Samuel Behar

Summary

Affiliation: Harvard University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Cytolytic CD8+ T cells recognizing CFP10 are recruited to the lung after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Arati B Kamath
    Divsion of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 200:1479-89. 2004
  2. pmc Regulation of neutrophils by interferon-γ limits lung inflammation during tuberculosis infection
    Bisweswar Nandi
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 208:2251-62. 2011
  3. doi Antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and protective immunity to tuberculosis
    Samuel M Behar
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 783:141-63. 2013
  4. pmc Susceptibility of mice deficient in CD1D or TAP1 to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    S M Behar
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 189:1973-80. 1999
  5. pmc Next generation: tuberculosis vaccines that elicit protective CD8+ T cells
    Samuel M Behar
    Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Smith Building, Room 516C, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 6:441-56. 2007
  6. doi Use of the T-SPOT.TB assay to detect latent tuberculosis infection among rheumatic disease patients on immunosuppressive therapy
    Samuel M Behar
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02492, USA
    J Rheumatol 36:546-51. 2009
  7. pmc Evasion of innate immunity by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is death an exit strategy?
    Samuel M Behar
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:668-74. 2010
  8. pmc Lipids, apoptosis, and cross-presentation: links in the chain of host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Samuel M Behar
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Smith Research Building, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Microbes Infect 13:749-56. 2011
  9. ncbi Diverse CD1d-restricted T cells: diverse phenotypes, and diverse functions
    S M Behar
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Smith Building Room 518, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Semin Immunol 12:551-60. 2000
  10. ncbi Conservation of CD1 intracellular trafficking patterns between mammalian species
    Christopher C Dascher
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 169:6951-8. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. pmc Cytolytic CD8+ T cells recognizing CFP10 are recruited to the lung after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Arati B Kamath
    Divsion of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 200:1479-89. 2004
    ..tuberculosis infection and demonstrates that large numbers of CFP10-specific cytolytic CD8(+) T cells are recruited to the lung after M. tuberculosis infection...
  2. pmc Regulation of neutrophils by interferon-γ limits lung inflammation during tuberculosis infection
    Bisweswar Nandi
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 208:2251-62. 2011
    ..We suggest that neutrophilia during tuberculosis indicates failed Th1 immunity or loss of IFN-γ responsiveness. These results establish an important antiinflammatory role for IFN-γ in host protection against tuberculosis...
  3. doi Antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and protective immunity to tuberculosis
    Samuel M Behar
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 783:141-63. 2013
    ..Thus, how CD8(+) T cells contribute to overall immunity to tuberculosis and whether antigens recognized by CD8(+) T cells would enhance the efficacy of vaccine strategies continue to be important questions...
  4. pmc Susceptibility of mice deficient in CD1D or TAP1 to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    S M Behar
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 189:1973-80. 1999
    ....
  5. pmc Next generation: tuberculosis vaccines that elicit protective CD8+ T cells
    Samuel M Behar
    Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Smith Building, Room 516C, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Expert Rev Vaccines 6:441-56. 2007
    ..The synergy between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells suggests that a vaccine that elicits both T-cell subsets has the best chance at preventing tuberculosis...
  6. doi Use of the T-SPOT.TB assay to detect latent tuberculosis infection among rheumatic disease patients on immunosuppressive therapy
    Samuel M Behar
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02492, USA
    J Rheumatol 36:546-51. 2009
    ..We evaluated the T-SPOT.TB assay to identify latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients with rheumatic disease receiving immunosuppressive medication including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists...
  7. pmc Evasion of innate immunity by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is death an exit strategy?
    Samuel M Behar
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:668-74. 2010
    ..Thus, M. tuberculosis-mediated modulation of eicosanoid production determines the death modality of the infected macrophage, which in turn has a substantial impact on the outcome of infection...
  8. pmc Lipids, apoptosis, and cross-presentation: links in the chain of host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Samuel M Behar
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Smith Research Building, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Microbes Infect 13:749-56. 2011
    ..This review integrates in vitro and in vivo data on how apoptosis of infected macrophages is linked to development of T cell immunity against M. tuberculosis...
  9. ncbi Diverse CD1d-restricted T cells: diverse phenotypes, and diverse functions
    S M Behar
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Smith Building Room 518, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Semin Immunol 12:551-60. 2000
    ..Lastly, the discovery of antigens recognized by diverse CD1d-restricted T cells will provide insight into their role in normal and pathological immune responses...
  10. ncbi Conservation of CD1 intracellular trafficking patterns between mammalian species
    Christopher C Dascher
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 169:6951-8. 2002
    ..This suggests evolutionary pressure for a conserved mechanism in mammals that allows CD1 to sample lipid Ags from various subcompartments of the endocytic system...
  11. ncbi In vivo depletion of CD11c+ cells delays the CD4+ T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and exacerbates the outcome of infection
    Tian Tian
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 175:3268-72. 2005
    ..Thus, this study shows that DC are essential for the initiation of the adaptive T cell response to the human pathogen Mtb...
  12. pmc Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and the development of central memory during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Arati Kamath
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 177:6361-9. 2006
    ..Finally, challenge of memory-immune mice with M. tuberculosis was accompanied by significant expansion of TB10.3/10.4(20-28)-specific CD8+ T cells, which suggests that these cells are in fact functional memory T cells...
  13. ncbi Tuberculosis triggers a tissue-dependent program of differentiation and acquisition of effector functions by circulating monocytes
    Markus Sköld
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 181:6349-60. 2008
    ..This report provides the first direct evidence for monocyte differentiation into both the macrophage and DC lineages in vivo following infection with a live human pathogen...
  14. pmc Vaccine-elicited 10-kilodalton culture filtrate protein-specific CD8+ T cells are sufficient to mediate protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Ying Wu
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Smith Building Room 516C, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 76:2249-55. 2008
    ..tuberculosis. These data demonstrate that CFP-10 is a protective antigen and that CFP-10(32-39)-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by vaccination are sufficient to mediate protection against tuberculosis...
  15. pmc Development of a glycoprotein D-expressing dominant-negative and replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) recombinant viral vaccine against HSV-2 infection in mice
    Natalie V Akhrameyeva
    Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Virol 85:5036-47. 2011
    ....
  16. pmc Innate invariant NKT cells recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages, produce interferon-gamma, and kill intracellular bacteria
    Isabel Sada-Ovalle
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000239. 2008
    ..Our finding that iNKT cells protect mice against aerosol Mtb infection is the first evidence that CD1d-restricted NKT cells mediate protection against Mtb in vivo...
  17. pmc Bacterial protein secretion is required for priming of CD8+ T cells specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen CFP10
    Joshua S Woodworth
    Division of Rheumatology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 76:4199-205. 2008
    ..The implications of these findings should be considered in all models of antigen presentation during M. tuberculosis infection and in vaccine development...
  18. pmc Eicosanoid pathways regulate adaptive immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Maziar Divangahi
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:751-8. 2010
    ..Our results explain why T cell priming in response to M. tuberculosis is delayed and emphasize the importance of early immunity...
  19. pmc Characterization of guinea-pig group 1 CD1 proteins
    Kenji Hiromatsu
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Immunology 106:159-72. 2002
    ....
  20. pmc Lipid mediators in innate immunity against tuberculosis: opposing roles of PGE2 and LXA4 in the induction of macrophage death
    Minjian Chen
    Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 205:2791-801. 2008
    ..These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that PGE(2) plays a critical role in inhibition of Mtb replication...
  21. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T cells and their role in immunity
    Joshua S M Woodworth
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Crit Rev Immunol 26:317-52. 2006
    ..Finally, we examine the effector mechanisms of CD8+ T cells generated during infection and synthesize recent studies to consider the protective roles that these T cells serve in vivo...
  22. pmc Discordant QuantiFERON-TB Gold test results among US healthcare workers with increased risk of latent tuberculosis infection: a problem or solution?
    Nira R Pollock
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:878-86. 2008
    ..We then undertook a quality assurance review to evaluate the QFT-G test results in HCWs with multiple risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI)...
  23. ncbi Susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: lessons from inbred strains of mice
    Alissa A Chackerian
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Smith Building, Room 516, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 83:279-85. 2003
    ..This is a review of recent insights into the genetics and immunology of resistance and susceptibility to virulent M. tuberculosis using genetically intact mice...
  24. ncbi Interplay of cytokines and microbial signals in regulation of CD1d expression and NKT cell activation
    Markus Sköld
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 175:3584-93. 2005
    ..Our findings support a model in which CD1d induction regulates NKT cell activation...
  25. ncbi Fine specificity of TCR complementarity-determining region residues and lipid antigen hydrophilic moieties in the recognition of a CD1-lipid complex
    Ethan P Grant
    Lymphocyte Biology Section, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 168:3933-40. 2002
    ..Our findings indicate that the CDR loops of the TCR form the Ag recognition domain of CD1-restricted TCRs and suggest that the hydrophilic domains of a lipid Ag can form a combinatorial epitope recognized by the TCR...
  26. pmc Tim3 binding to galectin-9 stimulates antimicrobial immunity
    Pushpa Jayaraman
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Exp Med 207:2343-54. 2010
    ..We propose that the T(H)1 cell surface molecule Tim3 has evolved to inhibit growth of intracellular pathogens via its ligand Gal9, which in turn inhibits expansion of effector T(H)1 cells to prevent further tissue inflammation...
  27. pmc Activation of NKT cells protects mice from tuberculosis
    Alissa Chackerian
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 70:6302-9. 2002
    ....
  28. doi Vaccine-induced antibody isotypes are skewed by impaired CD4 T cell and invariant NKT cell effector responses in MyD88-deficient mice
    Onyinye I Iweala
    Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Disease, Division of Rheumatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    J Immunol 183:2252-60. 2009
    ....
  29. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades macrophage defenses by inhibiting plasma membrane repair
    Maziar Divangahi
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Immunol 10:899-906. 2009
    ..By inducing production of lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)), which blocks PGE(2) biosynthesis, virulent Mtb prevented membrane repair and induced necrosis. Thus, virulent Mtb impairs macrophage plasma membrane repair to evade host defenses...
  30. ncbi Lysosomal localization of murine CD1d mediated by AP-3 is necessary for NK T cell development
    Manuela Cernadas
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 171:4149-55. 2003
    ..Here we show the dominant mechanism for this trafficking is mediated by AP-3...
  31. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T cells require perforin to kill target cells and provide protection in vivo
    Joshua S Woodworth
    Division of Rheumatology, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 181:8595-603. 2008
    ..These data show that CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection during Mtb infection requires more than the secretion of IFN-gamma and specifically defines the CD8(+) cytolytic mechanisms utilized and required in vivo...
  32. pmc The major histocompatibility complex haplotype affects T-cell recognition of mycobacterial antigens but not resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C3H mice
    Arati B Kamath
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Smith Building, Room 516C, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 72:6790-8. 2004
    ..These results suggest that although the MHC haplotype has a profound impact on the T-cell recognition of M. tuberculosis antigens, the susceptibility of C3H mice to infection is MHC independent...
  33. ncbi Primary type II alveolar epithelial cells present microbial antigens to antigen-specific CD4+ T cells
    Hajer Debbabi
    Division of Rheumatology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Smith Bldg, RM 516, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289:L274-9. 2005
    ..This represents a novel role for type II AEC in the immunological response to pulmonary pathogens...
  34. ncbi The LFA-1 adhesion molecule is required for protective immunity during pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Shamik Ghosh
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Immunol 176:4914-22. 2006
    ..Thus, LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) plays an essential role in immunity to M. tuberculosis infection...
  35. pmc Toll-like receptor 4-defective C3H/HeJ mice are not more susceptible than other C3H substrains to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Arati B Kamath
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 71:4112-8. 2003
    ..tuberculosis infection. With this caveat, our data indicate that TLR4 may not be required for optimal immunity of mice to M. tuberculosis...
  36. pmc Anamnestic responses of mice following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Arati B Kamath
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Smith Building Room 516C, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6110-8. 2005
    ..A greater understanding of the immunological factors that govern the maintenance of immunological memory following exposure to M. tuberculosis will be required to develop an effective vaccine...
  37. pmc Primary deficiency of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in human abetalipoproteinemia is associated with loss of CD1 function
    Sebastian Zeissig
    Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Clin Invest 120:2889-99. 2010
    ..These data highlight MTP as a unique regulator of human metabolic and immune pathways and reveal that ABL is not only a disorder of lipid metabolism but also an immune disease involving CD1...
  38. pmc Alpha-galactosylceramide as a therapeutic agent for pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
    Isabel Sada-Ovalle
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:841-7. 2010
    ..We sought to determine whether pharmacological activation of iNKT cells by α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) could be used to treat tuberculosis (TB)...
  39. ncbi The role of group 1 and group 2 CD1-restricted T cells in microbial immunity
    Markus Sköld
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Smith Building Room 516C, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Microbes Infect 7:544-51. 2005
    ..The evidence that these T cells contribute to host defense against infectious diseases is reviewed...
  40. pmc Role of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in microbial immunity
    Markus Sköld
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, One Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 71:5447-55. 2003
  41. pmc Dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by host factors and precedes the initiation of T-cell immunity
    Alissa A Chackerian
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 70:4501-9. 2002
    ..We hypothesize that this early initiation of immunity following inoculation with M. tuberculosis may contribute to the superior resistance of C57BL/6 mice...
  42. pmc Structural features of the acyl chain determine self-phospholipid antigen recognition by a CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cell
    Joyce Rauch
    Division of Rheumatology, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 278:47508-15. 2003
    ..These data illustrate the potential importance of the acyl chain structure for phospholipid antigen binding to CD1d...
  43. ncbi Natural killer T cells recognize diacylglycerol antigens from pathogenic bacteria
    Yuki Kinjo
    Division of Developmental Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:978-86. 2006
    ....

Research Grants27

  1. IMMUNOLOGICAL BASIS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Aim 4. Characterize the immune response to tuberculosis in mouse models that simulate the abnormalities of cell mediated immunity typical of HIV/AIDS patients. ..
  2. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and protective immunity to tuberculosis
    Samuel M Behar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..tuberculosis-specific immune response will also be determined. This proposal will directly assess how CFP10-specific CD8+ T cells contribute to host defense and how their function is modulated by immunity and disease. ..
  3. Cd1d regulation and its effect on NKT cell activation
    Samuel M Behar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  4. Tim3 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Samuel M Behar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research proposal seeks to discover new ways that cells of the immune system kill bacteria. It is hoped that by understanding these features of host resistance, new strategies can be developed for the treatment of tuberculosis. ..
  5. IMMUNOLOGICAL BASIS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Aim 4. Characterize the immune response to tuberculosis in mouse models that simulate the abnormalities of cell mediated immunity typical of HIV/AIDS patients. ..
  6. TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS WITH IMMUNOMODULATORS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and protective immunity to tuberculosis
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..tuberculosis-specific immune response will also be determined. This proposal will directly assess how CFP10-specific CD8+ T cells contribute to host defense and how their function is modulated by immunity and disease. ..
  8. TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS WITH IMMUNOMODULATORS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  9. Cd1d regulation and its effect on NKT cell activation
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  10. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and protective immunity to tuberculosis
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..tuberculosis-specific immune response will also be determined. This proposal will directly assess how CFP10-specific CD8+ T cells contribute to host defense and how their function is modulated by immunity and disease. ..
  11. Cd1d regulation and its effect on NKT cell activation
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  12. Cd1d regulation and its effect on NKT cell activation
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  13. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and protective immunity to tuberculosis
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..tuberculosis-specific immune response will also be determined. This proposal will directly assess how CFP10-specific CD8+ T cells contribute to host defense and how their function is modulated by immunity and disease. ..
  14. TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS WITH IMMUNOMODULATORS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. ROLE OF THE ALPHAE INTEGRIN IN IMMUNITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..tuberculosis is altered in alphaE deficient mice; and 3) Investigate potential mechanisms by which alphaEbeta7 may affect susceptibility to tuberculosis. ..
  16. IMMUNOLOGICAL BASIS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Aim 4. Characterize the immune response to tuberculosis in mouse models that simulate the abnormalities of cell mediated immunity typical of HIV/AIDS patients. ..
  17. ROLE OF THE ALPHAE INTEGRIN IN IMMUNITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..tuberculosis is altered in alphaE deficient mice; and 3) Investigate potential mechanisms by which alphaEbeta7 may affect susceptibility to tuberculosis. ..
  18. IMMUNOLOGICAL BASIS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Aim 4. Characterize the immune response to tuberculosis in mouse models that simulate the abnormalities of cell mediated immunity typical of HIV/AIDS patients. ..
  19. IMMUNOLOGICAL BASIS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Aim 4. Characterize the immune response to tuberculosis in mouse models that simulate the abnormalities of cell mediated immunity typical of HIV/AIDS patients. ..
  20. ROLE OF THE ALPHAE INTEGRIN IN IMMUNITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..tuberculosis is altered in alphaE deficient mice; and 3) Investigate potential mechanisms by which alphaEbeta7 may affect susceptibility to tuberculosis. ..
  21. TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS WITH IMMUNOMODULATORS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We believe that this series of experiments will lay the foundation for the development of a-galactosylceramide as an adjunct therapy for tuberculosis, a treatment that ultimately may be relevant to other infectious diseases as well. ..
  22. ROLE OF THE ALPHAE INTEGRIN IN IMMUNITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..tuberculosis is altered in alphaE deficient mice; and 3) Investigate potential mechanisms by which alphaEbeta7 may affect susceptibility to tuberculosis. ..
  23. TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS WITH IMMUNOMODULATORS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. ROLE OF THE ALPHAE INTEGRIN IN IMMUNITY TO TUBERCULOSIS
    Samuel Behar; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..tuberculosis is altered in alphaE deficient mice; and 3) Investigate potential mechanisms by which alphaEbeta7 may affect susceptibility to tuberculosis. ..