe in rhesus macaques and protect from an AIDS-like disease
    Philip M McKenna
    Department of Microbiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Infect Dis 195:980-8. 2007
    ..Upon challenge with SHIV(89.6P) test macaques controlled the infection, whereas control macaques had high levels of viremia and a profound loss of CD4(+) T cells, with 1 control macaque dying of an AIDS-like disease...
  86. pmc Potent simian immunodeficiency virus-specific cellular immune responses in the breast milk of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected, lactating rhesus monkeys
    Sallie R Permar
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 181:3643-50. 2008
    ..This robust viral-specific cellular immune response in breast milk may contribute to control of breast milk virus replication...
  87. pmc Rapid memory CD8+ T-lymphocyte induction through priming with recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis
    Avi Hai Hovav
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Virol 81:74-83. 2007
    ....
  88. pmc Virus-specific cellular immune correlates of survival in vaccinated monkeys after simian immunodeficiency virus challenge
    Yue Sun
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, RE113, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 80:10950-6. 2006
    ..These findings underscore the contribution of virus-specific central memory T lymphocytes to controlling clinical progression in vaccinated individuals following a primate immunodeficiency virus infection...
  89. pmc Compensatory substitutions restore normal core assembly in simian immunodeficiency virus isolates with Gag epitope cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutations
    Wendy W Yeh
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Research East Room 113, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 80:8168-77. 2006
    ....
  90. pmc A replication-competent adenovirus-human immunodeficiency virus (Ad-HIV) tat and Ad-HIV env priming/Tat and envelope protein boosting regimen elicits enhanced protective efficacy against simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P challenge in rhesus ma
    Thorsten Demberg
    Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute NIH, 41 Medlars Drive, Building 41, Bethesda, MD 20892 5065, USA
    J Virol 81:3414-27. 2007
    ..Since prechallenge anti-Env antibodies lacked SHIV(89.6P)-neutralizing activity, other functional anti-Env and anti-Tat activities are under investigation, as is a possible synergy between the Tat and Env immunogens...
  91. pmc Vaccine-elicited memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes contribute to Mamu-A*01-associated control of simian/human immunodeficiency virus 89.6P replication in rhesus monkeys
    Michael S Seaman
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, 330 Brookline Ave RE 113, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Virol 79:4580-8. 2005
    ..These data indicate that specific MHC class I alleles can confer protection in the setting of a pathogenic SHIV infection by their ability to elicit memory CTL following vaccination...
  92. pmc Subsets of memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes elicited by vaccination influence the efficiency of secondary expansion in vivo
    Michael S Seaman
    Department of Medicine, Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 78:206-15. 2004
    ..These observations suggest that CTL-based vaccines should elicit central memory rather than effector memory T cells and illustrate the importance of monitoring the phenotype and functionality of vaccine-induced, antigen-specific CTL...
  93. pmc Cellular immunity elicited by human immunodeficiency virus type 1/ simian immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccination does not augment the sterile protection afforded by passive infusion of neutralizing antibodies
    John R Mascola
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 77:10348-56. 2003
    ..These data suggest that although effector T cells can limit viral replication, they are not able to assist humoral immunity to prevent the establishment of initial infection...
  94. pmc Global dysfunction of CD4 T-lymphocyte cytokine expression in simian-human immunodeficiency virus/SIV-infected monkeys is prevented by vaccination
    Paul F McKay
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 77:4695-702. 2003
    ....
  95. pmc Effect of humoral immune responses on controlling viremia during primary infection of rhesus monkeys with simian immunodeficiency virus
    Jörn E Schmitz
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 77:2165-73. 2003
    ..However, the inverse correlation between neutralizing antibodies and plasma virus level during the postacute phases of infection suggests that humoral immune responses may contribute to the control of SIV replication...
  96. pmc Elicitation of simian immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in mucosal compartments of rhesus monkeys by systemic vaccination
    Jamal Baig
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 76:11484-90. 2002
    ..These studies therefore suggest that systemic delivery of potent HIV immunogens may suffice to elicit substantial mucosal CTL responses...
  97. ncbi request reprint A simian immunodeficiency virus nef peptide is a dominant cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in Indian-origin rhesus monkeys expressing the common MHC class I allele mamu-A*02
    Michael H Newberg
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Virology 301:365-73. 2002
    ..Knowledge of this dominant CTL epitope should prove valuable in the evaluation of HIV vaccine strategies using this animal model...
  98. pmc Prior vaccination increases the epitopic breadth of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response that evolves in rhesus monkeys following a simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Sampa Santra
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Virol 76:6376-81. 2002
    ..These data indicate that prior vaccination can increase the breadth of the CTL response that evolves after an AIDS virus infection...
  99. ncbi request reprint Neutralizing antibodies as a potential secondary protective mechanism during chronic SHIV infection in CD8+ T-cell-depleted macaques
    Robert A Rasmussen
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    AIDS 16:829-38. 2002
    ..To directly examine the role of CD8+ T cells in controlling viremia and disease during chronic, low-level primate immunodeficiency virus infection in DNA prime/protein boost-vaccinated macaques...
  100. ncbi request reprint Recombinant canarypox vaccine-elicited CTL specific for dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes in rhesus monkeys
    Sampa Santra
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 168:1847-53. 2002
    ..The later emerging CTL response specific for the subdominant epitope may contribute to the control of viral replication in the setting of chronic infection...
  101. ncbi request reprint Eventual AIDS vaccine failure in a rhesus monkey by viral escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    Dan H Barouch
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Research East Room 113, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nature 415:335-9. 2002
    ..These data indicate that viral escape from CTL recognition may be a major limitation of the CTL-based AIDS vaccines that are likely to be administered to large human populations over the next several years...