Italo Mocchetti

Summary

Affiliation: Georgetown University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant treatments induce the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in cortical and hippocampal neurons
    Alessandra Mallei
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 61:1017-24. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the substantia nigra does not change after lesions of dopaminergic neurons
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA
    Neurotox Res 12:135-43. 2007
  3. doi request reprint Implementing Neuronal Plasticity in NeuroAIDS: the Experience of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and other Neurotrophic Factors
    Italo Mocchetti
    Laboratory of Preclinical Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, WP13 New Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC, 20057, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 9:80-91. 2014
  4. pmc When human immunodeficiency virus meets chemokines and microglia: neuroprotection or neurodegeneration?
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04 Box 571464, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 8:118-31. 2013
  5. pmc Pharmacological regulation of gene expression
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, United States
    Pharmacol Res 64:323-6. 2011
  6. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of TrkB protects neurons from HIV-1/gp120-induced cell death
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC 20057, USA
    Crit Rev Neurobiol 16:51-7. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein gp120 neurotoxicity in the rat nigrostriatal system
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Bldg, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1122:144-54. 2007
  8. doi request reprint The Fidia-Georgetown Institute for the Neurosciences (FGIN) 1985-1994
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Pharmacol Res 64:314-5. 2011
  9. ncbi request reprint Chemokine receptors and neurotrophic factors: potential therapy against aids dementia?
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neurosci Res 86:243-55. 2008
  10. doi request reprint Neurotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-1: viral proteins and axonal transport
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, New Research Building WP13, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Neurotox Res 21:79-89. 2012

Research Grants

  1. Neurotrophic factors and HIV-mediated neuronal injury
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by DNA Damage
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2007
  3. Neurotrophic factors and HIV-mediated neuronal injury
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. Antidepressants and Fibroblast Growth Factor
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2006
  5. Neuronal transport of gp120
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2005
  6. Neurotrophic factors and HIV mediated neuronal injury
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2003
  7. HIV drug abusers, polymorphisms and brain plasticity
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications42

  1. ncbi request reprint Antidepressant treatments induce the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in cortical and hippocampal neurons
    Alessandra Mallei
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 61:1017-24. 2002
    ..FLU increased FGF2 immunoreactivity mainly in neurofilament-positive cells of the hippocampus. These findings may explain the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants in affective disorders...
  2. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the substantia nigra does not change after lesions of dopaminergic neurons
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA
    Neurotox Res 12:135-43. 2007
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Implementing Neuronal Plasticity in NeuroAIDS: the Experience of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and other Neurotrophic Factors
    Italo Mocchetti
    Laboratory of Preclinical Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, WP13 New Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC, 20057, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 9:80-91. 2014
    ....
  4. pmc When human immunodeficiency virus meets chemokines and microglia: neuroprotection or neurodegeneration?
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04 Box 571464, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 8:118-31. 2013
    ..These include the ability of microglia to release anti-inflammatory cytokines, to remove dying cells and to promote axonal sprouting...
  5. pmc Pharmacological regulation of gene expression
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, United States
    Pharmacol Res 64:323-6. 2011
    ..I will conclude with a brief summary of intriguing discoveries about the regulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors by beta-receptor agonists, adrenal steroids and cytokines...
  6. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of TrkB protects neurons from HIV-1/gp120-induced cell death
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC 20057, USA
    Crit Rev Neurobiol 16:51-7. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that TrkB-mediated activation of ERK1/2 is the main signaling pathway that contributes to neuroprotection against gp120...
  7. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein gp120 neurotoxicity in the rat nigrostriatal system
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Bldg, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1122:144-54. 2007
    ..This study's results support the notion that gp120 produces a widespread neurotoxicity similar to that observed in HIV-positive individuals and that BDNF may be a suitable neuroprotective agent for HAD...
  8. doi request reprint The Fidia-Georgetown Institute for the Neurosciences (FGIN) 1985-1994
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Pharmacol Res 64:314-5. 2011
    ..It also provides a list of those colleagues and students who worked at FGIN and contributed to various research projects...
  9. ncbi request reprint Chemokine receptors and neurotrophic factors: potential therapy against aids dementia?
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neurosci Res 86:243-55. 2008
    ..In this article, we present and discuss a recent experimental approach aimed at testing effective neuroprotective therapies against HIV-mediated neuronal degeneration...
  10. doi request reprint Neurotoxicity of human immunodeficiency virus-1: viral proteins and axonal transport
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, New Research Building WP13, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Neurotox Res 21:79-89. 2012
    ..Moreover, these proteins have been shown to possess neurotoxic properties. This review describes new evidence of a direct interaction of the HIV protein gp120 with neurons, which might play a role in the etiopathology of HAND...
  11. ncbi request reprint Targeting neurotrophin receptors in the central nervous system
    Italo Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC 20057, USA
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 7:71-82. 2008
    ..The ability of small molecules to mimic BDNF has a potential therapeutic importance in preventing neuronal damage in several chronic neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, and AIDS dementia...
  12. ncbi request reprint Exogenous gangliosides, neuronal plasticity and repair, and the neurotrophins
    I Mocchetti
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04, Box 571464, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Cell Mol Life Sci 62:2283-94. 2005
    ..Focus will be given to the novel and provocative hypothesis that gangliosides' neuroprotective properties may derive from their ability to mimic endogenous neurotrophic factors...
  13. ncbi request reprint Axonal transport of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein glycoprotein 120 is found in association with neuronal apoptosis
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neurosci 26:6771-80. 2006
    ..These results indicate that axonal transport of gp120 might play a role in HIV-1-mediated widespread neuronal cell death...
  14. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor prevents the nigrostriatal degeneration induced by human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoprotein 120 in vivo
    Rachel L Nosheny
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University, EP04, New Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW Washington, DC, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 25:2275-84. 2007
    ..Our data suggest that down-regulation of CXCR4 expression may contribute to the neuroprotective activity of BDNF against gp120 toxicity in the basal ganglia...
  15. pmc M- and T-tropic HIVs promote apoptosis in rat neurons
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04, Box 571464, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:150-60. 2009
    ..In contrast, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker MK801 failed to protect neurons from HIV-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that HIV-1 neurotoxicity can be initiated by the viral protein gp120 binding to neuronal chemokine receptors...
  16. ncbi request reprint Intrastriatal administration of human immunodeficiency virus-1 glycoprotein 120 reduces glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor levels and causes apoptosis in the substantia nigra
    Rachel L Nosheny
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC 20057, USA
    J Neurobiol 66:1311-21. 2006
    ..We propose that dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system associated with HIV may be caused by a reduction of neurotrophic factor expression by gp120...
  17. ncbi request reprint Autocrine regulation of nerve growth factor expression by Trk receptors
    Alessandra Mallei
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University, Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neurochem 90:1085-93. 2004
    ..These data suggest that released neurotrophin-3 may activate a positive autocrine loop of nerve growth factor synthesis by Trk activation...
  18. pmc Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates expression of chemokine receptors in the brain
    Farid Ahmed
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, USA
    Brain Res 1227:1-11. 2008
    ..Our data indicate that BDNF may modulate the availability of chemokine receptors implicated in HIV infection...
  19. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 alters brain-derived neurotrophic factor processing in neurons
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neurosci 32:9477-84. 2012
    ..Our studies identify a new mechanism that may explain how HIV promotes neuronal injury...
  20. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is neuroprotective against human immunodeficiency virus-1 envelope proteins
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04, Box 571464, Washington, District of Columbia 20057, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1053:247-57. 2005
    ..These findings underlie the rationale for exploring the ability of BDNF to reduce HIV-1-mediated neuronal cell death in vivo...
  21. ncbi request reprint The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and not the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediates gp120 neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neurosci Res 75:75-82. 2004
    ..Therefore, antagonists to the CXCR4 receptor may be more suitable compounds for inhibiting HIV-1 neurotoxicity...
  22. doi request reprint CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression is increased in the nigro-striatal system of Parkinson's disease
    Mika Shimoji
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Box 571464, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Neurotox Res 16:318-28. 2009
    ..MPTP produced a time-dependent up-regulation of CXCR4 that preceded the loss of DA neurons. These results suggest that CXCL12/CXCR4 may participate in the etiology of PD and indicate a new possible target molecule for PD...
  23. pmc Morphine induces the release of CCL5 from astrocytes: potential neuroprotective mechanism against the HIV protein gp120
    Valeriya Avdoshina
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Glia 58:1630-9. 2010
    ..In these cells the neuroprotective effect of opiate agonists was blocked. Our data suggest that morphine may exhibit a neuroprotective activity against M-tropic gp120 through the release of CCL5 from astrocytes...
  24. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1/gp120-mediated cerebellar granule cell death by preventing gp120 internalization
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neurosci 23:5715-22. 2003
    ..We propose that BDNF may be a valid therapy to slow down the progression of HIV/gp120-mediated neurotoxicity...
  25. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120 reduces the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vivo: potential implication for neuronal cell death
    Rachel L Nosheny
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2857-64. 2004
    ..We propose that one of the mechanisms whereby gp120 causes neurotoxicity is a reduction of the neurotrophic factor environment crucial for cell survival...
  26. ncbi request reprint Semisynthetic sphingoglycolipid LIGA20 is neuroprotective against human immunodeficiency virus-gp120-mediated apoptosis
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neurosci Res 83:890-6. 2006
    ..These findings provide the rationale for exploring the ability of compounds that mimic BDNF activity to reduce neuronal cell death in HIV-1-positive patients...
  27. pmc Neurotrophins modulate the expression of chemokine receptors in the brain
    Valeriya Avdoshina
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
    J Neurovirol 17:58-62. 2011
    ..This new evidence suggests that the neurotrophins may be an adjunct therapy to reduce HIV-mediated neuronal injury evoked by chemokine receptor activation...
  28. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein gp120 causes neuronal cell death in the rat brain by activating caspases
    Elio Acquas
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Neurotox Res 5:605-15. 2004
    ..Few non-neuronal cells exhibited signs of apoptosis. The results of the present study support the notion that gp120 is neurotoxic in vivo and provide evidence that gp120 activates a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway...
  29. pmc M-tropic HIV envelope protein gp120 exhibits a different neuropathological profile than T-tropic gp120 in rat striatum
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, New Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Rd, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 32:570-8. 2010
    ..A better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms mediating HIV neurotoxicity is vital for developing effective neuroprotective therapies against AIDS-associated dementia complex...
  30. pmc Chronic unpredictable stress promotes neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience Georgetown University Medical Center, EP04, New Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057, United States
    Neurosci Lett 442:104-8. 2008
    ..Desipramine (DMI), a well known antidepressant, reversed the pro-apoptotic effect of CMS. These results suggest that antidepressants may reduce the pathological changes seen in stress-induced depressive disorders...
  31. pmc Retrograde and anterograde transport of HIV protein gp120 in the nervous system
    Farid Ahmed
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04 Box 571464, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Brain Behav Immun 23:355-64. 2009
    ..Activated caspase-3 was evident within neurons transporting gp120. These results indicate that axonal transport of gp120 might exacerbate the pathogenesis of HIV-1...
  32. pmc Therapeutic versus neuroinflammatory effects of passive immunization is dependent on Aβ/amyloid burden in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    S Sakura Minami
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 7:57. 2010
    ..This therapeutic strategy is under intense scrutiny in clinical studies, but its application is limited by neuroinflammatory side effects (autoimmune encephalitis and vasogenic edema)...
  33. pmc Exogenous gangliosides increase the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor
    Seung T Lim
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, New Research Building EP 04, 3970 Reservoir Rd, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Neuropharmacology 60:1160-7. 2011
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'...
  34. pmc Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in TrkB and risk for depression: findings from the women's interagency HIV study
    Valeriya Avdoshina
    Departments of Neuroscience and Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY Departments of Medicine, Stroger Hospital and Rush University, Chicago, IL Departments of Neurology and Pathology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Departments of Neurology Biostatistics, Bioinformatics, and Biomathematics Psychiatry, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC and Collaborative for Research on Outcomes and Metrics, Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 64:138-41. 2013
    ..This mutation explains 0.8% and 4.4% of the variability for the absence of depression in African Americans and Caucasians, respectively...
  35. ncbi request reprint Synergistic effect of dexamethasone and beta-adrenergic receptor agonists on the nerve growth factor gene transcription
    Anna Maria Colangelo
    Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Neuroscience, Research Building, Box 571464, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 124:97-104. 2004
    ..These studies suggest that the synergistic effect of DEX on the induction of NGF mRNA may include the ability of this glucocorticoid to potentiate the betaAR-mediated induction of transcription factors...
  36. pmc Chronic antidepressant treatments increase basic fibroblast growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-binding protein in neurons
    Alessia Bachis
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, EP04, New Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Neuropharmacology 55:1114-20. 2008
    ..DMI and FLU increased FBP immunoreactivity in both cortical and hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that FGF2 and FBP may participate in the plastic responses underlying the clinical efficacy of antidepressants...
  37. pmc HIV-1 decreases the levels of neurotrophins in human lymphocytes
    Valeriya Avdoshina
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
    AIDS 25:1126-8. 2011
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that reduced levels of BDNF may be a risk factor for T-cell apoptosis and for neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection...
  38. ncbi request reprint The nitrosteroid NCX 1015, a prednisolone derivative, improves recovery of function in rats after spinal cord injury
    Alessandra Mallei
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Research Building, Room EP04, Box 571464 Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Brain Res 1062:16-25. 2005
    ..The data suggest that NCX 1015 might be a novel experimental therapeutic compound for recovery of function in SCI patients...
  39. ncbi request reprint Gangliosides activate Trk receptors by inducing the release of neurotrophins
    Stuart J Rabin
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, D C 20057, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:49466-72. 2002
    ..In contrast, LIGA20 increased the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our data show that gangliosides may activate different Trk receptors by differentially affecting the release of neurotrophins...
  40. pmc CCL5 and cytokine expression in the rat brain: differential modulation by chronic morphine and morphine withdrawal
    LEE A CAMPBELL
    Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Laboratory of Preclinical Neurobiology Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC 20057, United States
    Brain Behav Immun 34:130-40. 2013
    ..Overall, these data suggest that morphine withdrawal may promote cytokines and other inflammatory responses that have the potential of exacerbating neuronal damage...
  41. ncbi request reprint Brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a prototype neuroprotective factor against HIV-1-associated neuronal degeneration
    R L Nosheny
    Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Neurotox Res 8:187-98. 2005
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint CAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta and cAMP-response element-binding protein mediate inducible expression of the nerve growth factor gene in the central nervous system
    Christine Seitz McCauslin
    Laboratory of Protein Dynamics and Signaling, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:17681-8. 2006
    ..Thus, our findings demonstrate a critical role for C/EBPdelta in regional expression of NGF in the brain and implicate CREB in CLE-induced NGF gene transcription...

Research Grants15

  1. Neurotrophic factors and HIV-mediated neuronal injury
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by DNA Damage
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  3. Neurotrophic factors and HIV-mediated neuronal injury
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  4. Antidepressants and Fibroblast Growth Factor
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Data from this proposal may help elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants in affective disorders. ..
  5. Neuronal transport of gp120
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. Neurotrophic factors and HIV mediated neuronal injury
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  7. HIV drug abusers, polymorphisms and brain plasticity
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This application will study the mechanisms as well as the genetic abnormalities that may be risk factors for developing brain damage in these subjects. ..