Adrian S Ray

Summary

Affiliation: Gilead Sciences
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Novel use of a guanosine prodrug approach to convert 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine into a viable antiviral agent
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8066, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:887-91. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint GS-9219--a novel acyclic nucleotide analogue with potent antineoplastic activity in dogs with spontaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Hans Reiser
    Department of Research and Development, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:2824-32. 2008
  3. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of 2'-fluorine modified nucleoside phosphonates: analogs of GS-9148
    Richard L Mackman
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:1116-9. 2008
  4. pmc Design and profiling of GS-9148, a novel nucleotide analog active against nucleoside-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and its orally bioavailable phosphonoamidate prodrug, GS-9131
    Tomas Cihlar
    Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Dr, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:655-65. 2008
  5. pmc Intracellular metabolism of the nucleotide prodrug GS-9131, a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Dr, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:648-54. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Intracellular interactions between nucleos(t)ide inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    AIDS Rev 7:113-25. 2005
  7. ncbi request reprint Lack of a metabolic and antiviral drug interaction between tenofovir, abacavir and lamivudine
    Adrian S Ray
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA
    Antivir Ther 10:451-7. 2005
  8. ncbi request reprint Effective metabolism and long intracellular half life of the anti-hepatitis B agent adefovir in hepatic cells
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 68:1825-31. 2004
  9. pmc Role of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in interactions between 2',3'-dideoxyinosine and allopurinol, ganciclovir, or tenofovir
    Adrian S Ray
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1089-95. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Discovery of GS-9131: Design, synthesis and optimization of amidate prodrugs of the novel nucleoside phosphonate HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor GS-9148
    Richard L Mackman
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA94404, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 18:3606-17. 2010

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. pmc Novel use of a guanosine prodrug approach to convert 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine into a viable antiviral agent
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8066, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:887-91. 2002
    ..In addition, cyclo-D4G had increased stability, lipophilicity, and solubility, as well as decreased toxicity relative to D4G, suggesting that further study is warranted...
  2. ncbi request reprint GS-9219--a novel acyclic nucleotide analogue with potent antineoplastic activity in dogs with spontaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Hans Reiser
    Department of Research and Development, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:2824-32. 2008
    ..Our objective was to characterize the antiproliferative activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of GS-9219...
  3. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of 2'-fluorine modified nucleoside phosphonates: analogs of GS-9148
    Richard L Mackman
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:1116-9. 2008
    ..The antiviral activity of guanosine analog (2'-Fd4GP) was comparable that of to 2'-Fd4AP in MT-2 cells, but selectivity was reduced...
  4. pmc Design and profiling of GS-9148, a novel nucleotide analog active against nucleoside-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and its orally bioavailable phosphonoamidate prodrug, GS-9131
    Tomas Cihlar
    Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Dr, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:655-65. 2008
    ..This favorable preclinical profile makes GS-9131 an attractive clinical development candidate for the treatment of patients infected with NRTI-resistant HIV...
  5. pmc Intracellular metabolism of the nucleotide prodrug GS-9131, a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Dr, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:648-54. 2008
    ..Together, these observations elucidate the cellular pharmacology of GS-9131 and illustrate its efficient loading of lymphoid cells, resulting in a prolonged intracellular exposure to the active metabolite GS-9148-DP...
  6. ncbi request reprint Intracellular interactions between nucleos(t)ide inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    AIDS Rev 7:113-25. 2005
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Lack of a metabolic and antiviral drug interaction between tenofovir, abacavir and lamivudine
    Adrian S Ray
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA
    Antivir Ther 10:451-7. 2005
    ..This study evaluated the combination of TFV, ABC and 3TC for metabolic or antiviral antagonism in vitro...
  8. ncbi request reprint Effective metabolism and long intracellular half life of the anti-hepatitis B agent adefovir in hepatic cells
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 68:1825-31. 2004
    ....
  9. pmc Role of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in interactions between 2',3'-dideoxyinosine and allopurinol, ganciclovir, or tenofovir
    Adrian S Ray
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1089-95. 2004
    ..These findings support the inhibition of PNP-dependent ddI degradation as the molecular mechanism of these drug interactions...
  10. ncbi request reprint Discovery of GS-9131: Design, synthesis and optimization of amidate prodrugs of the novel nucleoside phosphonate HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor GS-9148
    Richard L Mackman
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA94404, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 18:3606-17. 2010
    ..Following oral dosing (3mg/kg) in Beagle dogs, high levels (>9.0microM) of active metabolite 15 were observed in PBMCs, validating the prodrug design process and leading to the nomination of 5 as a clinical candidate...
  11. doi request reprint Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of GS-9148 (2'-Fd4AP), a novel nucleoside phosphonate HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    Constantine G Boojamra
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 18:1120-3. 2008
    ....
  12. doi request reprint Design, synthesis, and anti-HIV activity of 4'-modified carbocyclic nucleoside phosphonate reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    Constantine G Boojamra
    Gilead Science, Inc, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 17:1739-46. 2009
    ..In vitro cellular metabolism studies using 9 confirmed that the active diphosphate metabolite is produced albeit at a lower efficiency relative to GS-9148...
  13. pmc Novel nucleotide human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase inhibitor GS-9148 with a low nephrotoxic potential: characterization of renal transport and accumulation
    Tomas Cihlar
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:150-6. 2009
    ..Compared to acyclic nucleotide analogs, GS-9148 was also found to have lower net active tubular secretion in dogs. Collectively, these results suggest that GS-9148 exhibits a low potential for renal accumulation and nephrotoxicity...
  14. ncbi request reprint In vitro evaluation of the anti-HIV activity and metabolic interactions of tenofovir and emtricitabine
    Katyna Borroto-Esoda
    Department of Clinical Virology, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA
    Antivir Ther 11:377-84. 2006
    ..We evaluated this combination for anti-HIV activity and intracellular metabolic interactions in vitro...
  15. pmc GS-9191 is a novel topical prodrug of the nucleotide analog 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)guanine with antiproliferative activity and possible utility in the treatment of human papillomavirus lesions
    Grushenka H I Wolfgang
    Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:2777-84. 2009
    ..At the highest dose (0.1%), cures were evident at the end of 5 weeks, and lesions did not recur in a 30-day follow-up period. These data suggest that GS-9191 may have utility in the treatment of HPV-induced lesions...
  16. ncbi request reprint Discovery of the first C-nucleoside HCV polymerase inhibitor (GS-6620) with demonstrated antiviral response in HCV infected patients
    Aesop Cho
    Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, California 94044, United States
    J Med Chem 57:1812-25. 2014
    ..In a phase I clinical study, the potential for potent activity was demonstrated but with high intra- and interpatient pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability. ..
  17. doi request reprint Synthesis and characterization of 2'-C-Me branched C-nucleosides as HCV polymerase inhibitors
    Aesop Cho
    Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94044, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 22:4127-32. 2012
    ....
  18. pmc Evaluation of the effect of cobicistat on the in vitro renal transport and cytotoxicity potential of tenofovir
    Kirsten M Stray
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:4982-9. 2013
    ..These results illustrate that COBI and TFV interact primarily with distinct renal transporters and indicate a low potential for pharmacokinetic renal drug-drug interaction. ..
  19. doi request reprint Evaluation of 2'-α-fluorine modified nucleoside phosphonates as potential inhibitors of HCV polymerase
    Jay P Parrish
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 23:3354-7. 2013
    ..9-2.1 μM, but only modest cell-based activity in the HCV replicon. Pro-drugs of the parent nucleoside phosphonates improved the cell-based activity...
  20. pmc Effects of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors on the intestinal absorption of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in vitro
    Leah Tong
    Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:3498-504. 2007
    ..Combined with prior studies, these findings indicate that intestinal absorption is the mechanism for changes in TFV plasma levels when TDF is coadministered with PIs...
  21. ncbi request reprint Molecular assessment of the potential for renal drug interactions between tenofovir and HIV protease inhibitors
    Tomas Cihlar
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA
    Antivir Ther 12:267-72. 2007
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint The K65R reverse transcriptase mutation in HIV-1 reverses the excision phenotype of zidovudine resistance mutations
    Kirsten L White
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA
    Antivir Ther 11:155-63. 2006
    ....
  23. doi request reprint Mechanism for effective lymphoid cell and tissue loading following oral administration of nucleotide prodrug GS-7340
    Darius Babusis
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California 94404, United States
    Mol Pharm 10:459-66. 2013
    ....
  24. doi request reprint Synthesis and antiviral activity of a series of 1'-substituted 4-aza-7,9-dideazaadenosine C-nucleosides
    Aesop Cho
    Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster Cit, CA 94044, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 22:2705-7. 2012
    ..In particular, the whole cell potency against HCV when R=CN was attributed to inhibition of HCV NS5B polymerase and intracellular concentration of the corresponding nucleoside triphosphate...
  25. ncbi request reprint Effect of nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors of HIV on endogenous nucleotide pools
    Jennifer E Vela
    Department of Preclinical Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA
    Antivir Ther 13:789-97. 2008
    ..In vitro studies were performed in order to understand the effect of N(t)RTIs on endogenous nucleotide pools...
  26. pmc Nucleotide analogue prodrug tenofovir disoproxil enhances lymphoid cell loading following oral administration in monkeys
    Lucie Durand-Gasselin
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California 94404, USA
    Mol Pharm 6:1145-51. 2009
    ..These results illustrate that administration of even a fleeting prodrug can increase target tissue loading and give valuable insight for future prodrug development...
  27. pmc Intracellular metabolism and in vitro activity of tenofovir against hepatitis B virus
    William E Delaney
    Gilead Sciences Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:2471-7. 2006
    ..Overall, the antiviral and metabolic profile of tenofovir supports its development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B...
  28. ncbi request reprint Simultaneous quantitation of the nucleotide analog adefovir, its phosphorylated anabolites and 2'-deoxyadenosine triphosphate by ion-pairing LC/MS/MS
    Jennifer E Vela
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 848:335-43. 2007
    ..This work resulted in a method that was found to have sensitivity, accuracy and precision sufficient to be a useful tool in the study of the intracellular pharmacology of adefovir in vitro and may be more broadly applicable...
  29. pmc Cobicistat boosts the intestinal absorption of transport substrates, including HIV protease inhibitors and GS-7340, in vitro
    Eve Irene Lepist
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:5409-13. 2012
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Visualizing the molecular interactions of a nucleotide analog, GS-9148, with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-DNA complex
    Eric B Lansdon
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    J Mol Biol 397:967-78. 2010
    ..Interestingly, the 2'-fluoro moiety of GS-9148-diphosphate was found in close proximity to the Q151 side chain, potentially explaining the observed moderately reduced susceptibly to GS-9148 conferred by Q151M mutation...
  31. pmc Mechanism of active renal tubular efflux of tenofovir
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3297-304. 2006
    ..A detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of TFV active tubular secretion will facilitate the assessment of potential renal drug-drug interactions with coadministered agents...
  32. ncbi request reprint Preparation and biological evaluation of 1'-cyano-2'-C-methyl pyrimidine nucleosides as HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors
    Michael R Mish
    Gilead Sciences Inc, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94044, USA Electronic address
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 24:3092-5. 2014
    ..Anti-HCV activity of these nucleosides and their nucleotide phosphoramidate prodrugs was assessed and compared to the 1'-unsubstituted counterparts and to the related 1'-cyano-2'-C-methyl C-nucleoside parent of GS-6620. ..
  33. doi request reprint Application of kinase bypass strategies to nucleoside antivirals
    Adrian S Ray
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antiviral Res 92:277-91. 2011
    ..This article reviews the history of kinase bypass strategies applied to nucleoside antivirals and the evolution of different tissue targeted prodrug strategies, highlighting clinically relevant examples...
  34. doi request reprint Nucleoside and nucleotide HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors: 25 years after zidovudine
    Tomas Cihlar
    Department of Biology, Gilead Sciences, Inc, 362 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Antiviral Res 85:39-58. 2010
    ..This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, volume 85, issue 1, 2010...
  35. pmc Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the anti-hepatitis C virus nucleotide prodrug GS-6620
    Eisuke Murakami
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:1943-51. 2014
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint A combination of decreased NRTI incorporation and decreased excision determines the resistance profile of HIV-1 K65R RT
    Kirsten L White
    Gilead Sciences Inc Foster City, California 94404, USA
    AIDS 19:1751-60. 2005
    ..To determine the mechanisms of resistance of K65R mutant reverse transcriptase (RT) to the currently approved nucleoside and nucleotide RT inhibitors (NRTI)...
  37. pmc Metabolic activation of the anti-hepatitis C virus nucleotide prodrug PSI-352938
    Congrong Niu
    Pharmasset, Inc, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:3767-75. 2012
    ..Since CYP3A4 is highly expressed in the liver, the CYP3A4-dependent metabolism of PSI-352938 makes it an effective liver-targeted prodrug, in part accounting for the potent antiviral activity observed clinically...
  38. ncbi request reprint HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors
    William J Watkins
    Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
    Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 13:441-65. 2010
    ....
  39. pmc Intracellular nucleotide levels during coadministration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and didanosine in HIV-1-infected patients
    Trevor Hawkins
    Southwest CARE Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:1549-55. 2011
    ..The association between longer-term ddI therapy and reduced intracellular nucleotide concentrations and this observation's implication for the efficacy and toxicity of ddI-containing regimens deserve further study...
  40. ncbi request reprint Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat
    Eve Irene Lepist
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California, USA
    Kidney Int 86:350-7. 2014
    ..Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition. ..
  41. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of cobicistat boosted-elvitegravir administered in combination with rosuvastatin
    Joseph M Custodio
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, CA, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 54:649-56. 2014
    ..Elvitegravir and cobicistat pharmacokinetics were comparable to historical data. Rosuvastatin may be coadministered with EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF without dose adjustment. ..
  42. pmc Evaluation of the endothelin receptor antagonists ambrisentan, bosentan, macitentan, and sitaxsentan as hepatobiliary transporter inhibitors and substrates in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes
    Eve Irene Lepist
    Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e87548. 2014
    ..Inhibition of the transporter-mediated hepatobiliary elimination of bile salts is a putative mechanism for liver toxicity observed with some endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs)...
  43. doi request reprint Renal drug-drug interactions: what we have learned and where we are going
    Eve Irene Lepist
    Department of Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences, Inc, 333 Lakeside Dr, Foster City 94404, USA
    Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 8:433-48. 2012
    ..A growing number of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) have been described including a subset proposed to occur during the process of active tubular secretion in the renal proximal tubule (PT)...
  44. pmc Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by GS-6620, a potent C-nucleoside monophosphate prodrug
    Joy Y Feng
    Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:1930-42. 2014
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Investigating the effects of stereochemistry on incorporation and removal of 5-fluorocytidine analogs by mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma: comparison of D- and L-D4FC-TP
    Eisuke Murakami
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8066, USA
    Antiviral Res 62:57-64. 2004
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Insights into the molecular mechanism of inhibition and drug resistance for HIV-1 RT with carbovir triphosphate
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8066, USA
    Biochemistry 41:5150-62. 2002
    ..This compound shows promise as a potent antiviral especially with the drug resistant M184V HIV-1 RT that is so often encountered in a clinical setting...
  47. ncbi request reprint Mechanistic studies to understand the progressive development of resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase to abacavir
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:40479-90. 2002
    ..These data serve to further the understanding of how mutations in RT confer resistance to nucleoside analogs...
  48. ncbi request reprint Interactions of enantiomers of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxy-fluorocytidine with wild type and M184V mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520 8066, USA
    Antiviral Res 56:189-205. 2002
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Probing the molecular mechanisms of AZT drug resistance mediated by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase using a transient kinetic analysis
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    Biochemistry 42:8831-41. 2003
    ..Structure-activity studies of chain terminator removal suggest that analogues that form tight interactions with residues in the RT active site may be more prone to resistance mechanisms mediated by removal...
  50. ncbi request reprint Probing the mechanistic consequences of 5-fluorine substitution on cytidine nucleotide analogue incorporation by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn, USA
    Antivir Chem Chemother 14:115-25. 2003
    ....
  51. pmc Chronic administration of tenofovir to rhesus macaques from infancy through adulthood and pregnancy: summary of pharmacokinetics and biological and virological effects
    Koen K A Van Rompay
    California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:3144-60. 2008
    ..In conclusion, these findings illustrate the safety and sustained benefits of prolonged TFV-containing regimens throughout development from infancy to adulthood, including pregnancy...
  52. pmc Mechanism of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of beta-D-6-cyclopropylamino-2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxyguanosine
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8066, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1994-2001. 2005
    ..Poor oral bioavailability observed in rhesus monkeys may be due to the labile glycosidic bond, and special formulation may be necessary for oral delivery...
  53. ncbi request reprint Unlikely association of multidrug-resistance protein 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with tenofovir-induced renal adverse events
    Adrian S Ray
    J Infect Dis 195:1389-90; author reply 1390-1. 2007
  54. ncbi request reprint Interaction of 2'-deoxyguanosine triphosphate analogue inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase with human mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma
    Adrian S Ray
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Antivir Chem Chemother 18:25-33. 2007
    ..These results help to further elucidate the structure activity relationships for pol gamma and should aid in the design of more selective antiviral agents...
  55. ncbi request reprint 2('),3(')-didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are degraded to furfuryl alcohol under acidic conditions
    Junxing Shi
    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8066, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 14:2159-62. 2004
    ....