Affiliation: Georgetown University
Country: USA


  1. Pulliam N, Tang J, Wang W, Fang F, Sood R, O Hagan H, et al. Poly-ADP-Ribosylation of Estrogen Receptor-Alpha by PARP1 Mediates Antiestrogen Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells. Cancers (Basel). 2019;11: pubmed publisher
    ..These results correlate ERα PARylation with tamoxifen resistance and indicate a novel mechanism-based approach to overcome tamoxifen resistance in ER+ breast cancer. ..
  2. Cook K, Soto Pantoja D, Abu Asab M, Clarke P, Roberts D, Clarke R. Mitochondria directly donate their membrane to form autophagosomes during a novel mechanism of parkin-associated mitophagy. Cell Biosci. 2014;4:16 pubmed publisher
  3. Cook K, Clarke P, Parmar J, Hu R, Schwartz Roberts J, Abu Asab M, et al. Knockdown of estrogen receptor-? induces autophagy and inhibits antiestrogen-mediated unfolded protein response activation, promoting ROS-induced breast cancer cell death. FASEB J. 2014;28:3891-905 pubmed publisher
    ..The stimulation of signaling that can confer resistance suggests that combining autophagy or UPR inhibitors with antiestrogens would reduce the development of resistance in some breast cancers. ..
  4. Hu R, Warri A, Jin L, Zwart A, Riggins R, Fang H, et al. NF-κB signaling is required for XBP1 (unspliced and spliced)-mediated effects on antiestrogen responsiveness and cell fate decisions in breast cancer. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:379-90 pubmed publisher
  5. Schwartz Roberts J, Cook K, Chen C, Shajahan Haq A, Axelrod M, Warri A, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-1 signaling regulates the switch between autophagy and apoptosis to determine breast cancer cell fate. Cancer Res. 2015;75:1046-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our work shows how inhibiting the autophagy proteins ATG7 and BECN1 can regulate IRF1-dependent and -independent signaling pathways in ways that engender a new therapeutic strategy to attack breast cancer. ..
  6. Shajahan Haq A, Cheema M, Clarke R. Application of metabolomics in drug resistant breast cancer research. Metabolites. 2015;5:100-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we highlight the challenges facing successful therapeutic treatment of breast cancer and the innovative approaches that metabolomics offers to better understand drug resistance in cancer. ..
  7. Clarke R, Shajahan A, Riggins R, Cho Y, Crawford A, Xuan J, et al. Gene network signaling in hormone responsiveness modifies apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;114:8-20 pubmed
    ..Signaling proceeds through BCL2 gene family members and BECN1 ultimately to regulate cell fate. ..
  8. Cook K, Warri A, Soto Pantoja D, Clarke P, Cruz M, Zwart A, et al. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits autophagy to potentiate antiestrogen responsiveness in ER+ breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:3222-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the beneficial combination of TAM+HCQ suggests a positive outcome for ongoing neoadjuvant clinical trials using this combination for the treatment of ER(+) ductal carcinoma in situ lesions. ..
  9. Clarke R, Tyson J, Dixon J. Endocrine resistance in breast cancer--An overview and update. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;418 Pt 3:220-34 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Clarke R. Introduction: Cancer Gene Networks. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1513:1-9 pubmed
    ..Within this volume, readers will find examples of many of the activities noted above. Each chapter contains practical and/or methodological insights to guide readers in the design and interpretation of their own and published work. ..
  2. Wong L, Dai P, Lu J, Lou M, Clarke R, Nazarov V. AIB1 gene amplification and the instability of polyQ encoding sequence in breast cancer cell lines. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:111 pubmed
    ..The instability and the sequence characteristics, however, do not appear to be associated with the level of the gene amplification. ..
  3. Clarke R, Liu M, Bouker K, Gu Z, Lee R, Zhu Y, et al. Antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer and the role of estrogen receptor signaling. Oncogene. 2003;22:7316-39 pubmed
    ..The network also may involve signaling through ras and MAPK, implicating crosstalk with growth factors and cytokines. Ultimately, signaling affects the expression/function of the proliferation and/or apoptotic machineries. ..
  4. Clarke R, Leonessa F, Trock B. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein and breast cancer: review and meta-analysis. Semin Oncol. 2005;32:S9-15 pubmed
    ..Future studies should also take into account the potentially multifactorial nature of multidrug resistance...
  5. Clarke R, Cook K, Hu R, Facey C, Tavassoly I, Schwartz J, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, the unfolded protein response, autophagy, and the integrated regulation of breast cancer cell fate. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Central topologic features of the signaling network that integrate cell-fate regulation and decision execution are discussed. ..