L Hilakivi-Clarke

Summary

Affiliation: Georgetown University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Dietary modulation of pregnancy estrogen levels and breast cancer risk among female rat offspring
    Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 8:3601-10. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms by which high maternal fat intake during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk in female rodent offspring
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007 2197, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 46:199-214. 1997
  3. ncbi request reprint Maternal exposure to tamoxifen during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among female rat offspring
    L Halakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 6:305-8. 2000
  4. ncbi request reprint Estrogens, BRCA1, and breast cancer
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007 2197, USA
    Cancer Res 60:4993-5001. 2000
  5. ncbi request reprint Do estrogens always increase breast cancer risk?
    Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, Room W405, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 80:163-74. 2002
  6. ncbi request reprint Maternal and prepubertal diet, mammary development and breast cancer risk
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    J Nutr 131:154S-157S. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Association of interferon regulatory factor-1, nucleophosmin, nuclear factor-kappaB, and cyclic AMP response element binding with acquired resistance to Faslodex (ICI 182,780)
    Zhiping Gu
    Vincent T Lombardi Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Cancer Res 62:3428-37. 2002
  8. ncbi request reprint Human X-box binding protein-1 confers both estrogen independence and antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer cell lines
    Bianca P Gomez
    Department of Oncology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    FASEB J 21:4013-27. 2007
  9. pmc BCL2 and CASP8 regulation by NF-kappaB differentially affect mitochondrial function and cell fate in antiestrogen-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells
    Ruchi Nehra
    Department of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    FASEB J 24:2040-55. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint The nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor parthenolide restores ICI 182,780 (Faslodex; fulvestrant)-induced apoptosis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells
    Rebecca B Riggins
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Room W405A Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Road Northwest, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 4:33-41. 2005

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. ncbi request reprint Dietary modulation of pregnancy estrogen levels and breast cancer risk among female rat offspring
    Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 8:3601-10. 2002
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms by which high maternal fat intake during pregnancy increases breast cancer risk in female rodent offspring
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007 2197, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 46:199-214. 1997
    ..In addition, we provide possible mechanisms of action of the effects of a high-fat diet on the breast. These mechanisms include protein kinase C, estrogens and estrogen receptor, and alterations in mammary parenchymal structures...
  3. ncbi request reprint Maternal exposure to tamoxifen during pregnancy increases carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis among female rat offspring
    L Halakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 6:305-8. 2000
    ..These results suggest that a maternal exposure to tamoxifen during pregnancy acts as an estrogen in the fetal mammary gland and increases the susceptibility to breast cancer among female offspring...
  4. ncbi request reprint Estrogens, BRCA1, and breast cancer
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007 2197, USA
    Cancer Res 60:4993-5001. 2000
    ..The aim of this review is to discuss the role of premenopausal estrogens in breast cancer and to initiate more research that would lead to novel means of reducing breast cancer risk, particularly among BRCA1 mutation carriers...
  5. ncbi request reprint Do estrogens always increase breast cancer risk?
    Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, Room W405, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 80:163-74. 2002
    ..We further propose that the timing of estrogenic exposures may play at least as important a role in affecting breast cancer risk as life-time exposure...
  6. ncbi request reprint Maternal and prepubertal diet, mammary development and breast cancer risk
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    J Nutr 131:154S-157S. 2001
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Association of interferon regulatory factor-1, nucleophosmin, nuclear factor-kappaB, and cyclic AMP response element binding with acquired resistance to Faslodex (ICI 182,780)
    Zhiping Gu
    Vincent T Lombardi Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Cancer Res 62:3428-37. 2002
    ..Thus, some breast cancer cells may survive antiestrogen treatment by bypassing specific growth inhibitory signals induced by antagonist-occupied estrogen receptors...
  8. ncbi request reprint Human X-box binding protein-1 confers both estrogen independence and antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer cell lines
    Bianca P Gomez
    Department of Oncology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    FASEB J 21:4013-27. 2007
    ..XBP1 and/or the UPR may be a useful molecular target for the development of novel predictive and therapeutic strategies in breast cancer...
  9. pmc BCL2 and CASP8 regulation by NF-kappaB differentially affect mitochondrial function and cell fate in antiestrogen-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells
    Ruchi Nehra
    Department of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    FASEB J 24:2040-55. 2010
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint The nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor parthenolide restores ICI 182,780 (Faslodex; fulvestrant)-induced apoptosis in antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells
    Rebecca B Riggins
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Room W405A Research Building, 3970 Reservoir Road Northwest, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 4:33-41. 2005
    ..Because parthenolide has shown safety in Phase I clinical trials, these findings have direct clinical relevance and provide support for the design of clinical studies combining antiestrogens and parthenolide in ER-positive breast cancer...
  11. doi request reprint Prepubertal physical activity up-regulates estrogen receptor beta, BRCA1 and p53 mRNA expression in the rat mammary gland
    M Wang
    Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 115:213-20. 2009
    ..It remains to be determined whether the up-regulation of BRCA1, and perhaps p53, explains the protective effect of childhood physical activity against breast cancer in women who carry a germline mutation in one of the BRCA1 alleles...
  12. pmc In utero alcohol exposure increases mammary tumorigenesis in rats
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Br J Cancer 90:2225-31. 2004
    ..It remains to be determined whether an increase in pregnancy oestradiol levels mediated alcohol's effects on offspring's mammary tumorigenesis...
  13. ncbi request reprint interferon regulatory factor-1 mediates the proapoptotic but not cell cycle arrest effects of the steroidal antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (faslodex, fulvestrant)
    Kerrie B Bouker
    Department of Oncology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia 20007, USA
    Cancer Res 64:4030-9. 2004
    ..These data identify a novel mechanism of antiestrogen resistance and implicate IRF-1 as a key component in signaling some ER-mediated effects on apoptosis/cell survival...
  14. pmc IFNgamma restores breast cancer sensitivity to fulvestrant by regulating STAT1, IFN regulatory factor 1, NF-kappaB, BCL2 family members, and signaling to caspase-dependent apoptosis
    Yanxia Ning
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 9:1274-85. 2010
    ..These observations support the exploration of clinical trials combining antiestrogens and compounds that can induce IRF1, such as IFNgamma, for the treatment of some ER-positive breast cancers...
  15. ncbi request reprint Nutritional modulation of the cell cycle and breast cancer
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Box 571468, Washington DC 20057 1468, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 11:603-22. 2004
    ..This review describes the intersection of these two fields of study, which together imply a role for dietary prevention and intervention in human breast cancer perhaps through altering cell cycle components...
  16. ncbi request reprint Expression patterns among interferon regulatory factor-1, human X-box binding protein-1, nuclear factor kappa B, nucleophosmin, estrogen receptor-alpha and progesterone receptor proteins in breast cancer tissue microarrays
    Yuelin Zhu
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Int J Oncol 28:67-76. 2006
    ..018) is observed. An inverse correlation exists between IRF-1n and NFkappaB (p=0.034). All four proteins are detected in breast tumors and their expression patterns support their role(s) in a key signaling network...
  17. ncbi request reprint Breast cancer: dietary and environmental oestrogens
    R Clarke
    The Vincent T Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA
    Biologist (London) 48:21-6. 2001
    ..It is a much-feared disease and the risks are confusing and often badly reported. Oestrogen levels are a known risk factor. But is it possible to lower the risk? And where are all the oestrogens coming from?..
  18. pmc Trimester-specific reference intervals for thyroxine and triiodothyronine in pregnancy in iodine-sufficient women using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry and immunoassays
    O P Soldin
    Division of Cancer Genetics and Epidemiology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Room S 165 A, Washington, DC 20007 2197, USA
    Clin Chim Acta 349:181-9. 2004
    ..We used a novel isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, and compare these to reference intervals obtained by immunoassays (IAs) performed on the same samples...
  19. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms mediating the effects of prepubertal (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid diet on breast cancer risk in rats
    Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
    Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Nutr 135:2946S-2952S. 2005
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and apoptosis in breast cancer
    Rebecca B Riggins
    Department of Oncology and Physiology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Vitam Horm 71:201-37. 2005
    ..Finally, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for apoptotic defects in acquired and de novo antiestrogen resistance...
  21. pmc Gene network signaling in hormone responsiveness modifies apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells
    Robert Clarke
    Department of Oncology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 114:8-20. 2009
    ..Signaling proceeds through BCL2 gene family members and BECN1 ultimately to regulate cell fate...
  22. ncbi request reprint Estrogen receptor alpha positive breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines share similarities in their transcriptome data structures
    Yuelin Zhu
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center and Departments of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA
    Int J Oncol 29:1581-9. 2006
    ....
  23. pmc ERRgamma mediates tamoxifen resistance in novel models of invasive lobular breast cancer
    Rebecca B Riggins
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia 20057, USA
    Cancer Res 68:8908-17. 2008
    ..These data support a role for ERRgamma/AP1 signaling in the development of TAM resistance and suggest that expression of ERRgamma may be a marker of poor TAM response...
  24. ncbi request reprint Antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer and the role of estrogen receptor signaling
    Robert Clarke
    Department of Oncology and Vincent T Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Oncogene 22:7316-39. 2003
    ..The network also may involve signaling through ras and MAPK, implicating crosstalk with growth factors and cytokines. Ultimately, signaling affects the expression/function of the proliferation and/or apoptotic machineries...
  25. pmc Classification algorithms for phenotype prediction in genomics and proteomics
    Habtom W Ressom
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, 3970 Reservoir Rd NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Front Biosci 13:691-708. 2008
    ..The selected features are presented to a classifier for phenotype prediction...
  26. ncbi request reprint Development and validation of a method for using breast core needle biopsies for gene expression microarray analyses
    Matthew Ellis
    Department of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 8:1155-66. 2002
    ..We wished to develop optimal tissue acquisition, processing, and analysis procedures for exploring the gene expression profiles of breast core needle biopsies representing cancer and noncancer tissues...
  27. ncbi request reprint Block principal component analysis with application to gene microarray data classification
    Aiyi Liu
    Biostatistics Unit, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Road, NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Stat Med 21:3465-74. 2002
    ..The method is illustrated with the well-known National Cancer Institute database of 60 human cancer cell lines data (NCI60) of gene microarray expressions, in the context of classification of cancer cell lines...
  28. ncbi request reprint Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein and breast cancer: review and meta-analysis
    Robert Clarke
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Semin Oncol 32:S9-15. 2005
    ..Future studies should also take into account the potentially multifactorial nature of multidrug resistance...
  29. ncbi request reprint Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland
    Michael D Johnson
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Nat Med 9:1081-4. 2003
    ..In utero exposure to the metal also mimicked the effects of estrogens. Female offspring experienced an earlier onset of puberty and an increase in the epithelial area and the number of terminal end buds in the mammary gland...
  30. ncbi request reprint C-7 analogues of progesterone as potent inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump
    Fabio Leonessa
    Department of Oncology and Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Road Northwest, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    J Med Chem 45:390-8. 2002
    ..These data identify C-7-substituted progesterone analogues and 5, in particular, as rationally designed antiPgp compounds worthy of further evaluation/development...
  31. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of gene expression profile of keratinocytes in response to JP-8 jet fuel
    Luis A Espinoza
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 200:93-102. 2004
    ..Gene expression data from these studies can be used to build accurate predictive models that separate different molecular profiles. The data establish the use and effectiveness of these approaches for future prospective studies...
  32. pmc The role of X-box binding protein-1 in tumorigenicity
    Ayesha N Shajahan
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, D C, USA
    Drug News Perspect 22:241-6. 2009
    ..Furthermore, combining inhibitors of XBP-1 with other anti-UPR drugs may enhance the activity of some antineoplastic therapies...
  33. pmc Tallness and overweight during childhood have opposing effects on breast cancer risk
    L Hilakivi Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Br J Cancer 85:1680-4. 2001
    ..The increased adipose tissue-derived oestrogen levels in overweight children could induce early breast differentiation and eliminate some targets for malignant transformation...
  34. pmc Prepubertal exposure to zearalenone or genistein reduces mammary tumorigenesis
    L Hilakivi Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Department of Psychiatry, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Br J Cancer 80:1682-8. 1999
    ....
  35. pmc Reverse engineering module networks by PSO-RNN hybrid modeling
    Yuji Zhang
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA
    BMC Genomics 10:S15. 2009
    ....
  36. pmc Network motif-based identification of transcription factor-target gene relationships by integrating multi-source biological data
    Yuji Zhang
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 4000 Reservoir Rd, Washington, DC, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 9:203. 2008
    ..The data include time course gene expression profiles, genome-wide location analysis data, binding sequence data, and gene ontology (GO) information...
  37. pmc Co-inhibition of BCL-W and BCL2 restores antiestrogen sensitivity through BECN1 and promotes an autophagy-associated necrosis
    Anatasha C Crawford
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e8604. 2010
    ..BCL-W, BCL2, and BECN1 integrate important functions in determining antiestrogen responsiveness, and the presence of functional autophagy may influence the balance between apoptosis and necrosis...
  38. ncbi request reprint Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) exhibits tumor suppressor activities in breast cancer associated with caspase activation and induction of apoptosis
    Kerrie B Bouker
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Carcinogenesis 26:1527-35. 2005
    ..03). These data establish a functional role for IRF-1 in the growth suppression of breast cancer cells and strongly implicate IRF-1 as a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer that acts, independent of p53, to control apoptosis...
  39. pmc The properties of high-dimensional data spaces: implications for exploring gene and protein expression data
    Robert Clarke
    Department of Oncology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Nat Rev Cancer 8:37-49. 2008
    ..From the perspective of translational science, this Review discusses the properties of high-dimensional data spaces that arise in genomic and proteomic studies and the challenges they can pose for data analysis and interpretation...
  40. ncbi request reprint Functionally active estrogen receptor isoform profiles in the breast tumors of African American women are different from the profiles in breast tumors of Caucasian women
    Indra Poola
    Department of Anatomy, Howard University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059, USA
    Cancer 94:615-23. 2002
    ..The molecular factors responsible for these tumor characteristics are mostly unknown...
  41. ncbi request reprint Stress influence on development of hepatocellular tumors in transgenic mice overexpressing TGF alpha
    L Hilakivi-Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, D.C. 20007, USA
    Acta Oncol 34:907-12. 1995
    ..These data suggest that stress promotes the growth of hepatocellular tumors in the male TGF alpha mice. Whether estrogens are involved in mediating this association remains to be determined...
  42. pmc Maternal handling during pregnancy reduces DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring
    L Hilakivi Clarke
    Lombardi Cancer Center and Department of Psychiatry, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    Br J Cancer 76:150-5. 1997
    ..We propose that handling of a pregnant rat reduces mammary tumorigenesis in her offspring by means of changing the morphology of the mammary gland, the pattern of expression of specific genes and/or immune functions...
  43. ncbi request reprint Inferring network interactions using recurrent neural networks and swarm intelligence
    Habtom W Ressom
    Dept of Biostat, Bioinf, and Biomath, Georgetown Univ, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1:4241-4. 2006
    ..The results indicate that the algorithm has a promising potential to infer complex interactions such as gene regulatory networks from time-series gene expression data...
  44. doi request reprint The proapoptotic molecule BLID interacts with Bcl-XL and its downregulation in breast cancer correlates with poor disease-free and overall survival
    Constantinos G Broustas
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20057, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 16:2939-48. 2010
    ..BLID is a BH3-like motif containing apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of BLID-induced apoptosis and to assess the significance of BLID expression in breast cancer...
  45. ncbi request reprint Iterative normalization of cDNA microarray data
    Yue Wang
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064, USA
    IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 6:29-37. 2002
    ..In this way, the two processes bootstrap one another. We evaluate the technique on real microarray data from breast cancer cell lines and complement the experiment with a data cluster visualization study...
  46. pmc Frequent loss of heterozygosity at the interferon regulatory factor-1 gene locus in breast cancer
    Luciane R Cavalli
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 121:227-31. 2010
    ..00; P = 0.003; n = 273 cases) and risk of death (OR = 4.18; P = 0.004; n = 191 cases). Our findings strongly imply a tumor suppressor role for the IRF1 gene in breast cancer...
  47. ncbi request reprint Caveolin-1 tyrosine phosphorylation enhances paclitaxel-mediated cytotoxicity
    Ayesha N Shajahan
    Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Departments of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University, College of Medicine, Washington, D C 20057, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:5934-43. 2007
    ..Collectively, our findings underscore the importance of CAV1 phosphorylation in apoptosis and suggest that events that negate CAV1 tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to anti-microtubule drug resistance...
  48. ncbi request reprint The A4396G polymorphism in interferon regulatory factor 1 is frequently expressed in breast cancer cell lines
    Kerrie B Bouker
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Cancer Genet Cytogenet 175:61-4. 2007
    ..001), leading to a significant difference in genotype distribution between these populations (P = 0.002)...
  49. pmc Orphan nuclear receptors in breast cancer pathogenesis and therapeutic response
    Rebecca B Riggins
    Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Oncology Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
    Endocr Relat Cancer 17:R213-31. 2010
    ..We also propose that a clearer understanding of the function of orphan nuclear receptors in mammary gland development and normal mammary tissues could significantly improve our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent breast cancer...