Kenneth F Schulz

Summary

Affiliation: Family Health International
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc The methodology for developing a prospective meta-analysis in the family planning community
    David K Turok
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Trials 12:104. 2011
  2. pmc Resources for authors of reports of randomized trials: harnessing the wisdom of authors, editors, and readers
    David Moher
    Ottawa Methods Centre, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, USA
    Trials 12:98. 2011
  3. pmc The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel group randomized trials
    D Moher
    University of Ottawa, Thomas C, Chalmers Centre for Systematic Reviews, Ottawa, Canada
    BMC Med Res Methodol 1:2. 2001
  4. pmc The reporting of methods for reducing and detecting bias: an example from the WHO Misoprostol Third Stage of Labour equivalence randomised controlled trial
    Gilda Piaggio
    UNDP UNFPA WHO World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    BMC Med Res Methodol 3:19. 2003
  5. pmc Helping editors, peer reviewers and authors improve the clarity, completeness and transparency of reporting health research
    David Moher
    BMC Med 6:13. 2008
  6. pmc Transparent and accurate reporting increases reliability, utility, and impact of your research: reporting guidelines and the EQUATOR Network
    Iveta Simera
    Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    BMC Med 8:24. 2010
  7. ncbi request reprint Unequal group sizes in randomised trials: guarding against guessing
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:966-70. 2002
  8. pmc CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Trials 11:32. 2010
  9. ncbi request reprint [CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials (Chinese version)]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 8:604-12. 2010
  10. pmc CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    BMC Med 8:18. 2010

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. pmc The methodology for developing a prospective meta-analysis in the family planning community
    David K Turok
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Trials 12:104. 2011
    ..This paper describes the process of creating a PMA collaboration to evaluate the impact of misoprostol on ease of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion in nulliparous women...
  2. pmc Resources for authors of reports of randomized trials: harnessing the wisdom of authors, editors, and readers
    David Moher
    Ottawa Methods Centre, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, USA
    Trials 12:98. 2011
    ..We invite authors, editors, and readers worldwide to nominate examples of well reported items for the database...
  3. pmc The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel group randomized trials
    D Moher
    University of Ottawa, Thomas C, Chalmers Centre for Systematic Reviews, Ottawa, Canada
    BMC Med Res Methodol 1:2. 2001
    ..In sum, the CONSORT statement is intended to improve the reporting of an RCT, enabling readers to understand a trial's conduct and to assess the validity of its results...
  4. pmc The reporting of methods for reducing and detecting bias: an example from the WHO Misoprostol Third Stage of Labour equivalence randomised controlled trial
    Gilda Piaggio
    UNDP UNFPA WHO World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    BMC Med Res Methodol 3:19. 2003
    ....
  5. pmc Helping editors, peer reviewers and authors improve the clarity, completeness and transparency of reporting health research
    David Moher
    BMC Med 6:13. 2008
    ..As such, they are not able to judge the merits of the results and interpret them. The EQUATOR Network is a new initiative aimed at improving the clarity and transparency of reporting health research...
  6. pmc Transparent and accurate reporting increases reliability, utility, and impact of your research: reporting guidelines and the EQUATOR Network
    Iveta Simera
    Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    BMC Med 8:24. 2010
    ..This paper outlines EQUATOR's goals and activities and offers suggestions for organizations and individuals involved in health research on how to strengthen research reporting...
  7. ncbi request reprint Unequal group sizes in randomised trials: guarding against guessing
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:966-70. 2002
    ..Simple randomisation contributes the unpredictability whereas permuted-block randomisation contributes the balance, but avoids the perfect balance that can result in selection bias...
  8. pmc CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Trials 11:32. 2010
    ..com and will also be published in the Lancet, Obstetrics and Gynecology, PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, Open Medicine, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medicine, and Trials...
  9. ncbi request reprint [CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials (Chinese version)]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 8:604-12. 2010
    ..com and will also be published in the Lancet, Obstetrics and Gynecology, PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, Open Medicine, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medicine, and Trials...
  10. pmc CONSORT 2010 Statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    BMC Med 8:18. 2010
    ..com and will also be published in the Lancet, Obstetrics and Gynecology, PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, Open Medicine, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medicine, and Trials...
  11. ncbi request reprint Sample size calculations in randomised trials: mandatory and mystical
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1348-53. 2005
    ..Unbiased trials with imprecise results trump no results at all. Clinicians and patients deserve guidance now...
  12. ncbi request reprint Blinding in randomised trials: hiding who got what
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:696-700. 2002
    ..Unfortunately, many articles do not contain proper reporting. If an article claims blinding without any accompanying clarification, readers should remain sceptical about its effect on bias reduction...
  13. ncbi request reprint [Epidemiological methods 7: secrecy of randomization in randomized studies: how one defends against decisions]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 101:499-505. 2007
  14. ncbi request reprint Multiplicity in randomised trials II: subgroup and interim analyses
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1657-61. 2005
    ..Investigators and readers, however, need to grasp that the estimated treatment effects are prone to exaggeration, a random high, with early stopping...
  15. ncbi request reprint [Epidemiological methods 8: blinded randomized trial: what one covers up is what one obtains]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 101:630-7. 2007
  16. ncbi request reprint [Failures in sample size calculation in randomized trial: mandatory and mystical]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research, Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 100:129-35. 2006
  17. ncbi request reprint Sample size slippages in randomised trials: exclusions and the lost and wayward
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:781-5. 2002
    ..Unfortunately, some explanations for mishandling exclusions intuitively appeal to readers, disguising the seriousness of the issues. Creative mismanagement of exclusions can undermine trial validity...
  18. ncbi request reprint Case-control studies: research in reverse
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:431-4. 2002
    ..Devotion of meticulous attention to these points enhances the validity of the results and bolsters the reader's confidence in the findings...
  19. ncbi request reprint Generation of allocation sequences in randomised trials: chance, not choice
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:515-9. 2002
    ..Investigators should devote appropriate resources to the generation of properly randomised trials and reporting their methods clearly...
  20. ncbi request reprint Allocation concealment in randomised trials: defending against deciphering
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, 27709, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Lancet 359:614-8. 2002
    ..Hypothesis tests of baseline characteristics, however, are superfluous and could be harmful if they lead investigators to suppress reporting any baseline imbalances...
  21. doi request reprint CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Ann Intern Med 152:726-32. 2010
    ..Schulz and colleagues describe the latest version, CONSORT 2010, which updates the reporting guideline based on new methodological evidence and accumulating experience...
  22. ncbi request reprint Twenty micrograms vs. >20 microg estrogen oral contraceptives for contraception: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Maria F Gallo
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 71:162-9. 2005
    ..While health care providers and women might select COCs containing 20 microg EE based on theoretical improvements in safety profile from the reduced dose of estrogen, no evidence is available to support this choice...
  23. ncbi request reprint Clinical research in obstetrics and gynecology: a Baedeker for busy clinicians
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 57:S35-53. 2002
  24. ncbi request reprint False alarms and pseudo-epidemics: the limitations of observational epidemiology
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, and FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 120:920-7. 2012
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Fertility awareness-based methods for contraception: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 72:85-90. 2005
    ..The efficacy and acceptability of these methods are unclear...
  26. ncbi request reprint The landscape and lexicon of blinding in randomized trials
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Ann Intern Med 136:254-9. 2002
  27. ncbi request reprint Biphasic versus triphasic oral contraceptives for contraception
    Hubertus A A M van Vliet
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 65:321-4. 2002
    ..This suggests that the choice of progestin may be more important that the phasic regimen in determining bleeding patterns...
  28. ncbi request reprint Descriptive studies: what they can and cannot do
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:145-9. 2002
    ..Hypotheses about causation from descriptive studies are often tested in rigorous analytical studies...
  29. ncbi request reprint The Good Clinical Practice guideline: a bronze standard for clinical research
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Lancet 366:172-4. 2005
  30. ncbi request reprint Steroid hormones for contraception in men: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 71:89-94. 2005
    ..To avoid bias, future trials need to pay more attention on the methodological requirements for randomized controlled trials. Trials with adequate power would also be helpful...
  31. ncbi request reprint Multiplicity in randomised trials I: endpoints and treatments
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 USA
    Lancet 365:1591-5. 2005
    ..In these cases, adjustments somewhat rescue scattershot analyses. Readers need to be aware of the potential for under-reporting of analyses...
  32. ncbi request reprint Clinical research in obstetrics and gynecology: more tips for busy clinicians
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 60:S53-69. 2005
  33. ncbi request reprint Bias and causal associations in observational research
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:248-52. 2002
    ..Differentiation between spurious, indirect, and causal associations can be difficult. Criteria such as temporal sequence, strength and consistency of an association, and evidence of a dose-response effect lend support to a causal link...
  34. doi request reprint Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD006260. 2012
    ..The immediate-start approach may improve women's access to, and continuation of, hormonal contraception...
  35. ncbi request reprint Skin patch and vaginal ring versus combined oral contraceptives for contraception
    Laureen M Lopez
    Behavioral and Biomedical Research, Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD003552. 2010
    ..Ring users generally had fewer adverse events than COC users but more vaginal irritation and discharge. High losses to follow up can affect the validity of the results...
  36. ncbi request reprint Cochrane systematic reviews of IUD trials: lessons learned
    David A Grimes
    Family Health, International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27796, USA
    Contraception 75:S55-9. 2007
    ..Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are the most widely used reversible contraceptives in the world today, and decisions about their use should reflect the best available evidence...
  37. ncbi request reprint Combination estrogen-progestin contraceptives and body weight: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Maria F Gallo
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 103:359-73. 2004
    ..This concern can deter women from starting hormonal contraception or lead to premature quitting. This review evaluated the association between combination contraceptive use and change in body weight...
  38. doi request reprint Skin patch and vaginal ring versus combined oral contraceptives for contraception
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD003552. 2013
    ..The transdermal patch and vaginal ring could require a lower dose due to increased bioavailability and improved user compliance...
  39. doi request reprint Steroidal contraceptives: effect on carbohydrate metabolism in women without diabetes mellitus
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD006133. 2012
    ..These issues have been raised primarily with contraceptives containing estrogen...
  40. doi request reprint Making sense of odds and odds ratios
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 111:423-6. 2008
    ..Because of the difficulty in understanding odds ratios, their use should probably be limited to case-control studies and logistic regression, for which odds ratios are the proper measures of association...
  41. ncbi request reprint Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:1114-8. 2005
    ..The clinical maxim that "a difference to be a difference must make a difference" applies to research as well. Clinical research should focus on outcomes that matter...
  42. ncbi request reprint Cohort studies: marching towards outcomes
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:341-5. 2002
    ..Strengths of a cohort study include the ability to calculate incidence rates, relative risks, and 95% CIs. This format is the preferred way of presenting study results, rather that with p values...
  43. ncbi request reprint Compared to what? Finding controls for case-control studies
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1429-33. 2005
    ..Although no ideal control group exists, readers need to think carefully about how representative the controls are. Poor choice of controls can lead to both wrong results and possible medical harm...
  44. doi request reprint Strategies for communicating contraceptive effectiveness
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4:CD006964. 2013
    ..The consumer has to comprehend the pros and cons of the contraceptive methods being considered. Choice may be influenced by understanding the likelihood of pregnancy with each method and factors that influence effectiveness...
  45. ncbi request reprint The public health impact of legal abortion: 30 years later
    Willard Cates
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Perspect Sex Reprod Health 35:25-8. 2003
  46. ncbi request reprint Immediate post-partum insertion of intrauterine devices
    David A Grimes
    Behavioral and Biomedical Research, Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD003036. 2010
    ..The popularity of immediate post-partum IUD insertion in countries as diverse as China, Mexico, and Egypt support the feasibility of this approach. Early follow up may be important in identifying spontaneous IUD expulsions...
  47. ncbi request reprint Refining clinical diagnosis with likelihood ratios
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1500-5. 2005
    ..When combined with an accurate clinical diagnosis, likelihood ratios from ancillary tests improve diagnostic accuracy in a synergistic manner...
  48. ncbi request reprint Steroidal contraceptives: effect on bone fractures in women
    Laureen M Lopez
    Clinical Sciences, FHI, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD006033. 2011
    ..Age-related decline in bone mass increases the risk of fracture, especially of the spine, hip, and wrist. Concern about bone health influences the recommendation and use of these effective contraceptives globally...
  49. ncbi request reprint Oral contraceptives for functional ovarian cysts
    David A Grimes
    Clinical Sciences, FHI 360, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, NC 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9:CD006134. 2011
    ..This became a common clinical practice in the early 1970s...
  50. ncbi request reprint Biphasic versus monophasic oral contraceptives for contraception: a Cochrane review
    Hubertus A A M van Vliet
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Hum Reprod 17:870-3. 2002
    ....
  51. ncbi request reprint An overview of clinical research: the lay of the land
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:57-61. 2002
    ..By contrast, p values address only chance. Testing null hypotheses at a p value of 0.05 has no basis in medicine and should be discouraged...
  52. ncbi request reprint Nonhormonal drugs for contraception in men: a systematic review
    Laureen M Lopez
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 60:746-52. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Uses and abuses of screening tests
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:881-4. 2002
    ..However, inappropriate application or interpretation of screening tests can rob people of their perceived health, initiate harmful diagnostic testing, and squander health-care resources...
  54. doi request reprint Nonspecific side effects of oral contraceptives: nocebo or noise?
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 83:5-9. 2011
    ..When in doubt, clinicians should err on the side of optimism...
  55. ncbi request reprint The CONSORT Statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials 2001
    David Moher
    University of Ottawa, Thomas C Chalmers Centre for Systematic Reviews, Ontario
    Explore (NY) 1:40-5. 2005
    ..In sum, the CONSORT statement is intended to improve the reporting or an RCT, enabling readers to understand a trial's conduct and to assess the validity of its results...
  56. ncbi request reprint Reducing publication bias through trial registration
    Lisa N Abaid
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:1434-7. 2007
    ..Trial registration and the development of comprehensive, computerized databases will promote transparency in research and help reduce publication bias...
  57. ncbi request reprint Statistical methods for assessing the influence of study characteristics on treatment effects in 'meta-epidemiological' research
    Jonathan A C Sterne
    MRC Health Services Research Collaboration, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, UK
    Stat Med 21:1513-24. 2002
    ..We show that both within- and between meta-analysis heterogeneity may be of importance in the analysis of meta-epidemiological studies, and that confounding exists between the effects of publication status and trial quality...
  58. pmc Opportunities and challenges for improving the quality of reporting clinical research: CONSORT and beyond
    David Moher
    Chalmers Research Group, Children s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, 401 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L1, Canada
    CMAJ 171:349-50. 2004
  59. pmc Guidelines for reporting health research: the EQUATOR network's survey of guideline authors
    Iveta Simera
    Centre for Statistics in Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e139. 2008
  60. ncbi request reprint The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials
    David Moher
    Thomas C Chalmers Centre for Systematic Reviews, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Oral Investig 7:2-7. 2003
    ..In sum, the CONSORT statement is intended to improve the reporting of an RCT, enabling readers to understand a trial's conduct and to assess the validity of its results...
  61. pmc Turning a blind eye: testing the success of blinding and the CONSORT statement
    Douglas G Altman
    BMJ 328:1135; author reply 1136. 2004
  62. ncbi request reprint Reducing publication bias of prospective clinical trials through trial registration
    Lisa N Abaid
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7570, USA
    Contraception 76:339-41. 2007
    ..Contraception endorses the views of the ICMJE and will now require registration of all prospective trials...
  63. ncbi request reprint [The CONSORT statenent: Revised Recommendations For Improving the Quality of Reports of Parallel-Group Randomized Trials]
    David Moher
    Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 25:658-61. 2005
  64. pmc Reporting the clinical importance of randomized controlled trials
    David Moher
    CMAJ 166:711-2; author reply 712. 2002
  65. pmc CONSORT for reporting randomized controlled trials in journal and conference abstracts: explanation and elaboration
    Sally Hopewell
    UK Cochrane Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 5:e20. 2008
    ..Here, we extend the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement to develop a minimum list of essential items, which authors should consider when reporting the results of a RCT in any journal or conference abstract...
  66. doi request reprint CONSORT for reporting randomised trials in journal and conference abstracts
    Sally Hopewell
    UK Cochrane Centre, Summertown Pavilion, Oxford OX2 7LG, UK
    Lancet 371:281-3. 2008
  67. ncbi request reprint Extending the CONSORT statement to randomized trials of nonpharmacologic treatment: explanation and elaboration
    Isabelle Boutron
    INSERM U738, AP HP, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, and Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris, France
    Ann Intern Med 148:295-309. 2008
    ..This extension, in conjunction with the main CONSORT Statement and other CONSORT extensions, should help to improve the reporting of RCTs performed in this field...
  68. ncbi request reprint Interpreting the number needed to treat
    Kenneth F Schulz
    JAMA 288:831; author reply 831-2. 2002
  69. ncbi request reprint Peer review of statistics in medical research. Reporting power calculations is important
    Douglas G Altman
    BMJ 325:491; author reply 491. 2002
  70. ncbi request reprint Methods and processes of the CONSORT Group: example of an extension for trials assessing nonpharmacologic treatments
    Isabelle Boutron
    INSERM U738, AP HP, Hopital Bichat Claude Bernard, and Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris, France
    Ann Intern Med 148:W60-6. 2008
    ..The conduct of randomized, controlled trials of nonpharmacologic treatments presents specific challenges that are not adequately addressed in trial reports...
  71. ncbi request reprint Allocation concealment in clinical trials
    Kenneth F Schulz
    JAMA 288:2406-7; author reply 2408-9. 2002
  72. pmc CONSORT statement requires closer examination
    Douglas G Altman
    BMJ 325:1364. 2002
  73. ncbi request reprint Reflections on medical journals
    David Moher
    Ann Intern Med 137:1011-2; author 1011-2. 2002
  74. pmc Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study
    Lesley Wood
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2PR
    BMJ 336:601-5. 2008
    ..To examine whether the association of inadequate or unclear allocation concealment and lack of blinding with biased estimates of intervention effects varies with the nature of the intervention or outcome...