M A Hernán

Summary

Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Beyond the intention-to-treat in comparative effectiveness research
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Trials 9:48-55. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Structural accelerated failure time models for survival analysis in studies with time-varying treatments
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14:477-91. 2005
  3. pmc Observational studies analyzed like randomized experiments: an application to postmenopausal hormone therapy and coronary heart disease
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Epidemiology 19:766-79. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Tetanus vaccination and risk of multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 67:212-5. 2006
  5. pmc Estimating causal effects from epidemiological data
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 60:578-86. 2006
  6. ncbi request reprint Alcohol consumption and the incidence of Parkinson's disease
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Ann Neurol 54:170-5. 2003
  7. pmc Compound treatments and transportability of causal inference
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 22:368-77. 2011
  8. ncbi request reprint Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the incidence of Parkinson disease
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 66:1097-9. 2006
  9. pmc Invited Commentary: Causal diagrams and measurement bias
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:959-62; discussion 963-4. 2009
  10. pmc A definition of causal effect for epidemiological research
    M A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, US
    J Epidemiol Community Health 58:265-71. 2004

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. pmc Beyond the intention-to-treat in comparative effectiveness research
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Trials 9:48-55. 2012
    ..The intention-to-treat comparison is the primary, if not the only, analytic approach of many randomized clinical trials...
  2. ncbi request reprint Structural accelerated failure time models for survival analysis in studies with time-varying treatments
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 14:477-91. 2005
    ..The parameters of nested structural models are estimated by g-estimation and those of marginal structural models by inverse probability weighting...
  3. pmc Observational studies analyzed like randomized experiments: an application to postmenopausal hormone therapy and coronary heart disease
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Epidemiology 19:766-79. 2008
    ..Observational studies had previously suggested reduced CHD risk in hormone users...
  4. ncbi request reprint Tetanus vaccination and risk of multiple sclerosis: a systematic review
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 67:212-5. 2006
    ..To conduct a systematic review on the association between tetanus vaccination and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  5. pmc Estimating causal effects from epidemiological data
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Epidemiol Community Health 60:578-86. 2006
    ..For simplicity, the main description is restricted to dichotomous variables and assumes that no random error attributable to sampling variability exists. The appendix provides a generalisation of inverse probability weighting...
  6. ncbi request reprint Alcohol consumption and the incidence of Parkinson's disease
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Ann Neurol 54:170-5. 2003
    ..7 (0.5-0.9) for one to three drinks of beer per month, and 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) for one or more drinks of beer per week. The risk of PD was similar in individuals who usually consume moderate amounts of alcohol and in abstainers...
  7. pmc Compound treatments and transportability of causal inference
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 22:368-77. 2011
    ..We discuss how such issues of "transportability" are related to the consistency condition in causal inference. With more carefully framed questions, the results of epidemiologic studies can be of greater value to decision-makers...
  8. ncbi request reprint Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the incidence of Parkinson disease
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 66:1097-9. 2006
    ..93 (0.80 to 1.08) for nonaspirin NSAIDs, 1.29 (1.05 to 1.58) for aspirin, and 1.16 (1.00 to 1.35) for acetaminophen. Nonaspirin NSAID use was associated with a higher risk in women and a lower risk in men...
  9. pmc Invited Commentary: Causal diagrams and measurement bias
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 170:959-62; discussion 963-4. 2009
    ..g., "adiposity"). The authors conclude that causal diagrams need to be used to represent biases arising not only from confounding and selection but also from measurement...
  10. pmc A definition of causal effect for epidemiological research
    M A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, US
    J Epidemiol Community Health 58:265-71. 2004
    ..The article concludes with a discussion on the limitations of randomised studies. These limitations are the reason why methods for causal inference from observational data are needed...
  11. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis B vaccination and multiple sclerosis: the jury is still out
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 15:653-5. 2006
  12. ncbi request reprint Invited commentary: hypothetical interventions to define causal effects--afterthought or prerequisite?
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 162:618-20; discussion 621-2. 2005
  13. ncbi request reprint A structural approach to selection bias
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 15:615-25. 2004
    ..This classification also leads to a unified approach to adjust for selection bias...
  14. ncbi request reprint Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a prospective study
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 63:838-42. 2004
    ..A potential link between the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been evaluated in several studies, but some of them have substantial methodologic limitations...
  15. ncbi request reprint Cigarette smoking and the progression of multiple sclerosis
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Brain 128:1461-5. 2005
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint A prospective study of alcoholism and the risk of Parkinson's disease
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Neurol 251:vII14-7. 2004
    ..Our case-control study included 1,019 cases and 10,123 matched controls. Overall, we did not find a lower incidence of PD among alcoholics compared with nonalcoholics (odds ratio: 1.09; 95 % CI: 0.67, 1.78)...
  17. ncbi request reprint Does obesity shorten life? The importance of well-defined interventions to answer causal questions
    M A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Int J Obes (Lond) 32:S8-14. 2008
    ..We conclude that consistency violations not only preclude the estimation of well-defined causal effects but also compromise our ability to estimate ill-defined causal effects...
  18. ncbi request reprint Cigarette smoking and incidence of multiple sclerosis
    M A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 154:69-74. 2001
    ..Similar results were obtained after adjustment for other potential confounding factors. Although these prospective results do not prove a cause-and-effect relation, they suggest that smoking is associated with an increased risk of MS...
  19. ncbi request reprint Oral contraceptives and the incidence of multiple sclerosis
    M A Hernán
    Departments of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 55:848-54. 2000
    ..Experimental and clinical data suggest a protective effect of estrogens on the development and progression of MS...
  20. ncbi request reprint Cigarette smoking and the incidence of Parkinson's disease in two prospective studies
    M A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Ann Neurol 50:780-6. 2001
    ..These prospective findings confirm that an inverse association between smoking and the incidence of Parkinson's disease exists in both men and women...
  21. ncbi request reprint Causal knowledge as a prerequisite for confounding evaluation: an application to birth defects epidemiology
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 155:176-84. 2002
    ..65 (95% confidence interval: 0.46, 0.94) should be used because the adjusted odds ratio is invalid. Causal diagrams are used to encode qualitative a priori subject matter knowledge...
  22. pmc Oseltamivir and risk of lower respiratory tract complications in patients with flu symptoms: a meta-analysis of eleven randomized clinical trials
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 53:277-9. 2011
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint MAOB intron 13 and COMT codon 158 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking, and the risk of PD
    M A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 58:1381-7. 2002
    ..Also, the association between never smoking and PD risk may be present only in people with the MAOB G allele...
  24. doi request reprint Cigarette smoking and dementia: potential selection bias in the elderly
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 19:448-50. 2008
    ..We conjecture that selection bias due to censoring by death may be the main explanation for the reversal of the relative rate with increasing age...
  25. ncbi request reprint Estimating the causal effect of zidovudine on CD4 count with a marginal structural model for repeated measures
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Stat Med 21:1689-709. 2002
    ..8,12.7) CD4 lymphocytes/l per additional study visit while on zidovudine therapy. We also explain the theory and implementation of MSMs for repeated measures data and draw upon a simple example to illustrate the basic ideas...
  26. ncbi request reprint A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinson's disease
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Ann Neurol 52:276-84. 2002
    ..Further research is required on the biological mechanisms underlying this potentially protective effect...
  27. ncbi request reprint Intakes of carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E and MS risk among two large cohorts of women
    S M Zhang
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 57:75-80. 2001
    ..Antioxidant nutrients may reduce the risk of MS. In a recent case-control study, vitamin C intake was significantly inversely associated with MS risk among women. However, no prospective data are available...
  28. ncbi request reprint Hepatitis B vaccination and the risk of multiple sclerosis
    A Ascherio
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    N Engl J Med 344:327-32. 2001
    ..Reports of multiple sclerosis developing after hepatitis B vaccination have led to the concern that this vaccine might be a cause of multiple sclerosis in previously healthy subjects...
  29. ncbi request reprint Dietary fat in relation to risk of multiple sclerosis among two large cohorts of women
    S M Zhang
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 152:1056-64. 2000
    ..However, the authors observed a nonsignificantly lower risk of MS for a higher intake of linolenic acid. These findings do not support relations between intakes of total fat or major specific types of fat and the risk of MS...
  30. ncbi request reprint Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson's disease in men and women
    A Ascherio
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Ann Neurol 50:56-63. 2001
    ..These results support a possible protective effect of moderate doses of caffeine on risk of Parkinson's disease...
  31. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus antibodies and risk of multiple sclerosis: a prospective study
    A Ascherio
    Harvard School of Public Health, Nutrition Department, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    JAMA 286:3083-8. 2001
    ..Epidemiological studies suggest an association between infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  32. ncbi request reprint Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis
    K L Munger
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 62:60-5. 2004
    ..A protective effect of vitamin D on risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed, but no prospective studies have addressed this hypothesis...
  33. ncbi request reprint Physical activity and the risk of Parkinson disease
    H Chen
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 64:664-9. 2005
    ..To investigate whether greater physical activity is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD)...
  34. ncbi request reprint Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 158:687-94. 2003
    ..Standard Cox analysis failed to detect a clear net benefit, because it does not appropriately adjust for time-dependent covariates, such as HIV RNA level and CD4 cell count, that are simultaneously confounders and intermediate variables...
  35. ncbi request reprint Multiple sclerosis and age at infection with common viruses
    M A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 12:301-6. 2001
    ..Late infection with other common viruses may also be associated with increased risk...
  36. ncbi request reprint Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men
    A Ascherio
    Department of Nutrition, Epidemiology and Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Circulation 98:1198-204. 1998
    ..Animal experiments and epidemiological studies have suggested that high potassium intake may reduce the risk of stroke, but the evidence is inconclusive, and the role of other nutrients in potassium-rich foods remains unknown...
  37. ncbi request reprint Incidence of multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom : findings from a population-based cohort
    A Alonso
    Dept of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Neurol 254:1736-41. 2007
    ..3 per 1,000 in women and 2.3 per 1,000 in men. These results confirm the relatively high incidence of MS in the UK and show marked differences in the sex-specific pattern of MS incidence by clinical course from onset...
  38. ncbi request reprint Allergy, family history of autoimmune diseases, and the risk of multiple sclerosis
    A Alonso
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Acta Neurol Scand 117:15-20. 2008
    ..The present study assessed the association between history of allergy and autoimmune diseases, and the risk of MS...
  39. ncbi request reprint Relation of consumption of vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids to risk for stroke among men in the United States
    A Ascherio
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Ann Intern Med 130:963-70. 1999
    ..Antioxidants increase the resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation and may thereby reduce risk for atherosclerosis...
  40. ncbi request reprint Comparison of dynamic treatment regimes via inverse probability weighting
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 98:237-42. 2006
    ..The paper concludes by discussing the relative advantages and disadvantages of censoring/IPW versus g-estimation of nested structural models to compare dynamic regimes...
  41. pmc Intervening on risk factors for coronary heart disease: an application of the parametric g-formula
    Sarah L Taubman
    National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 38:1599-611. 2009
    ..This work represents the first large-scale application of the parametric g-formula in an epidemiologic cohort study...
  42. pmc When to initiate combined antiretroviral therapy to reduce mortality and AIDS-defining illness in HIV-infected persons in developed countries: an observational study
    Lauren E Cain
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Ann Intern Med 154:509-15. 2011
    ..350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate...
  43. ncbi request reprint Effect modification by time-varying covariates
    James M Robins
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:994-1002; discussion 1003-4. 2007
    ..and compare the advantages and disadvantages of using history-adjusted MSMs, as opposed to SNMs, to examine effect modification by time-dependent covariates...
  44. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic use and risk of multiple sclerosis
    Alvaro Alonso
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 163:997-1002. 2006
    ..pneumoniae was not associated with a decreased risk of short-term multiple sclerosis. The observed lower risk of multiple sclerosis for penicillin users needs to be confirmed in other populations...
  45. ncbi request reprint Intakes of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, vitamin supplements, and PD risk
    S M Zhang
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 59:1161-9. 2002
    ..Oxidative damage has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Limited and mostly retrospective epidemiologic data suggest a reduction or no change in risk of PD associated with high vitamin E intake...
  46. ncbi request reprint Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of lung cancer
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Int J Cancer 120:1565-72. 2007
    ..34) for aspirin. In conclusion, prescription of non-aspirin NSAIDs for at least 1 year might be associated with a slightly reduced risk of lung cancer. Aspirin was not associated with a risk reduction, perhaps due to residual confounding...
  47. ncbi request reprint Statins and fracture risk. A systematic review
    Sengwee Toh
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 16:627-40. 2007
    ..To summarize current evidence on statin use and fracture risk and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity among study results...
  48. ncbi request reprint Dietary folate and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Epidemiology 13:700-6. 2002
    ..Because folate intake can reduce homocysteine levels, we investigated the association between dietary folate intake and nonfatal myocardial infarction...
  49. ncbi request reprint Use of antidepressants and risk of lung cancer
    Sengwee Toh
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Causes Control 18:1055-64. 2007
    ..To evaluate the effect of antidepressant use on lung cancer risk...
  50. pmc Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    BMC Med 4:22. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic use and the risk of lung cancer
    Hui Zhang
    Department Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17:1308-15. 2008
    ..Current evidence is insufficient to support or refute a carcinogenic effect of antibiotics...
  52. doi request reprint Sensitivity and specificity of computerized algorithms to classify gestational periods in the absence of information on date of conception
    Sengwee Toh
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:633-40. 2008
    ..However, the sensitivity of this algorithm is lower for preterm deliveries, suggesting limited validity to assess drug safety for pregnancy outcomes associated with prematurity...
  53. pmc From causal diagrams to birth weight-specific curves of infant mortality
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Eur J Epidemiol 23:163-6. 2008
    ..Taken together, these two approaches can facilitate discussion of underlying biological mechanisms...
  54. ncbi request reprint The birth weight "paradox" uncovered?
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 164:1115-20. 2006
    ..An appropriate justification for conditioning on birth weight requires specifying 1) the causal question motivating this analytical approach and 2) the assumptions regarding the proposed underlying biologic mechanisms...
  55. ncbi request reprint Pharmacoepidemiology and rheumatic disorders
    K Arnold Chan
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Rheum Dis Clin North Am 30:835-50, vii. 2004
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the risk of acute myocardial infarction
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 98:266-74. 2006
    ..There was a suggestion of a small increased risk with ibuprofen. Also, data suggest a small reduced risk for naproxen present only in non-users of aspirin, mainly people free of clinically apparent vascular disease...
  57. pmc Estimating absolute risks in the presence of nonadherence: an application to a follow-up study with baseline randomization
    Sengwee Toh
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Epidemiology 21:528-39. 2010
    ..64; 95% CI = 1.24 to 2.18). The methods described here are also applicable to observational studies with time-varying treatments...
  58. pmc Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and risk of gestational hypertension
    Sengwee Toh
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 166:320-8. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on the risks of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia...
  59. doi request reprint Positive predictive value of computerized medical records for uncomplicated and complicated upper gastrointestinal ulcer
    Andrea V Margulis
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18:900-9. 2009
    ..We assessed the PPV of diagnosis codes in THIN, a primary-care medical-record database, to ascertain individuals with uncomplicated PU, and to identify UGIC and Helicobacter pylori infection status (HPIS) among these patients...
  60. pmc Case-only gene-environment interaction studies: when does association imply mechanistic interaction?
    Tyler J VanderWeele
    Harvard School of Public Health, Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Genet Epidemiol 34:327-34. 2010
    ..We furthermore show these tests for mechanistic interaction can be extended to scenarios in which the genetic and environmental factors are negatively associated in the population rather than independent...
  61. pmc Medications as a potential source of exposure to phthalates in the U.S. population
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:185-9. 2009
    ..Underappreciated sources of exposure include phthalates in the polymers coating some oral medications...
  62. pmc Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and fetal growth restriction
    Sengwee Toh
    Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, 133 Brookline Ave 6th Floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Clin Psychopharmacol 29:555-60. 2009
    ..The associations between prenatal exposure to antidepressants and preterm delivery and fetal growth restriction are controversial and poorly understood. We studied the relation between antidepressant use and these outcomes...
  63. ncbi request reprint Long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of children and adolescents with HIV infection: a 10-year follow-up study
    Kunjal Patel
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:507-15. 2008
    ..Given that HIV infection is chronic and that exposure to HAART is likely to be life-long, there is a need to evaluate the long-term effect of HAART on survival in this population...
  64. pmc Coronary heart disease in postmenopausal recipients of estrogen plus progestin therapy: does the increased risk ever disappear? A randomized trial
    Sengwee Toh
    Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, 133 Brookline Avenue, 6th Floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Ann Intern Med 152:211-7. 2010
    ..Estrogen plus progestin therapy increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women. However, this increased risk might be limited to the first years of use and to women who start therapy late in menopause...
  65. ncbi request reprint Instruments for causal inference: an epidemiologist's dream?
    Miguel A Hernán
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 17:360-72. 2006
    ....
  66. doi request reprint A structural approach to the familial coaggregation of disorders
    James I Hudson
    Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478, USA
    Epidemiology 19:431-9. 2008
    ..For illustration, we applied our method to a family study of binge eating disorder and bipolar disorder...
  67. doi request reprint Epidemiologists (of all people) should question journal impact factors
    Miguel A Hernán
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 19:366-8. 2008
  68. ncbi request reprint Marginal structural models for estimating the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation on CD4 cell count
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 162:471-8. 2005
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Folate intake and risk of Parkinson's disease
    Honglei Chen
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 160:368-75. 2004
    ..Intake of vitamin B(6) or vitamin B(12) also was not related to the risk of Parkinson's disease. The current study does not support the hypothesis that higher intake of folate or related B vitamins lowers the risk of Parkinson's disease...
  70. pmc Relation between three classes of structural models for the effect of a time-varying exposure on survival
    Jessica G Young
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Kresge Bldg Suite 820, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Lifetime Data Anal 16:71-84. 2010
    ..A simulation study is also presented to compare effect estimates across the three models...
  71. pmc Early life factors and adult-onset rheumatoid arthritis
    Julia F Simard
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Rheumatol 37:32-7. 2010
    ..We investigated the association of preterm birth and being breastfed with the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2 large prospective cohorts...
  72. pmc Perinatal factors and adult-onset lupus
    Julia F Simard
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 59:1155-61. 2008
    ..Therefore, we evaluated the role of birth weight, being breastfed, and preterm birth on the incidence of SLE in participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII)...
  73. ncbi request reprint Obesity and the risk of Parkinson's disease
    Honglei Chen
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 159:547-55. 2004
    ..03) for waist-to-hip ratio. The results do not support a role of overall obesity in PD pathogenesis; however, central obesity may be associated with higher PD risk among never smokers, and this finding merits further investigation...
  74. ncbi request reprint Diet and Parkinson's disease: a potential role of dairy products in men
    Honglei Chen
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Ann Neurol 52:793-801. 2002
    ..Our results suggest that higher intake of dairy products may increase the risk of PD in men; however, this finding needs further evaluation, and the underlying active components need to be identified...
  75. ncbi request reprint Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of Parkinson disease
    Honglei Chen
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arch Neurol 60:1059-64. 2003
    ..Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce dopaminergic neuron degeneration in animal models of Parkinson disease (PD). However, no epidemiological data have been available on NSAID use and the risk of PD...
  76. ncbi request reprint Weight loss in Parkinson's disease
    Honglei Chen
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Ann Neurol 53:676-9. 2003
    ..002). In conclusion, weight loss in PD patients appears to be a continuous process that starts several years before the diagnosis and is not caused by reduced energy intake...
  77. ncbi request reprint Dietary intakes of fat and risk of Parkinson's disease
    Honglei Chen
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 157:1007-14. 2003
    ..65, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.91; p for trend = 0.05). Results do not support an important role of overall fat intake in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, but a possible adverse effect of saturated fat for men could not be excluded...
  78. pmc Long-term effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ cell evolution among children and adolescents infected with HIV: 5 years and counting
    Kunjal Patel
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:1751-60. 2008
    ....
  79. ncbi request reprint Trends and predictors of folic acid awareness and periconceptional use in pregnant women
    Lolkje T W de Jong-van den Berg
    Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:121-8. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to describe recent trends in folic acid awareness and use in the periconceptional period among pregnant women in relation to maternal sociodemographic and other relevant factors...
  80. ncbi request reprint Recent use of oral contraceptives and the risk of multiple sclerosis
    Alvaro Alonso
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arch Neurol 62:1362-5. 2005
    ..Exogenous estrogens affect the onset and clinical course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Oral contraceptives, a frequent source of exogenous estrogens in humans, could have a role in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS)...
  81. ncbi request reprint Fallibility in estimating direct effects
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Int J Epidemiol 31:163-5. 2002
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint Allergy, histamine 1 receptor blockers, and the risk of multiple sclerosis
    Alvaro Alonso
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neurology 66:572-5. 2006
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Determining the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load using a marginal structural left-censored mean model
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 166:219-27. 2007
    ..In conclusion, the clinically important protective effect of HAART on dampening viral load appears to be rapid, present at CD4 cell counts greater than 350 cells/mm(3), and sustained beyond 6 years...
  84. pmc Constructing inverse probability weights for marginal structural models
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 168:656-64. 2008
    ..However, as with all methods, diagnostics and sensitivity analyses are essential for proper use...
  85. ncbi request reprint Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and risk of multiple sclerosis
    Kassandra L Munger
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Epidemiology 14:141-7. 2003
    ..Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) has been proposed as a possible etiologic agent for multiple sclerosis (MS), but results of previous studies are conflicting...
  86. ncbi request reprint First-trimester use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and the risk of birth defects
    Carol Louik
    Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    N Engl J Med 356:2675-83. 2007
    ..The risk of birth defects after antenatal exposure to selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) remains controversial...
  87. ncbi request reprint Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: maternal characteristics and risk factors
    Carol Louik
    Slone Epidemiology Centre, Boston University, MA 02115, USA
    Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 20:270-8. 2006
    ..Together with selected demographic characteristics that differentiate early- vs. late-onset NVP, these findings warrant further investigation...
  88. ncbi request reprint Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and the risk of gestational hypertension
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Epidemiology 16:628-34. 2005
    ..It is also unknown whether the fetal genotype is relevant, or whether folic acid supplementation modifies this association...
  89. ncbi request reprint Smoking and the risk of oral clefts: exploring the impact of study designs
    Katie A Meyer
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Epidemiology 15:671-8. 2004
    ..We used case-crossover, case-time-control, and bidirectional case-crossover designs to supplement findings from a case-control study of maternal smoking and oral clefts among offspring in a large birth registry...
  90. pmc Risk of pre-eclampsia in first and subsequent pregnancies: prospective cohort study
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    BMJ 338:b2255. 2009
    ..To investigate whether pre-eclampsia is more common in first pregnancies solely because fewer affected women, who presumably have a higher risk of recurrence, go on to have subsequent pregnancies...
  91. ncbi request reprint Gout and risk of Parkinson disease: a prospective study
    Alvaro Alonso
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Neurology 69:1696-700. 2007
    ..None of these studies, however, evaluated the potential association between gout, a condition characterized by hyperuricemia, and the risk of PD...
  92. ncbi request reprint Methotrexate and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study
    Hyon K Choi
    Arthritis Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Lancet 359:1173-7. 2002
    ..Our aim was to prospectively assess the effect on mortality of methotrexate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis...
  93. ncbi request reprint Adjusted survival curves with inverse probability weights
    Stephen R Cole
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street E 7014, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed 75:45-9. 2004
    ..When the weights are non-parametrically estimated, this method is equivalent to direct standardization of the survival curves to the combined study population...
  94. ncbi request reprint Activated injectable vitamin D and hemodialysis survival: a historical cohort study
    Ming Teng
    Fresenius Medical Care North America, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 16:1115-25. 2005
    ..Randomized clinical trials would permit definitive conclusions...
  95. ncbi request reprint Case-crossover and case-time-control designs in birth defects epidemiology
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University School of Public Health, 1010 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 158:385-91. 2003
    ..9 (95% CI: 1.2, 7.2), but it requires controls. In the presence of gestational time trends of exposure, the new designs do not offer clear advantages over the case-control design...
  96. pmc Gestational hypertension in pregnancies supported by infertility treatments: role of infertility, treatments, and multiple gestations
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Fertil Steril 88:438-45. 2007
    ..To investigate the association between infertility treatments and gestational hypertension and preeclampsia...
  97. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
    Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
    Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, 1010 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Pediatrics 120:e272-82. 2007
    ..We performed a case-control study to determine possible antenatal and perinatal predictors of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn...
  98. ncbi request reprint Use of over-the-counter medications during pregnancy
    Martha M Werler
    Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:771-7. 2005
    ..We describe the patterns of over-the-counter medication use among pregnant women...
  99. pmc Endotoxin-directed innate immunity in tracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated human neonates
    Katheryn E Nathe
    Department of Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Pediatr Res 66:191-6. 2009
    ..TA extracellular BPI, LBP, and sCD14 were positively correlated. TAs from intubated neonates demonstrate endotoxin accumulation and mobilization of endotoxin-directed innate immunity, potentially contributing to pulmonary inflammation...
  100. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy outcomes, site of delivery, and community schisms in regions affected by the armed conflict in Chiapas, Mexico
    Paula E Brentlinger
    Physicians for Human Rights, Boston, MA, USA
    Soc Sci Med 61:1001-14. 2005
    ..Reduction of high reproductive mortality ratios will require attention to socioeconomic and conflict-related problems, in addition to improved access to emergency obstetrical services...