Syed F Ali

Summary

Affiliation: Food and Drug Administration
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Molecular aspects of dopaminergic neurodegeneration: gene-environment interaction in parkin dysfunction
    Syed F Ali
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72029, USA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:4702-13. 2011
  2. pmc Understanding the Global Problem of Drug Addiction is a Challenge for IDARS Scientists
    S F Ali
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, NCTR FDA, Jefferson, AR, USA
    Curr Neuropharmacol 9:2-7. 2011
  3. pmc Immunization with DAT fragments is associated with long-term striatal impairment, hyperactivity and reduced cognitive flexibility in mice
    Walter Adriani
    Dept Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Behav Brain Funct 8:54. 2012
  4. doi request reprint Effects of copper nanoparticles on rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells
    William J Trickler
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Nanomedicine (Lond) 7:835-46. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the time courses of selective gene expression and dopaminergic depletion induced by MPP+ in MN9D cells
    Jianyong Wang
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurochem Int 52:1037-43. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Effects of L-carnitine pretreatment in methamphetamine and 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity
    Zbigniew K Binienda
    Division of Neurotoxicology, HFT 132, FDA NCTR, Jefferson, AR 72079 9502, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1074:74-83. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Co-regulation of dopamine D1 receptor and uncoupling protein-2 expression in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity: neuroprotective role of L-carnitine
    Zbigniew K Binienda
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurosci Lett 410:62-5. 2006
  8. doi request reprint Brain microvessel endothelial cells responses to gold nanoparticles: In vitro pro-inflammatory mediators and permeability
    William J Trickler
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center of Toxicological Research FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA
    Nanotoxicology 5:479-92. 2011
  9. doi request reprint Expression changes of dopaminergic system-related genes in PC12 cells induced by manganese, silver, or copper nanoparticles
    Jianyong Wang
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Rd, Jefferson, AR 72079 9502, USA
    Neurotoxicology 30:926-33. 2009
  10. pmc Neuroprotective efficacy of a new brain-penetrating C-Abl inhibitor in a murine Parkinson's disease model
    Syed Z Imam
    Division of Neurotoxicology, US FDA National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e65129. 2013

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. pmc Molecular aspects of dopaminergic neurodegeneration: gene-environment interaction in parkin dysfunction
    Syed F Ali
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72029, USA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 8:4702-13. 2011
    ..In the current review, we will discuss various aspects of gene-environment interaction that lead to progressive dopaminergic neurodegenration, mainly focusing on our current finding based on stress-mediated parkin dysfunction...
  2. pmc Understanding the Global Problem of Drug Addiction is a Challenge for IDARS Scientists
    S F Ali
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, NCTR FDA, Jefferson, AR, USA
    Curr Neuropharmacol 9:2-7. 2011
    ..Nonetheless, a lot more research needs to be done to better understand the neurobiological basis of drug addiction - A challenge for IDARS scientists...
  3. pmc Immunization with DAT fragments is associated with long-term striatal impairment, hyperactivity and reduced cognitive flexibility in mice
    Walter Adriani
    Dept Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Behav Brain Funct 8:54. 2012
    ..Here, we assessed the interplay between DAT auto-immunity and behavioural / neurochemical phenotype...
  4. doi request reprint Effects of copper nanoparticles on rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells
    William J Trickler
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Nanomedicine (Lond) 7:835-46. 2012
    ..The purpose of the current study was to determine whether copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) can induce the release of proinflammatory mediators that influence the restrictive characteristics of the blood-brain barrier...
  5. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the time courses of selective gene expression and dopaminergic depletion induced by MPP+ in MN9D cells
    Jianyong Wang
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurochem Int 52:1037-43. 2008
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Effects of L-carnitine pretreatment in methamphetamine and 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity
    Zbigniew K Binienda
    Division of Neurotoxicology, HFT 132, FDA NCTR, Jefferson, AR 72079 9502, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1074:74-83. 2006
    ..The same effect observed at the transcriptional level, at least for the DA receptor D(1), may account for protection against METH toxicity...
  7. ncbi request reprint Co-regulation of dopamine D1 receptor and uncoupling protein-2 expression in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity: neuroprotective role of L-carnitine
    Zbigniew K Binienda
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurosci Lett 410:62-5. 2006
    ....
  8. doi request reprint Brain microvessel endothelial cells responses to gold nanoparticles: In vitro pro-inflammatory mediators and permeability
    William J Trickler
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center of Toxicological Research FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA
    Nanotoxicology 5:479-92. 2011
    ..Together, these data suggest the responses of the cerebral microvasculature to Au-NPs have a significant relationship with the Au-NPs unique size-dependent physiochemical properties...
  9. doi request reprint Expression changes of dopaminergic system-related genes in PC12 cells induced by manganese, silver, or copper nanoparticles
    Jianyong Wang
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Rd, Jefferson, AR 72079 9502, USA
    Neurotoxicology 30:926-33. 2009
    ..These data suggest that Mn and Cu nanoparticles-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity may share some common mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration...
  10. pmc Neuroprotective efficacy of a new brain-penetrating C-Abl inhibitor in a murine Parkinson's disease model
    Syed Z Imam
    Division of Neurotoxicology, US FDA National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e65129. 2013
    ..We propose that compounds of the INNO-406 class of Abl inhibitors will be useful new neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of PD-like pathology in preclinical systems that should be easily translated to the clinic...
  11. doi request reprint Ketamine induces motor neuron toxicity and alters neurogenic and proneural gene expression in zebrafish
    Jyotshna Kanungo
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 33:410-7. 2013
    ..Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA...
  12. doi request reprint Chronic exposure to rotenone, a dopaminergic toxin, results in peripheral neuropathy associated with dopaminergic damage
    Zbigniew K Binienda
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research US FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079, United States
    Neurosci Lett 541:233-7. 2013
    ....
  13. doi request reprint Assessment of 3-nitropropionic acid-evoked peripheral neuropathy in rats: neuroprotective effects of acetyl-l-carnitine and resveratrol
    Zbigniew K Binienda
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, AR 72079, USA
    Neurosci Lett 480:117-21. 2010
    ..The experimental outcome of this study shows that chronic treatment with 3-NPA in rats is relevant in development of an experimental model of toxic neuropathy...
  14. ncbi request reprint Identification of rat hippocampal mRNAs altered by the mitochondrial toxicant, 3-NPA
    Beata D Przybyla-Zawislak
    Division of Neurotoxicology, HFT 132, National Center for Toxicology Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079 9502, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1053:162-73. 2005
    ..In conclusion, this study identified 2 new potential targets for enhancement of neuroprotection or inhibition of neurodegeneration associated with ATP depletion in the hippocampus...
  15. doi request reprint Silver nanoparticle-induced mutations and oxidative stress in mouse lymphoma cells
    Nan Mei
    Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Environ Mol Mutagen 53:409-19. 2012
    ..These results suggest that 5 nm Ag-NPs are mutagenic in mouse lymphoma cells due to induction of oxidative stress by the Ag-NPs...
  16. doi request reprint Mechanistic toxicity evaluation of uncoated and PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes in neuronal PC12 cells
    Yongbin Zhang
    National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    ACS Nano 5:7020-33. 2011
    ..These findings suggest that surface functionalization of SWCNTs decreases ROS-mediated toxicological response in vitro...
  17. ncbi request reprint Gene expression profiling of MPP+-treated MN9D cells: a mechanism of toxicity study
    Jianyong Wang
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, HFT 132, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurotoxicology 28:979-87. 2007
    ..These data also indicate that MPP+-induced toxicity shares common molecular mechanisms with the pathogenesis of PD and further pathway analyses will be conducted to explore these mechanisms...
  18. ncbi request reprint Porcine brain microvessel endothelial cells show pro-inflammatory response to the size and composition of metallic nanoparticles
    William J Trickler
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA
    Drug Metab Rev 46:224-31. 2014
    ..Together, these data suggest that the composition and size of NPs can cause significant pro-inflammatory response that can influence the integrity of the BBB...
  19. doi request reprint Silver nanoparticles decrease body weight and locomotor activity in adult male rats
    Yongbin Zhang
    Nanotechnology Core Facility, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Small 9:1715-20. 2013
    ..The dose-dependent activity and body weight alterations are evaluated after rats were exposed to Ag nanoparticles, suggesting a major human health risk, given the wide application of silver nanomaterials...
  20. doi request reprint Effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on retinal dopaminergic system in mice
    W Ryan Hamilton
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research USFDA, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurosci Lett 515:107-10. 2012
    ....
  21. doi request reprint Protective effects of 7-nitroindazole on ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in rat forebrain culture
    Cheng Wang
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research US Food and Drug Administration, HFT 132 Jefferson, AR, USA
    Neurotoxicology 29:613-20. 2008
    ..These data indicate a role for nitric oxide in the enhanced degeneration induced by ketamine in vitro and also suggest that blocking neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) may help reduce the risk of ketamine in pediatrics...
  22. doi request reprint On the in vivo early toxic properties of A-beta 25-35 peptide in the rat hippocampus: involvement of the Receptor-for-Advanced Glycation-End-Products and changes in gene expression
    Elvis Cuevas
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 33:288-96. 2011
    ..Our findings support an active role of RAGE during the early stages of Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ toxicity in the hippocampus...
  23. doi request reprint Red wine but not ethanol at low doses can protect against the toxicity of methamphetamine
    Syed F Ali
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 9502, USA
    Brain Res 1346:247-50. 2010
    ..This implies the presence of other agents in red wine, which may mitigate the toxicity of methamphetamine...
  24. doi request reprint L-Carnitine rescues ketamine-induced attenuated heart rate and MAPK (ERK) activity in zebrafish embryos
    Jyotshnabala Kanungo
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Reprod Toxicol 33:205-12. 2012
    ..These findings demonstrate that l-carnitine counteracts ketamine's negative effects on heart rate and ERK activity in zebrafish embryos...
  25. ncbi request reprint Comparative effects of substituted amphetamines (PMA, MDMA, and METH) on monoamines in rat caudate: a microdialysis study
    Bobby Gough
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 965:410-20. 2002
    ..5 or 5 mg/kg. All dose levels of PMA significantly decreased 5-HIAA (50 to 70%). These data suggest that PMA, like MDMA and METH, is capable of producing dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity...
  26. ncbi request reprint Cocaine induces a dose-dependent alteration in the expression of immediate early genes c-fos and SP-1 and in nuclear factor NF-kappabeta in PC12 cells
    Syed Z Imam
    Division of Neurotoxicology, US FDA NCTR, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 993:362; discussion 387-93. 2003
  27. doi request reprint Silver nanoparticle induced blood-brain barrier inflammation and increased permeability in primary rat brain microvessel endothelial cells
    William J Trickler
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center of Toxicological Research Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Toxicol Sci 118:160-70. 2010
    ..Further, this study suggests that Ag-NPs may interact with the cerebral microvasculature producing a proinflammatory cascade, if left unchecked; these events may further induce brain inflammation and neurotoxicity...
  28. ncbi request reprint Drugs of abuse-induced hyperthermia, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and neurotoxicity: neuroprotective effects of a new antioxidant compound H-290/51
    Hari Shanker Sharma
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Centre for Toxicological Research FDA, Jefferson, AR, USA
    Curr Pharm Des 13:1903-23. 2007
    ..The possible mechanisms and functional significance of these findings are discussed...
  29. doi request reprint Acute administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine induces profound hyperthermia, blood-brain barrier disruption, brain edema formation, and cell injury
    Hari Shanker Sharma
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center of Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1139:242-58. 2008
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Brain region-specific neurodegenerative profiles showing the relative importance of amphetamine dose, hyperthermia, seizures, and the blood-brain barrier
    John F Bowyer
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1139:127-39. 2008
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Ketamine attenuates cytochrome p450 aromatase gene expression and estradiol-17β levels in zebrafish early life stages
    William J Trickler
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR, 72079, USA Toxicologic Pathology Associates, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR, 72079, USA
    J Appl Toxicol 34:480-8. 2014
    ..These results suggest that reduced E2 levels in ketamine-treated embryos may have resulted from the suppression of cyp19a1a transcription...
  32. doi request reprint Acetyl L-carnitine protects motor neurons and Rohon-Beard sensory neurons against ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos
    Elvis Cuevas
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 39:69-76. 2013
    ..However, acetyl L-carnitine co-treatment prevented ketamine-induced adverse effects on the RB neurons. These results suggest that acetyl L-carnitine protects both motor and sensory neurons from ketamine-induced neurotoxicity...
  33. doi request reprint Nicotine alters the expression of molecular markers of endocrine disruption in zebrafish
    Jyotshna Kanungo
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurosci Lett 526:133-7. 2012
    ..These results provide direct molecular evidence that nicotine is an endocrine disruptor in zebrafish...
  34. ncbi request reprint Role of peroxynitrite in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and neuroprotection by antioxidants and selective NOS inhibitors
    Syed F Ali
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1053:97-8. 2005
  35. ncbi request reprint Lack of hydroxyl radical generation upon central administration of methamphetamine in rat caudate nucleus: a microdialysis study
    Frederico C Pereira
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, HFT 132, NCTR FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurotox Res 6:149-52. 2004
    ..p.). No significant correlation was found between changes in extracellular DA levels and *OH generation when perfusing METH locally; however, both increased after systemic METH administration...
  36. ncbi request reprint In vitro detection of cytotoxicity using FluoroJade-C
    Qiang Gu
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, United States Electronic address
    Toxicol In Vitro 28:469-72. 2014
    ..This in vitro approach is simple, fast, and sensitive and, thus, has the potential to augment if not replace currently used cell-based cytotoxicity assays. ..
  37. ncbi request reprint Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and production of peroxynitrite are potentiated in nerve growth factor differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 cells
    Syed Z Imam
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Resarch US FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 965:204-13. 2002
    ..The current study supports the hypothesis that METH acts at the dopaminergic nerve terminals and produces dopaminergic damage by the production of free radical peroxynitrite...
  38. ncbi request reprint Plasma levels of parent compound and metabolites after doses of either d-fenfluramine or d-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that produce long-term serotonergic alterations
    John F Bowyer
    Division of Neurotoxicology and Biometry and Risk Assessment, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, 72079 9502, Jefferson, AR, USA
    Neurotoxicology 24:379-90. 2003
    ..There were 80% reductions in the plasma membrane-associated 5-HT transporters 6 months after either the FEN or MDMA dosing regimen indicating that both treatments produced long-term serotonergic effects...
  39. doi request reprint Cytotoxicity effects of graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes in neural phaeochromocytoma-derived PC12 cells
    Yongbin Zhang
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    ACS Nano 4:3181-6. 2010
    ..Altogether these studies suggest different biological activities of the graphitic nanomaterials, with the shape playing a primary role...
  40. ncbi request reprint Zinc potentiates 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced dopamine depletion in caudate nucleus of mice brain
    Saber Hussain
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Neurosci Lett 335:25-8. 2002
    ..In summary the data suggest that Zn treatment potentiates depletion of dopamine in MPTP treated mice...
  41. ncbi request reprint Four weeks of oral isotretinoin treatment causes few signs of general toxicity in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats
    Sherry A Ferguson
    Division of Neurotoxicology, HFT 132, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, 3900, NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 43:1289-96. 2005
    ..Hippocampal DA concentrations were marginally increased. These data indicate mild effects resulting from oral isotretinoin treatment at doses which likely produce serum levels within the range of humans...
  42. ncbi request reprint The role of caspase III inhibition in methamphetamine-induced alterations in p53 and bcl-2 expression: correlation with dopaminergic neurotoxicity
    Syed Z Imam
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 993:350; discussion 387-93. 2003
  43. ncbi request reprint The differential JunB responses to inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase in rat hippocampus and liver
    Beata D Przybyla-Zawislak
    Division of Neurotoxicology, FDA National Center for Toxicological Research, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 9502, USA
    Neurosci Lett 381:354-7. 2005
    ..In conclusion, out of the three ITFs transcripts examined here junb may activate different pathways depending on the tissue as indicated by differential responses to mitochondrial inhibition in the hippocampus and liver...
  44. pmc A microarray study of MPP+-treated PC12 Cells: Mechanisms of toxicity (MOT) analysis using bioinformatics tools
    Zengjun Xu
    Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U S Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    BMC Bioinformatics 6:S8. 2005
    ..MPP+ depletes dopamine content and elicits cell death in PC12 cells. However, the mechanism of MPP+-induced neurotoxicity is still unclear...
  45. doi request reprint Acrylamide: a dietary carcinogen formed in vivo?
    Eden Tareke
    Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, Toxicologic Pathology Association, Inc, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 56:6020-3. 2008
    ..The results of this study show that acrylamide Hb adduct levels are increased in mice treated with compounds known to induce free radicals, thus suggesting the endogenous production of acrylamide...
  46. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid for genotoxicity in the mouse micronucleus assay
    S Balachandra Dass
    Neurochemistry Laboratory, Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1025:538-42. 2004
    ..However, because increases were small and because no consistent dose-dependent increase in induced micronuclear frequency could be demonstrated, our results do not conclusively show that GHB is an in vivo genotoxicant in mammals...
  47. ncbi request reprint Adaptation to repeated cocaine administration in rats
    Zbigniew K Binienda
    Division of Neurotoxicology, NCTR FDA, Jefferson, Arkansas 72029, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 965:172-9. 2002
    ..Further studies are necessary to establish whether regional alterations in blood flow and metabolic activity may underlie such observations...