Jeffrey S Flier

Summary

Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Hormone resistance in diabetes and obesity: insulin, leptin, and FGF21
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Yale J Biol Med 85:405-14. 2012
  2. doi request reprint Gut check: testing a role for the intestinal microbiome in human obesity
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Sci Transl Med 1:6ps7. 2009
  3. doi request reprint Lasker lauds leptin
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Office of the Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 12:317-20. 2010
  4. doi request reprint Lasker lauds leptin
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Office of the Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell 143:9-12. 2010
  5. pmc Selective inactivation of Socs3 in SF1 neurons improves glucose homeostasis without affecting body weight
    Ren Zhang
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 149:5654-61. 2008
  6. pmc Integrated regulation of hepatic metabolism by fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in vivo
    Ffolliott M Fisher
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 152:2996-3004. 2011
  7. pmc Curative and beta cell regenerative effects of alpha1-antitrypsin treatment in autoimmune diabetic NOD mice
    Maria Koulmanda
    Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16242-7. 2008
  8. pmc Adipocyte-specific glucocorticoid inactivation protects against diet-induced obesity
    Erin E Kershaw
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Diabetes 54:1023-31. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Enhanced leptin sensitivity and improved glucose homeostasis in mice lacking suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in POMC-expressing cells
    Paul Kievit
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 4:123-32. 2006
  10. pmc TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:3015-25. 2006

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. pmc Hormone resistance in diabetes and obesity: insulin, leptin, and FGF21
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Yale J Biol Med 85:405-14. 2012
    ..In this presentation, Dr. Flier discusses his and his wife's research on insulin, leptin, and FGF21 in the context of his reflections upon his life's work and his advice for young investigators...
  2. doi request reprint Gut check: testing a role for the intestinal microbiome in human obesity
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Sci Transl Med 1:6ps7. 2009
    ..This model should encourage investigation of the gut microbiome as a contributor to human metabolic disease and permit discovery of targets for the prevention and treatment of these disorders...
  3. doi request reprint Lasker lauds leptin
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Office of the Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 12:317-20. 2010
    ..By uncovering a critical physiologic system, their discovery markedly accelerated our capacity to apply molecular and genetic techniques to understand obesity...
  4. doi request reprint Lasker lauds leptin
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Office of the Dean, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell 143:9-12. 2010
    ..By uncovering a critical physiologic system, their discovery markedly accelerated our capacity to apply molecular and genetic techniques to understand obesity...
  5. pmc Selective inactivation of Socs3 in SF1 neurons improves glucose homeostasis without affecting body weight
    Ren Zhang
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 149:5654-61. 2008
    ..These results suggest that Socs3 in SF1 neurons negatively regulates leptin signaling and plays important roles in mediating leptin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, and energy expenditure...
  6. pmc Integrated regulation of hepatic metabolism by fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in vivo
    Ffolliott M Fisher
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 152:2996-3004. 2011
    ..The direct effects we examined are not dependent on PGC-1α. In addition, FGF21 treatment is associated with decreased serum insulin levels that my affect hepatic function...
  7. pmc Curative and beta cell regenerative effects of alpha1-antitrypsin treatment in autoimmune diabetic NOD mice
    Maria Koulmanda
    Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16242-7. 2008
    ..Indeed, the functional mass of beta cells expands in AAT-treated diabetic NOD mice...
  8. pmc Adipocyte-specific glucocorticoid inactivation protects against diet-induced obesity
    Erin E Kershaw
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Diabetes 54:1023-31. 2005
    ..These data suggest that reduction of active GCs exclusively in adipose tissue is an important determinant of a favorable metabolic phenotype with respect to energy homeostasis and the metabolic syndrome...
  9. ncbi request reprint Enhanced leptin sensitivity and improved glucose homeostasis in mice lacking suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in POMC-expressing cells
    Paul Kievit
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 4:123-32. 2006
    ..These studies demonstrate that Socs-3 within POMC neurons regulates leptin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and plays a key role in linking high-fat diet to disordered metabolism...
  10. pmc TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 116:3015-25. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in adipose tissue causes local but not systemic insulin resistance
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Diabetes 55:699-707. 2006
    ..Therefore, overexpression of SOCS3 in adipocytes causes local adipocyte insulin resistance, but it is not sufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance...
  12. pmc Thyroid hormone regulates hepatic expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in a PPARalpha-dependent manner
    Andrew C Adams
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:14078-82. 2010
    ..These findings indicate a novel regulatory pathway whereby T3 positively regulates hepatic FGF21 expression, presenting a novel therapeutic target for diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
  13. pmc PPARgamma regulates adipose triglyceride lipase in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo
    Erin E Kershaw
    Div of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Dept of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293:E1736-45. 2007
    ..Thus, PPARgamma positively regulates ATGL mRNA and protein expression in mature adipocytes in vitro and in adipose tissue in vivo, suggesting a role for ATGL in mediating PPARgamma's effects on lipid metabolism...
  14. ncbi request reprint Enhanced leptin sensitivity and attenuation of diet-induced obesity in mice with haploinsufficiency of Socs3
    Jane K Howard
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Nat Med 10:734-8. 2004
    ..The level of Socs3 expression is thus a critical determinant of leptin sensitivity and obesity susceptibility in vivo and this molecule is a potential target for therapeutic intervention...
  15. pmc Fibroblast growth factor 21 and thyroid hormone show mutual regulatory dependency but have independent actions in vivo
    Eleni M Domouzoglou
    Division of Endocrinology E M D, F M F, i A, E C F, J S F, A N H, E M F, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Lilly Research Laboratories A K, Indianapolis, Indiana 46225
    Endocrinology 155:2031-40. 2014
    ..In conclusion, TH and FGF21 act independently on the outcomes studied, despite their ability to regulate each other's circulating levels. Thus, TH and FGF21 may modulate the availability of each other in critical metabolic states. ..
  16. ncbi request reprint Hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 is regulated by PPARalpha and is a key mediator of hepatic lipid metabolism in ketotic states
    Michael K Badman
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 5:426-37. 2007
    ..These findings identify hepatic FGF21 as a critical regulator of lipid homeostasis and identify a physiological role for this hepatic hormone...
  17. ncbi request reprint Absence of CC chemokine ligand 2 does not limit obesity-associated infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue
    Karen E Inouye
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Diabetes 56:2242-50. 2007
    ..Importantly, we conclude that CCL2 is not critical for adipose tissue macrophage recruitment. The dominant factor for recruiting macrophages in adipose tissue during obesity therefore remains to be identified...
  18. pmc Obesity is a fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)-resistant state
    Ffolliott M Fisher
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 59:2781-9. 2010
    ..However, the expected beneficial effects of endogenous FGF21 to increase glucose tolerance and reduce circulating triglycerides are absent in obesity...
  19. ncbi request reprint Region-specific leptin resistance within the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese mice
    Heike Munzberg
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 145:4880-9. 2004
    ..Defects in leptin action in the ARC may play a role in the pathogenesis of leptin-resistant obesity...
  20. ncbi request reprint Evidence for constitutive neural cell proliferation in the adult murine hypothalamus
    Maia V Kokoeva
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Comp Neurol 505:209-20. 2007
    ..Thus, we provide evidence that the adult hypothalamus is constitutively neurogenic and that hypothalamic cell proliferation is highly responsive to mitogen action...
  21. ncbi request reprint Neuroscience. Regulating energy balance: the substrate strikes back
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 312:861-4. 2006
  22. pmc Remodeling of the arcuate nucleus energy-balance circuit is inhibited in obese mice
    David E G McNay
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Center for Life Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:142-52. 2012
    ..This insight has important implications for our understanding of nutritional regulation of energy balance and brain function...
  23. pmc Fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice demonstrate impaired adaptation to ketosis
    Michael K Badman
    Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Center for Life Sciences, 7th Floor, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 150:4931-40. 2009
    ..Mice lacking FGF21 cannot respond appropriately to a ketogenic diet, resulting in an impaired ability to mobilize and utilize lipids...
  24. ncbi request reprint Neurogenesis in the hypothalamus of adult mice: potential role in energy balance
    Maia V Kokoeva
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 99 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 310:679-83. 2005
    ..These findings link the sustained effect of CNTF on energy balance to hypothalamic neurogenesis and suggest that regulated hypothalamic neurogenesis in adult mice may play a previously unappreciated role in physiology and disease...
  25. pmc FGF21 regulates PGC-1α and browning of white adipose tissues in adaptive thermogenesis
    Ffolliott M Fisher
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Genes Dev 26:271-81. 2012
    ..We conclude that FGF21 acts to activate and expand the thermogenic machinery in vivo to provide a robust defense against hypothermia...
  26. pmc Transplanted hypothalamic neurons restore leptin signaling and ameliorate obesity in db/db mice
    Artur Czupryn
    Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, and Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Science 334:1133-7. 2011
    ..These experiments serve as a proof of concept that transplanted neurons can functionally reconstitute complex neuronal circuitry in the mammalian brain...
  27. ncbi request reprint Leptin regulation of the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway
    Stephanie Fulton
    Department of Medicine and Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Neuron 51:811-22. 2006
    ..These data define a role for leptin in mesoaccumbens DA signaling and indicate that the mesoaccumbens DA pathway, critical to integrating motivated behavior, responds to this adipose-derived signal...
  28. ncbi request reprint What fuels fat
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, USA
    Sci Am 297:72-81. 2007
  29. pmc Combined neural inactivation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1B reveals additive, synergistic, and factor-specific roles in the regulation of body energy balance
    Nadege Briancon
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Center for Life Sciences, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 59:3074-84. 2010
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Complex role of the vitamin D receptor and its ligand in adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells
    Jeffrey M Blumberg
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:11205-13. 2006
    ..Further examination of this hypothesis in vivo may shed new light on the biology of adipogenesis...
  31. pmc Polymerase I and transcript release factor regulates lipolysis via a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism
    Nabila Aboulaich
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 60:757-65. 2011
    ..Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) is a protein highly expressed in adipose tissue and is an integral structural component of caveolae. Here, we report on a novel role of PTRF in lipid mobilization...
  32. pmc Melanin-concentrating hormone is a critical mediator of the leptin-deficient phenotype
    Gabriella Segal-Lieberman
    Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10085-90. 2003
    ..These results highlight the importance of MCH in integration of energy homeostasis downstream of leptin and, in particular, the role of MCH in regulation of energy expenditure...
  33. pmc Adipose triglyceride lipase: function, regulation by insulin, and comparison with adiponutrin
    Erin E Kershaw
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Diabetes 55:148-57. 2006
    ..These data suggest that murine ATGL but not adiponutrin contributes to net adipocyte lipolysis and that ATGL and adiponutrin are oppositely regulated by insulin both in vitro and in vivo...
  34. ncbi request reprint Obesity wars: molecular progress confronts an expanding epidemic
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell 116:337-50. 2004
    ....
  35. pmc Reduced adiposity and high-fat diet-induced adipose inflammation in mice deficient for phosphodiesterase 4B
    Ren Zhang
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Endocrinology 150:3076-82. 2009
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 is a physiological regulator of adipocyte insulin signaling
    Hang Shi
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:34733-40. 2004
    ..We conclude that SOCS3 plays an important role in mediating insulin resistance and may be an excellent target for therapeutic intervention in insulin resistance and type II diabetes...
  37. ncbi request reprint Insulin resistance and lipodystrophy in mice lacking ribosomal S6 kinase 2
    Karim El-Haschimi
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Diabetes 52:1340-6. 2003
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Neuroscience. The fat-brain axis enters a new dimension
    Joel K Elmquist
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 304:63-4. 2004
  39. ncbi request reprint The adipocyte as an active participant in energy balance and metabolism
    Michael K Badman
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:2103-15. 2007
    ..We also describe other important adipose-derived factors in relation to their metabolic effect...
  40. ncbi request reprint AgRP in energy balance: Will the real AgRP please stand up?
    Jeffrey S Flier
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 3:83-5. 2006
    ..A recent paper in Cell Metabolism (Wortley et al., 2005) indicates that AgRP itself is important for feeding and weight gain, but only as mice age, and the mechanism may involve dysfunction of the thyroid axis...
  41. ncbi request reprint Ciliary neurotrophic factor and leptin induce distinct patterns of immediate early gene expression in the brain
    Joseph F Kelly
    Department of Medicine and Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Diabetes 53:911-20. 2004
    ..Our findings support the hypothesis that CNTF and leptin engage distinct CNS sites and CNTF possesses inflammatory properties distinct from leptin...
  42. ncbi request reprint Regulated production of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand during an early phase of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    Iphigenia Tzameli
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:36093-102. 2004
    ..The active species appears to be different from other PPARgamma ligands identified previously. Our findings suggest that a novel biologically relevant PPARgamma ligand is transiently produced in 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis...
  43. ncbi request reprint The gut and energy balance: visceral allies in the obesity wars
    Michael K Badman
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Finard 202, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Science 307:1909-14. 2005
    ..These discoveries have led to exploration of novel routes for obesity control, some of which involve gut-derived pathways...
  44. pmc Modification of adverse inflammation is required to cure new-onset type 1 diabetic hosts
    Maria Koulmanda
    Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, and Islet Transplantation Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:13074-9. 2007
    ..Thus, this triple-therapy regimen, possessing both tolerance-inducing and select antiinflammatory properties, may represent a prototype for therapies able to restore euglycemia and self-tolerance in T1DM...
  45. pmc Transgenic amplification of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue causes high blood pressure in mice
    Hiroaki Masuzaki
    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Invest 112:83-90. 2003
    ..The potential role of adipose 11beta-HSD1 in mediating critical features of the metabolic syndrome extends beyond obesity and metabolic complications to include the most central cardiovascular feature of this disorder...
  46. ncbi request reprint Effects of acute and chronic administration of the melanocortin agonist MTII in mice with diet-induced obesity
    Dominique D Pierroz
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 51:1337-45. 2002
    ..In conclusion, treatment with a melanocortin agonist is a promising therapeutic approach to DIO and associated insulin resistance...
  47. ncbi request reprint Tissue-specific glucocorticoid reactivating enzyme, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD1)--a promising drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome
    Hiroaki Masuzaki
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215, USA
    Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 3:255-62. 2003
    ..Recently reported selective inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 can ameliorate severe hyperglycemia in the genetically diabetic obese mice. In summary, 11beta-HSD1 is a promising pharmaceutical target for the treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome...
  48. ncbi request reprint Regulation of melanocortin-4 receptor signaling: agonist-mediated desensitization and internalization
    Hiroshi Shinyama
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 144:1301-14. 2003
    ..Our data demonstrate that, through PKA-, GRK-, beta-arrestin-, and dynamin-dependent processes, MC4R undergoes internalization in response to agonist, thereby providing novel insights into the regulation of MC4R signaling...
  49. ncbi request reprint Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ
    Erin E Kershaw
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2548-56. 2004
    ..A better understanding of the endocrine function of adipose tissue will likely lead to more rational therapy for these increasingly prevalent disorders. This review presents an overview of the endocrine functions of adipose tissue...