Steven Benner

Summary

Affiliation: Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Enzymatic incorporation of a third nucleobase pair
    Zunyi Yang
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, 1115 NW 4th Street, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:4238-49. 2007
  2. pmc Artificially expanded genetic information system: a new base pair with an alternative hydrogen bonding pattern
    Zunyi Yang
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, 1115 NW 4th Street, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:6095-101. 2006
  3. pmc Nucleoside alpha-thiotriphosphates, polymerases and the exonuclease III analysis of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate linkages
    Zunyi Yang
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, 1115 NW 4th Street, Gainesville, FL 32604 1174, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:3118-27. 2007
  4. pmc Recognition of an expanded genetic alphabet by type-II restriction endonucleases and their application to analyze polymerase fidelity
    Fei Chen
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution FfAME, 720 SW 2nd Avenue, Suite 201, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:3949-61. 2011
  5. doi request reprint Asphalt, water, and the prebiotic synthesis of ribose, ribonucleosides, and RNA
    Steven A Benner
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, Florida 32604, USA
    Acc Chem Res 45:2025-34. 2012
  6. pmc Setting the stage: the history, chemistry, and geobiology behind RNA
    Steven A Benner
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, Florida 32601, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4:a003541. 2012
  7. pmc Analysis of transitions at two-fold redundant sites in mammalian genomes. Transition redundant approach-to-equilibrium (TREx) distance metrics
    Tang Li
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, FL 32604, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 6:25. 2006
  8. pmc Integrating protein structures and precomputed genealogies in the Magnum database: examples with cellular retinoid binding proteins
    Michael E Bradley
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, PO Box 117200, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 7:89. 2006
  9. pmc Defining life
    Steven A Benner
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution and The Westheimer Institute for Science and Technology, Gainesville, Florida32601, USA
    Astrobiology 10:1021-30. 2010
  10. doi request reprint Comment on "A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus"
    Steven A Benner
    The Westheimer Institute for Science and Technology, 720 South 2nd Avenue, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Science 332:1149; author reply 1149. 2011

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. pmc Enzymatic incorporation of a third nucleobase pair
    Zunyi Yang
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, 1115 NW 4th Street, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:4238-49. 2007
    ..The dZ:dP pair and these polymerases, should be useful in dynamic architectures for sequencing, molecular-, systems- and synthetic-biology...
  2. pmc Artificially expanded genetic information system: a new base pair with an alternative hydrogen bonding pattern
    Zunyi Yang
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, 1115 NW 4th Street, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:6095-101. 2006
    ....
  3. pmc Nucleoside alpha-thiotriphosphates, polymerases and the exonuclease III analysis of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate linkages
    Zunyi Yang
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, 1115 NW 4th Street, Gainesville, FL 32604 1174, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:3118-27. 2007
    ..Furthermore, these results provide constraints on how exonuclease III-thiotriphosphate-polymerase combinations can be used to analyze the behavior of the components of a synthetic biology...
  4. pmc Recognition of an expanded genetic alphabet by type-II restriction endonucleases and their application to analyze polymerase fidelity
    Fei Chen
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution FfAME, 720 SW 2nd Avenue, Suite 201, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:3949-61. 2011
    ....
  5. doi request reprint Asphalt, water, and the prebiotic synthesis of ribose, ribonucleosides, and RNA
    Steven A Benner
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, Florida 32604, USA
    Acc Chem Res 45:2025-34. 2012
    ..Well-known chemistry transforms these structures into nucleosides, nucleotides, and partially formylated oligomeric RNA...
  6. pmc Setting the stage: the history, chemistry, and geobiology behind RNA
    Steven A Benner
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, Florida 32601, USA
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4:a003541. 2012
    ....
  7. pmc Analysis of transitions at two-fold redundant sites in mammalian genomes. Transition redundant approach-to-equilibrium (TREx) distance metrics
    Tang Li
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, FL 32604, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 6:25. 2006
    ..Multiple transitions at synonymous sites may cause equilibration and loss of information. Further, to be useful to correlate events in the genomic record, different genes within a genome must suffer transitions at similar rates...
  8. pmc Integrating protein structures and precomputed genealogies in the Magnum database: examples with cellular retinoid binding proteins
    Michael E Bradley
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, PO Box 117200, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 7:89. 2006
    ..This represents an excellent example of how bioinformatics can be used to guide experimental research. However, progress in this direction has been slowed by the lack of a publicly available resource suitable for general use...
  9. pmc Defining life
    Steven A Benner
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution and The Westheimer Institute for Science and Technology, Gainesville, Florida32601, USA
    Astrobiology 10:1021-30. 2010
    ..Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures...
  10. doi request reprint Comment on "A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus"
    Steven A Benner
    The Westheimer Institute for Science and Technology, 720 South 2nd Avenue, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Science 332:1149; author reply 1149. 2011
    ..If such arseno-DNA exists, then much of the past century of work with arsenate and phosphate chemistry, as well as much of what we think we know about metabolism, will need rewriting...
  11. pmc Labeled nucleoside triphosphates with reversibly terminating aminoalkoxyl groups
    Daniel Hutter
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, FL 32604, USA
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 29:879-95. 2010
    ..Multiple extension-cleavage-extension cycles were demonstrated on an Intelligent Bio-Systems Sequencer, showing the potential of the 3'-ONHâ‚‚ blocking group in "next generation sequencing."..
  12. pmc Phylogenomic approaches to common problems encountered in the analysis of low copy repeats: the sulfotransferase 1A gene family example
    Michael E Bradley
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida P, O, Box 117200, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 5:22. 2005
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint The evolution of seminal ribonuclease: pseudogene reactivation or multiple gene inactivation events?
    Slim O Sassi
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, Florida, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 24:1012-24. 2007
    ....
  14. pmc Application of DETECTER, an evolutionary genomic tool to analyze genetic variation, to the cystic fibrosis gene family
    Eric A Gaucher
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, FL, USA
    BMC Genomics 7:44. 2006
    ..Tools that do this will become increasingly important for those seeking to use human genome sequence data to predict disease, make prognoses, and customize therapy to individual patients...
  15. pmc The planetary biology of cytochrome P450 aromatases
    Eric A Gaucher
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, 1115 NW 4th Street, Gainesville FL 32601 4256, USA
    BMC Biol 2:19. 2004
    ..This strategy expands systems biology to a planetary context, necessary for a notion of fitness to underlie (as it must) any discussion of function within a biomolecular system...
  16. pmc Dynamic assembly of primers on nucleic acid templates
    Nicole A Leal
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Ayers Medical Plaza, Suite 208, 720 SW 2nd Avenue, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:4702-10. 2006
    ..Several polymerases were found that achieve this combination, permitting the implementation of the dynamic combinatorial chemical strategy...
  17. ncbi request reprint Predicting functional divergence in protein evolution by site-specific rate shifts
    Eric A Gaucher
    NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 27:315-21. 2002
    ..Applying this to multiple gene families highlights the widespread divergence of functional behavior among proteins to generate paralogs and orthologs...
  18. doi request reprint Directed evolution of polymerases to accept nucleotides with nonstandard hydrogen bond patterns
    Roberto Laos
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution and The Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology, Gainesville, Florida 32601, United States
    Biochemistry 52:5288-94. 2013
    ..In addition to being useful in certain assay architectures, this result underscores the general rule in directed evolution that "you get what you select for". ..
  19. pmc Reconstructed evolutionary adaptive paths give polymerases accepting reversible terminators for sequencing and SNP detection
    Fei Chen
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, 720 SW 2nd Avenue, Suite 201, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1948-53. 2010
    ..This work provides polymerases for DNA analyses and shows how evolutionary analyses help explore relationships between structure and function in proteins...
  20. pmc Challenging artificial genetic systems: thymidine analogs with 5-position sulfur functionality
    Heike A Held
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 30:3857-69. 2002
    ..This remains curious, as the ability of the polymerase to replicate natural DNA with high fidelity and its propensity to exclude unnatural analogs are presumed to be correlated...
  21. pmc PCR amplification of DNA containing non-standard base pairs by variants of reverse transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1
    A Michael Sismour
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:728-35. 2004
    ..This work also illustrates a research strategy that combines in clinico pre-evolution of proteins followed by rational design to obtain an enzyme that meets a particular technological specification...
  22. pmc Evolutionary, structural and biochemical evidence for a new interaction site of the leptin obesity protein
    Eric A Gaucher
    NASA Astrobiology Institute and Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611 7200, USA
    Genetics 163:1549-53. 2003
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Nucleobase pairing in expanded Watson-Crick-like genetic information systems
    C Ronald Geyer
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Structure 11:1485-98. 2003
    ..The experiments also demonstrate that expanded genetic systems can be constructed using size complementary nucleobase pairs that contain three hydrogen bonds...
  24. pmc Probing minor groove recognition contacts by DNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases using 3-deaza-2'-deoxyadenosine
    Cynthia L Hendrickson
    Department of Chemistry and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:2241-50. 2004
    ..Each interpretation is significant for understanding the planetary biology of polymerases...
  25. ncbi request reprint Empirical analysis of protein insertions and deletions determining parameters for the correct placement of gaps in protein sequence alignments
    Mike S S Chang
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA
    J Mol Biol 341:617-31. 2004
    ..By providing mechanisms to identify errors, the tools will enhance the value of genome sequence databases in support of integrated paleogenomics strategies used to extract functional information in a post-genomic environment...
  26. pmc The past as the key to the present: resurrection of ancient proteins from eosinophils
    Steven A Benner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:4760-1. 2002
  27. ncbi request reprint Chemistry. Redesigning genetics
    Steven A Benner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
    Science 306:625-6. 2004
  28. ncbi request reprint A review: synthesis of aryl C-glycosides via the heck coupling reaction
    Kevin W Wellington
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, Florida 32604, USA
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 25:1309-33. 2006
    ..The subsequent conversion of the Heck products to the corresponding target molecules and the application of the target molecules are also described...
  29. ncbi request reprint Inferring the palaeoenvironment of ancient bacteria on the basis of resurrected proteins
    Eric A Gaucher
    NASA Astrobiology Institute, Gainesville, Florida 32611 7200, USA
    Nature 425:285-8. 2003
    ..The study illustrates the use of experimental palaeobiochemistry and assumptions about deep phylogenetic relationships between bacteria to explore the character of ancient life...
  30. ncbi request reprint Locked nucleic acid molecular beacons
    Lin Wang
    Center for Research at Bio nano Interface, Department of Chemistry, UF Genetics Institute, Gainesville, Florida 32611 7200, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 127:15664-5. 2005
    ..The LNA-MB will be widely useful in a variety of areas, especially for in vivo hybridization studies...
  31. ncbi request reprint Synthetic biology
    Steven A Benner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Nat Rev Genet 6:533-43. 2005
    ..Synthetic biology has generated diagnostic tools that improve the care of patients with infectious diseases, as well as devices that oscillate, creep and play tic-tac-toe...
  32. pmc Lessons from comparative physiology: could uric acid represent a physiologic alarm signal gone awry in western society?
    Richard J Johnson
    Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Comp Physiol B 179:67-76. 2009
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Is there a common chemical model for life in the universe?
    Steven A Benner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Curr Opin Chem Biol 8:672-89. 2004
    ..If we constrain life to water, more specific criteria can be proposed, including soluble metabolites, genetic materials with repeating charges, and a well defined temperature range...
  34. pmc Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast
    J Michael Thomson
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Nat Genet 37:630-5. 2005
    ..These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology...
  35. pmc The use of thymidine analogs to improve the replication of an extra DNA base pair: a synthetic biological system
    A Michael Sismour
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:5640-6. 2005
    ..The analogous PCR employing TTP had a fidelity-per-round of only approximately 93%. Thus, the A, 2-thioT, G, C, isoC, isoG alphabet is an artificial genetic system capable of Darwinian evolution...
  36. ncbi request reprint 2'-deoxycytidines carrying amino and thiol functionality: synthesis and incorporation by Vent (exo-) polymerase
    Abhijit Roychowdhury
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, P O Box 117200, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA
    Org Lett 6:489-92. 2004
    ..The ability of Vent (exo(-)) polymerase to amplify oligonucleotides containing these functionalized cytidine derivatives in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was demonstrated for the amino-functionalized derivative...
  37. ncbi request reprint Quantitative analysis of a RNA-cleaving DNA catalyst obtained via in vitro selection
    Matthew A Carrigan
    Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Incorporated, Post Office Box 13174, Gainesville, Florida 32604, USA
    Biochemistry 43:11446-59. 2004
    ..This study of a specific catalytically active DNAzyme is an example of studies that will be necessary generally to permit in vitro selection to help us understand the distribution of function in sequence space...
  38. ncbi request reprint Understanding nucleic acids using synthetic chemistry
    Steven A Benner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 7200, USA
    Acc Chem Res 37:784-97. 2004
    ..A new field, synthetic biology, is emerging on the basis of these experiments, where chemistry mimics biological processes as complicated as Darwinian evolution...
  39. pmc Multiplexed genetic analysis using an expanded genetic alphabet
    Scott C Johnson
    Eragen Biosciences, Inc, Madison, WI 53717, USA
    Clin Chem 50:2019-27. 2004
    ..We describe the development and technical evaluation of a multiplex platform that may foster increased newborn genetic screening...
  40. ncbi request reprint Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life
    Steven A Benner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville FL, 32611 7200, USA
    Science 296:864-8. 2002
    ..Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change...
  41. ncbi request reprint The crystal structure of eEF1A refines the functional predictions of an evolutionary analysis of rate changes among elongation factors
    Eric A Gaucher
    Mol Biol Evol 19:569-73. 2002
  42. ncbi request reprint Interpretive proteomics--finding biological meaning in genome and proteome databases
    Steven A Benner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611, USA
    Adv Enzyme Regul 43:271-359. 2003
  43. ncbi request reprint Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric resolution, identification, and screening of non-covalent complexes of Hck Src homology 2 domain receptor and ligands from a 324-member peptide combinatorial library
    Maria Wigger
    J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 13:1162-9. 2002
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Oligodeoxyribonucleotide analogues with bridging dimethylene sulfide, sulfoxide, and sulfone groups. Toward a second-generation model of nucleic acid structure
    Zhen Huang
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, USA
    J Org Chem 67:3996-4013. 2002
    ..Features of the second-generation model are important for many areas of nucleic acid chemistry, from the design of nucleic acid therapeutic agents to the search for life on other planets...
  45. doi request reprint Incorporation of multiple sequential pseudothymidines by DNA polymerases and their impact on DNA duplex structure
    Stephanie A Havemann
    Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Space Life Sciences Laboratory, Kennedy Space Center, University of Florida, FL, USA
    Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 27:261-78. 2008
    ..These results constrain architectures for sequencing, quantitating, and analyzing DNA analogs that exploit C-glycosides, and define better the challenge of creating a synthetic biology using these with natural polymerases...
  46. ncbi request reprint Phosphates, DNA, and the search for nonterrean life: a second generation model for genetic molecules
    Steven A Benner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, P O Box 117200, Gainesville 32611 7200, USA
    Bioorg Chem 30:62-80. 2002
    ..The polyelectrolyte structure therefore may be a universal signature of life, regardless of its genesis, and unique to living forms as well...
  47. pmc The planetary biology of ascorbate and uric acid and their relationship with the epidemic of obesity and cardiovascular disease
    Richard J Johnson
    Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, and the Foundation of Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, FL 32610 0224, United States
    Med Hypotheses 71:22-31. 2008
    ....

Research Grants34

  1. DNA Sequencing using Nanopores
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These will then be targeted against specific sequences extracted from mammalian genomes. ..
  2. Artificial Genetic Systems
    Steven A Benner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Multiplexed PCR is the rate limiting step in many genomics analyses. Our long term, highly ambitious goal is to develop a "synthetic biology", a chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution, based on AEGIS components. ..
  3. Near Term Development of Reagents and Enzymes for Genome Sequencing
    Steven A Benner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal, from a laboratory with a track record of innovation in structures, reagents, and enzymes to manipulate nucleic acids, is focused on near term development of these to enable NHGRI cost-reduction sequencing goals. ..
  4. Chemistry to Improve Human Genomic Array Analysis Architectures
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal seeks funds to benchmark the improvements in array performance generated by these new technologies, improve them by a cycle of test and redesign, and provide them to the genomics community. ..
  5. Artificial Genetic Systems
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Multiplexed PCR is the rate limiting step in many genomics analyses. Our long term, highly ambitious goal is to develop a "synthetic biology", a chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution, based on AEGIS components. ..
  6. Near Term Development of Reagents and Enzymes for Genome Sequencing
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal, from a laboratory with a track record of innovation in structures, reagents, and enzymes to manipulate nucleic acids, is focused on near term development of these to enable NHGRI cost-reduction sequencing goals. ..
  7. Alcohol Metabolism,Primate Evolution and Paleogenetics. An Inclusive Paradigm
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This research will be the first collaboration between Steven Benner, who initiated experimental paleogenetics as a field and has developed planetary and systems biology in many ..
  8. Alcohol Metabolism,Primate Evolution and Paleogenetics. An Inclusive Paradigm
    Steven A Benner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research will be the first collaboration between Steven Benner, who initiated experimental paleogenetics as a field and has developed planetary and systems biology in many ..
  9. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry for nucleic acids
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The proposed work will develop another platform technology, this one allowing the detection of nucleic acid targets through a novel combination of dynamic combinatorial chemistry, enzymology, and nucleic acid science. ..
  10. Chemistry to Improve Human Genomic Array Analysis Architectures
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal seeks funds to benchmark the improvements in array performance generated by these new technologies, improve them by a cycle of test and redesign, and provide them to the genomics community. ..
  11. EVOLUTION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE SUPERFAMILY
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  12. NON-STANDARD BASE PAIRS AS BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH TOOLS
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  13. EVOLUTION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE SUPERFAMILY
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  14. EVOLUTION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE SUPERFAMILY
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  15. Targeted Assisted Combinatorial Synthesis
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. Targeted Assisted Combinational Synthesis
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  17. NON-STANDARD BASE PAIRS AS BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH TOOLS
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  18. Near Term Development of Reagents and Enzymes for Genome Sequencing
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This proposal, from a laboratory with a track record of innovation in structures, reagents, and enzymes to manipulate nucleic acids, is focused on near term development of these to enable NHGRI cost-reduction sequencing goals. ..
  19. Chemistry to Improve Human Genomic Array Analysis Architectures
    Steven A Benner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This proposal seeks funds to benchmark the improvements in array performance generated by these new technologies, improve them by a cycle of test and redesign, and provide them to the genomics community. ..
  20. NON-STANDARD BASE PAIRS AS BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH TOOLS
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  21. NON-STANDARD BASE PAIRS AS BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH TOOLS
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  22. NON-STANDARD BASE PAIRS AS BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH TOOLS
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  23. NON-STANDARD BASE PAIRS AS BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH TOOLS
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  24. Artificial Genetic Systems
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Multiplexed PCR is the rate limiting step in many genomics analyses. Our long term, highly ambitious goal is to develop a "synthetic biology", a chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution, based on AEGIS components. ..
  25. Polymerases for Sequencing by Synthesis
    Steven Benner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....