M J Kuhar

Summary

Affiliation: Emory University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint CART peptides
    M J Kuhar
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropeptides 36:1-8. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Slow onset of CNS drugs: can changes in protein concentration account for the delay?
    M J Kuhar
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:450-6. 2001
  3. ncbi request reprint Anticocaine catalytic antibodies have no affinity for RTI compounds: implications for treatment
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Center of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Synapse 41:176-8. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Genes in drug abuse
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, 30329, Atlanta GA, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 62:157-62. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint CART peptide analysis by Western blotting
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Synapse 33:163-71. 1999
  6. ncbi request reprint Studies of selected phenyltropanes at monoamine transporters
    M J Kuhar
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 56:9-15. 1999
  7. ncbi request reprint CART peptides
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Regul Pept 89:1-6. 2000
  8. ncbi request reprint Dopamine transporter synthesis and degradation rate in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens using RTI-76
    H L Kimmel
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropharmacology 39:578-85. 2000
  9. ncbi request reprint RTI-76, an irreversible inhibitor of dopamine transporter binding, increases locomotor activity in the rat at high doses
    H L Kimmel
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res 897:157-63. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Neurotransmitter transporters synthesis and degradation rates
    H Kimmel
    Yerkes Primate Research Center of Emory University, Division of Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Life Sci 68:2181-5. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications88

  1. ncbi request reprint CART peptides
    M J Kuhar
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropeptides 36:1-8. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Slow onset of CNS drugs: can changes in protein concentration account for the delay?
    M J Kuhar
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 22:450-6. 2001
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Anticocaine catalytic antibodies have no affinity for RTI compounds: implications for treatment
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Center of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Synapse 41:176-8. 2001
    ..They exhibited high affinity for the immunogen TSA1 in the same experiment, as expected. Because the antibody and the RTI compounds do not interact, they are candidates for simultaneous use...
  4. ncbi request reprint Genes in drug abuse
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, 30329, Atlanta GA, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 62:157-62. 2001
    ..Definitive evidence, if obtainable, that specific genes are responsible for vulnerability to drug abuse could have dramatic effects on public health policy...
  5. ncbi request reprint CART peptide analysis by Western blotting
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Synapse 33:163-71. 1999
    ..The higher molecular weight species are likely to include preproCART and proCART, while lower molecular weight peptides may be CART 55-102 and 62-102, physiologically active fragments...
  6. ncbi request reprint Studies of selected phenyltropanes at monoamine transporters
    M J Kuhar
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 56:9-15. 1999
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint CART peptides
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Regul Pept 89:1-6. 2000
    ..They show no significant homology to any other peptide, and they are thought to have a role in reward and reinforcement, feeding, development, sensory processing, stress and endocrine control...
  8. ncbi request reprint Dopamine transporter synthesis and degradation rate in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens using RTI-76
    H L Kimmel
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropharmacology 39:578-85. 2000
    ..The DAT protein half-life determined under these conditions was about 2 days. [3H]Nisoxetine binding at norepinephrine transporters in the cortex was not altered by RTI-76 administration at any time point or dose examined...
  9. ncbi request reprint RTI-76, an irreversible inhibitor of dopamine transporter binding, increases locomotor activity in the rat at high doses
    H L Kimmel
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res 897:157-63. 2001
    ..Notably, there were no increases in locomotor activity at the dose of RTI-76 (100 nmol) used to measure DAT half-life...
  10. ncbi request reprint Neurotransmitter transporters synthesis and degradation rates
    H Kimmel
    Yerkes Primate Research Center of Emory University, Division of Neuroscience, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Life Sci 68:2181-5. 2001
    ..The half-lives of transporter recovery after inactivation with RTI-76 are approximately 2-3 days, which are similar to those for other synaptic proteins...
  11. pmc Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript-containing neurons in the nucleus accumbens project to the ventral pallidum in the rat and may inhibit cocaine-induced locomotion
    G W Hubert
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Neuroscience 165:179-87. 2010
    ..Lastly, we found that intra-pallidal injection of CART 55-102 inhibited cocaine-induced locomotion, indicating that CART peptide in the VP can have functional effects...
  12. ncbi request reprint Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors influence dopamine transporter synthesis and degradation in the rat
    H L Kimmel
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 298:129-40. 2001
    ..The results of the present study suggest that, through dopamine receptors, dopamine indirectly influences DAT protein turnover in the striatum and in the nucleus accumbens, but in different ways...
  13. ncbi request reprint CART peptides are modulators of mesolimbic dopamine and psychostimulants
    J N Jaworski
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Life Sci 73:741-7. 2003
    ..But in the nucleus accumbens, CART peptide reduces the locomotor-increasing effects of cocaine. This suggests that the peptide is an interesting target for medications development...
  14. ncbi request reprint Intra-ventral tegmental area injection of rat cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide 55-102 induces locomotor activity and promotes conditioned place preference
    H L Kimmel
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 294:784-92. 2000
    ..Our findings suggest that CART 55-102 is behaviorally active and may be involved in the actions of psychostimulants. This is the first demonstration of the psychostimulant-like effects of CART peptides...
  15. ncbi request reprint CART peptides in the central control of feeding and interactions with neuropeptide Y
    P D Lambert
    Neuroscience Division, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Synapse 29:293-8. 1998
    ..These data suggest functional interactions between CART peptides and NPY. These results indicate that CART peptides play a role in the control of food intake by the brain...
  16. pmc Intra-accumbal administration of shRNAs against CART peptides cause increases in body weight and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats
    M O Job
    The Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res 1482:47-54. 2012
    ..These data show that shRNA can reduce CART peptides in the NAc and that endogenous CART peptides influence body weight and cocaine-induced locomotor activity (LMA)...
  17. pmc Maternal separation alters drug intake patterns in adulthood in rats
    M C Moffett
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 73:321-30. 2007
    ..Studying the MS/H model can provide important clues into the vulnerability to drug abuse and perhaps identify a crucial window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention...
  18. ncbi request reprint Effect of corticosterone on CART peptide levels in rat blood
    A Vicentic
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Peptides 26:531-3. 2005
    ..These results further support the hypothesis that glucocorticoids play a role in the regulation of CART levels in blood...
  19. ncbi request reprint Maternal separation alters serotonergic transporter densities and serotonergic 1A receptors in rat brain
    A Vicentic
    The Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 North Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuroscience 140:355-65. 2006
    ..Neuroadaptational changes in serotonergic transporter and serotonergic 1A receptors may underlie links between early life stress and adulthood psychiatric disorders...
  20. ncbi request reprint CART peptide-immunoreactive projection from the nucleus accumbens targets substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons in the rat
    S Dallvechia-Adams
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    J Comp Neurol 434:29-39. 2001
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint A cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript peptide projection from the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral tegmental area
    K B Philpot
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, 954 Gatewood Road Northeast, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuroscience 135:915-25. 2005
    ....
  22. pmc Regulation of CART peptide expression by CREB in the rat nucleus accumbens in vivo
    GEORGE A ROGGE
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, Yerkes Primate Center, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res 1251:42-52. 2009
    ..The finding that CREB can regulate the levels of CART mRNA and peptides in vivo in the NAc supports a role for CART peptides in psychostimulant-induced reward and reinforcement...
  23. ncbi request reprint Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in AtT20 cells via putative G-protein coupled receptors
    Anita Lakatos
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neurosci Lett 384:198-202. 2005
    ..Overall, these data strongly support the existence of a specific receptor for CART peptide that is a G-protein coupled receptor utilizing a Gi/o mechanism involving MEK1 and 2...
  24. ncbi request reprint Ultrastructural localization of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides in the nucleus accumbens of monkeys
    Y Smith
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Synapse 27:90-4. 1997
    ..These findings suggest that CART peptides may be a cotransmitter with gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in intrinsic axon collaterals of striatal projection neurons or interneurons in the primate nucleus accumbens...
  25. ncbi request reprint Activity of various CART peptides in changing locomotor activity in the rat
    H L Kimmel
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropeptides 36:9-12. 2002
    ..In summary, rlCART 55-102 and rlCART 62-102 are behaviorally active in this locomotor assay, while rsCART 10-89 and rlCART 55-59 are not...
  26. ncbi request reprint Comparative behavioral pharmacology of cocaine and the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor RTI-113 in the squirrel monkey
    L L Howell
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 292:521-9. 2000
    ..RTI-113 effectively decreased cocaine self-administration behavior, although its direct rate-altering effects may have contributed to the interactions obtained...
  27. ncbi request reprint Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide levels in blood exhibit a diurnal rhythm: regulation by glucocorticoids
    A Vicentic
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Endocrinology 145:4119-24. 2004
    ....
  28. doi request reprint Regulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA expression by calcium-mediated signaling in GH3 cells
    D C Jones
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 945 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuroscience 160:339-47. 2009
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first study providing evidence that the CART gene is, in part, regulated by Ca(2+)/CaM/CREB-dependent cell signaling...
  29. pmc Cocaine administration increases the fraction of CART cells in the rat nucleus accumbens that co-immunostain for c-Fos
    G W Hubert
    Division of Neuroscience, The National Yerkes Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropeptides 42:339-43. 2008
    ..These results support the notion that psychostimulant drugs activate CART cells in the nucleus accumbens, even under conditions where it is difficult to show a change in CART levels...
  30. doi request reprint CART peptides: regulators of body weight, reward and other functions
    G Rogge
    Neuroscience Division, Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 9:747-58. 2008
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint CART: from gene to function
    L D Adams
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res 848:137-40. 1999
    ..The mouse gene has been characterized and localized to Chromosome 13. The processing of CART peptides is evident in Western blotting studies...
  32. ncbi request reprint The effects of cocaine on CART expression in the rat nucleus accumbens: a possible role for corticosterone
    Richard G Hunter
    Emory University Department of Pharmacology, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 517:45-50. 2005
    ..This suggests that CART mRNA may be regulated by cocaine under certain conditions, such as binge administration, and this may at least partly involve corticosterone...
  33. ncbi request reprint CART promoter CRE site binds phosphorylated CREB
    A Lakatos
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, Division of Neuroscience, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 104:81-5. 2002
    ..Supershift analyses indicated that the CART CRE oligo/protein complex interacted with a P-CREB antibody. Taken together, these data indicate that P-CREB is a likely regulator of CART expression in GH3 cells...
  34. ncbi request reprint CART peptide-immunoreactive neurones in the nucleus accumbens in monkeys: ultrastructural analysis, colocalization studies, and synaptic interactions with dopaminergic afferents
    Y Smith
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Comp Neurol 407:491-511. 1999
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide immunoreactivity in myenteric plexus neurons of the rat ileum and co-localization with choline acetyltransferase
    P Couceyro
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Synapse 30:1-8. 1998
    ..This combined light microscopic and ultrastructural examination of CART peptides in the gastrointestinal tract suggests a role of CART peptides as transmitters or neuromodulators in the peripheral nervous system...
  36. pmc CART peptides as modulators of dopamine and psychostimulants and interactions with the mesolimbic dopaminergic system
    George W Hubert
    Division of Neuroscience, The Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 75:57-62. 2008
    ..A hypothesis is that CART is homeostatic in the accumbens and tends to oppose large increases in dopamine signaling. These actions would therefore be able to regulate the effects of some abused drugs such as the psychostimulants...
  37. ncbi request reprint CART in feeding and obesity
    Richard G Hunter
    Neuroscience Division, Yerkes National Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 15:454-9. 2004
    ..A recent study also links a mutation in the CART gene to obesity in humans. These peptides might become targets for drug development in the area of obesity...
  38. ncbi request reprint Maternal separation and handling affects cocaine self-administration in both the treated pups as adults and the dams
    Mark C Moffett
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 317:1210-8. 2006
    ..These data suggest that in addition to the profound changes that occur in pups as result of maternal separation, the dams are also susceptible to alterations in behaviors...
  39. ncbi request reprint Colocalization of CART with substance P but not enkephalin in the rat nucleus accumbens
    George W Hubert
    Division of Neuroscience, Rm 3115 Yerkes National Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res 1050:8-14. 2005
    ..The presence of CART in substance P NAcc neurons suggests that CART neurons may be a subset of the basal ganglia direct pathway or that CART neurons are involved in limbic projections of the NAcc, such as to the ventral pallidum...
  40. pmc Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptides play a role in drug abuse and are potential therapeutic targets
    Michael J Kuhar
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    AAPS J 7:E259-65. 2005
    ..Overall, it is clear that there are functional interactions among CART, DA, and cocaine and that plausible cellular mechanisms exist to explain some of these actions. Future studies will clarify and extend these findings...
  41. ncbi request reprint CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide receptors: specific binding in AtT20 cells
    Aleksandra Vicentic
    Neuroscience Division, Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 North Gatewood Road, Atlanta Georgia 30033, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 528:188-9. 2005
    ..4+/-8.8 fmol/mg protein and a Kd of 21.9+/-8.0 pM. Only active CART55-102, but not other peptides or drugs, inhibited the [125I]-CART61-102 binding. These data are the first demonstration of specific receptor binding for CART peptides...
  42. ncbi request reprint Cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript expression in the rat nucleus accumbens is regulated by adenylyl cyclase and the cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate/protein kinase a second messenger system
    Douglas C Jones
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 317:454-61. 2006
    ..These results suggest that CART expression in vivo in the rat nucleus accumbens is regulated by adenylyl cyclase and cAMP/PKA-mediating signaling and, likely, through the activation of CREB...
  43. ncbi request reprint Colocalization of CART peptide with prodynorphin and dopamine D1 receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens
    George W Hubert
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropeptides 40:409-15. 2006
    ....
  44. pmc Intra-VTA CART 55-102 reduces the locomotor effect of systemic cocaine in rats: an isobolographic analysis
    Jason N Jaworski
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, Neuroscience Division, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropeptides 41:65-72. 2007
    ..This has implications for the physiological significance of CART-DA (dopamine) interactions and for medications development...
  45. ncbi request reprint CART receptor binding in primary cell cultures of the rat nucleus accumbens
    Douglas C Jones
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Synapse 62:122-7. 2008
    ..This is the first demonstration of CART peptide receptor binding in primary cell cultures of the rat brain...
  46. ncbi request reprint Intra-accumbal injection of CART (cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript) peptide reduces cocaine-induced locomotor activity
    Jason N Jaworski
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 307:1038-44. 2003
    ..Coinjection of rlCART 55-102 with dopamine blunted the effect. In summary, these data suggest that CART peptides in the nucleus accumbens would tend to oppose the actions of cocaine...
  47. ncbi request reprint CART peptides as targets for CNS drug development
    Richard G Hunter
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 2:201-5. 2003
    ..Nonetheless, CART peptides offer interesting targets for new drug development for obesity and, potentially, a number of other disorders...
  48. ncbi request reprint Characterization of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide gene promoter and its activation by a cyclic AMP-dependent signaling pathway in GH3 cells
    Geraldina Dominguez
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Neurochem 80:885-93. 2002
    ..These studies indicate that the CART proximal promoter lies within the 5'-most 641 bp and that in GH3 cells the CART gene is regulated via a cyclic AMP-dependent pathway...
  49. pmc Measuring levels of proteins by various technologies: can we learn more by measuring turnover?
    Michael J Kuhar
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 79:665-8. 2010
    ..These factors suggest that a consideration of protein turnover and half-lives will be useful for future studies of this type...
  50. pmc Wake promoting effects of cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)
    Glenda L Keating
    Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Suite 6000, WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States
    Neuropeptides 44:241-6. 2010
    ..Increased wake was followed by robust rebound in NREM and REM sleep that extended well into the subsequent lights-off, or typical wake period, of the rat. These findings point to a potential novel role for CART in regulating wakefulness...
  51. ncbi request reprint Transcriptional regulation of the CART promoter in CATH.a cells
    Geraldina Dominguez
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 126:22-9. 2004
    ..Also, given the evidence for involvement of CREB in reward and reinforcement, these results are compatible with a role for CART in these processes as well...
  52. ncbi request reprint Withdrawal from repeated cocaine alters dopamine transporter protein turnover in the rat striatum
    Heather L Kimmel
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 304:15-21. 2003
    ..2 days in the nucleus accumbens. The results indicate the complex and long-lasting effects of cocaine administration on cellular processes. The mechanism(s) of these effects remains to be elucidated...
  53. doi request reprint High dose CART peptide induces abnormal EEG activity and behavioral seizures
    Glenda L Keating
    Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Suite 6000, WMB, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Neuropeptides 42:199-204. 2008
    ..The neural substrates underlying this finding are unclear. This novel description of the epileptogenic quality of CART should lend caution to interpretations of the behaviors attributed to CART in other experimental paradigms...
  54. ncbi request reprint CART peptide diurnal rhythm in brain and effect of fasting
    Aleksandra Vicentic
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Center of Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Brain Res 1032:111-5. 2005
    ..These findings suggest a variety of regulatory mechanisms for CART and additional considerations for CART's role in brain...
  55. ncbi request reprint Locomotor stimulant effects of novel phenyltropanes in the mouse
    H L Kimmel
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 65:25-36. 2001
    ..Several compounds, including RTI-113 and RTI-177, exhibited properties ideal for medications for cocaine abusers, such as an equivalent efficacy, a higher potency, and a longer duration of action as compared to cocaine...
  56. ncbi request reprint Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide projections in the ventral midbrain: colocalization with gamma-aminobutyric acid, melanin-concentrating hormone, dynorphin, and synaptic interactions with dopamine neurons
    Stephanie Dallvechia-Adams
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Comp Neurol 448:360-72. 2002
    ..Results of these studies suggest that the most significant behavioral states influenced by CART peptides, feeding and locomotion, may be mediated by direct and/or indirect modulation of VTA dopaminergic neuronal activity...
  57. ncbi request reprint CART peptides: modulators of mesolimbic dopamine, feeding, and stress
    Geraldina Dominguez
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1025:363-9. 2004
    ..There have been several recent reviews and publications on various aspects of CART peptides. These aspects include the sequence and numbering of the peptides, and their structure, processing, and roles in various physiologic processes...
  58. ncbi request reprint Species differences in brain distribution of CART mRNA and CART peptide between prairie and meadow voles
    Richard G Hunter
    Yerkes National Primate Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Brain Res 1048:12-23. 2005
    ..Our findings also point to novel avenues of investigation regarding the brain mechanisms for the evolution of diverse social organization...
  59. ncbi request reprint Is the onset of psychoactive drug effects compatible with a protein-synthesis mechanism?
    M J Kuhar
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Division of Neuroscience, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:S94-7. 2003
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Effects of early maternal separation on ethanol intake, GABA receptors and metabolizing enzymes in adult rats
    J N Jaworski
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center and the Department of Pharmacology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 181:8-15. 2005
    ..Maternal separation (MS) in neonatal rats affects ethanol self-administration (SA) in adulthood; however, the conditions and mechanisms need to be clarified...
  61. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal CART (55-102) attenuates hyperlagesia and allodynia in a mouse model of neuropathic but not inflammatory pain
    M Imad Damaj
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 980613, Richmond, VA 23298 0613, USA
    Peptides 27:2019-23. 2006
    ..These results suggest the involvement of the CART peptides in the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia associated with neuropathic pain...
  62. ncbi request reprint Effects of dopamine transporter selective 3-phenyltropane analogs on locomotor activity, drug discrimination, and cocaine self-administration after oral administration
    F Ivy Carroll
    Center for Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 553:149-56. 2006
    ..It also reduced self-administration of two infusion doses of cocaine in the rat...
  63. ncbi request reprint Increased metabolism in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease
    Jorien M M van der Burg
    Neuronal Survival Unit, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University BMC A10, Lund, Sweden
    Neurobiol Dis 29:41-51. 2008
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that weight loss in R6/2 mice is associated with increased metabolism and changes in several weight-regulating factors...
  64. ncbi request reprint Synthesis, monoamine transporter binding, properties, and functional monoamine uptake activity of 3beta-[4-methylphenyl and 4-chlorophenyl]-2 beta-[5-(substituted phenyl)thiazol-2-yl]tropanes
    Paul K Gong
    Center for Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 2194, USA
    J Med Chem 50:3686-95. 2007
    ..The most potent and selective analog in the functional monoamine uptake inhibition test was 3beta-(4-methylphenyl-2 beta-[5-(3-nitrophenyl)thiazol-2-yl]tropane (4p)...
  65. pmc Injection of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide into the nucleus accumbens reduces cocaine self-administration in rats
    Jason N Jaworski
    Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, L470, Oregon Health and Science University, School of Medicine, 3181 S W Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
    Behav Brain Res 191:266-71. 2008
    ..There were no effects of CART injections on the breakpoint for food reward. Thus, we conclude that injections of CART into the NAcc appear to functionally antagonize a major site of action for cocaine self-administration in rats...
  66. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in the regulation of cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript expression in hypothalamic nuclei of rats by forced swim stress
    Oguz Gozen
    Center for Brain Research, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
    Synapse 61:561-8. 2007
    ..In the ARC nucleus, forced swim stress did not affect CART peptide expression in either sex. Our results suggest differential and sexually dimorphic modulation of CART expression in the PVN and ARC by forced swim stress...
  67. ncbi request reprint CART expression in limbic regions of rat brain following forced swim stress: sex differences
    Burcu Balkan
    Ege University Center for Brain Research, Izmir, Turkey
    Neuropeptides 40:185-93. 2006
    ..Although modulation of the CART peptide by glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones appears likely, future studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in the involvement of CART peptide in stress response...
  68. ncbi request reprint Regulation of CART mRNA in the rat nucleus accumbens via D3 dopamine receptors
    Richard G Hunter
    Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, New York, NY, USA
    Neuropharmacology 50:858-64. 2006
    ..These findings demonstrate that CART is regulated by dopamine in the NAcc, at least partly by D3 dopamine receptors...
  69. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and transporter binding properties of 3beta-[4'-(phenylalkyl, -phenylalkenyl, and -phenylalkynyl)phenyl]tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl esters: evidence of a remote phenyl binding domain on the dopamine transporter
    Bruce E Blough
    Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Med Chem 45:4029-37. 2002
    ..82 nM, was the most potent compound studied. This compound possessed K(i) values of 1.19 and 16.5 nM for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter and is thus a nonselective monoamine uptake inhibitor...
  70. ncbi request reprint Antinociceptive effects of supraspinal rat cart (55-102) peptide in mice
    M Imad Damaj
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Box 980613, Richmond, VA 23298 0613, USA
    Brain Res 983:233-6. 2003
    ..CART produces antinociception in the formalin test in both phases. Our results suggest that CART is involved in supraspinal pain transmission...
  71. ncbi request reprint Synthesis, monoamine transporter binding properties, and behavioral pharmacology of a series of 3beta-(substituted phenyl)-2beta-(3'-substituted isoxazol-5-yl)tropanes
    F Ivy Carroll
    Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Med Chem 47:296-302. 2004
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide in the rat anterior pituitary gland is localized in gonadotrophs and suppresses prolactin secretion
    Genshin Kuriyama
    Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Bohseidai, Isehara, Kanagawa 259 1193, Japan
    Endocrinology 145:2542-50. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that CART synthesis in the anterior pituitary may be stimulated by leptin and that CART peptide may play a role in the regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion in the rat...
  73. ncbi request reprint CART peptide: central mediator of leptin-induced adipose tissue apoptosis?
    Yang Ho Choi
    Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, 444 Animal Science Complex, Athens, GA 30602 2771, USA
    Regul Pept 121:155-62. 2004
    ..1% (p<0.05) and increased adipose apoptosis by 48% (p<0.05). These data show that although leptin and CART55-102 have some similar actions, CART55-102 is probably not a mediator for leptin-induced adipose apoptosis in the brain...
  74. ncbi request reprint Monoamine transporter binding, locomotor activity, and drug discrimination properties of 3-(4-substituted-phenyl)tropane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester isomers
    F Ivy Carroll
    Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Med Chem 47:6401-9. 2004
    ..4-11.7 mg/kg, respectively. With the exception of the 2 alpha,3 alpha-isomer, all compounds generalized to cocaine. The 2 beta,3beta-isomers were at least 10-fold more potent than cocaine and the other three sets of isomers in this test...
  75. ncbi request reprint Synthesis, structural identification, and ligand binding of tropane ring analogs of paroxetine and an unexpected aza-bicyclo[3.2.2]nonane rearrangement product
    Scott P Runyon
    Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, PO Box 12194, North Carolina, NC 27709 2194, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 13:2439-49. 2005
    ..2.2]nonane derivative 10a...
  76. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and monoamine transporter binding properties of 3beta-(3',4'-disubstituted phenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl esters
    F Ivy Carroll
    Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Med Chem 48:2767-71. 2005
    ..12 nM) and the 3'-bromo-4'-iodo analogue 3i (K(i) = 0.14 nM) are the most potent analogues at the DAT and 5-HTT, respectively. These compounds will be useful to further characterize the highly interesting behavioral profile of 3b...
  77. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and monoamine transporter binding properties of 3alpha-(substituted phenyl)nortropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl esters. Norepinephrine transporter selective compounds
    F Ivy Carroll
    Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Med Chem 48:3852-7. 2005
    ..43 nM at the NET and 21- and 55-fold selectivity relative to binding at the dopamine and serotonin transporters. The development of 8d makes available compounds selective for all three transporters from the same structural class...
  78. ncbi request reprint CART regulates islet hormone secretion and is expressed in the beta-cells of type 2 diabetic rats
    Nils Wierup
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Lund University, Sweden
    Diabetes 55:305-11. 2006
    ..We conclude that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion and that CART is upregulated in the beta-cells of type 2 diabetic rats...
  79. ncbi request reprint Cocaine-induced alterations in nucleus accumbens ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in human and non-human primates
    Scott E Hemby
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    J Neurochem 95:1785-93. 2005
    ..Furthermore, these changes may mediate persistent drug intake and craving in the human cocaine abuser...
  80. ncbi request reprint The Leu34Phe ProCART mutation leads to cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) deficiency: a possible cause for obesity in humans
    Tulin Yanik
    Section on Cellular Neurobiology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4480, USA
    Endocrinology 147:39-43. 2006
    ..These results suggest that the obesity observed in humans bearing the Leu34Phe mutation could be due to a putative deficiency in hypothalamic bioactive CART...
  81. ncbi request reprint Cocaine- and amphetamine-related transcript is involved in the orexigenic effect of endogenous anandamide
    Douglas Osei-Hyiaman
    Section on Neuroendocrinology, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuroendocrinology 81:273-82. 2005
    ..These observations are compatible with CART being a downstream mediator of the CB1-mediated orexigenic effect of endogenous anandamide...
  82. ncbi request reprint Intrathecal CART (55-102) enhances the spinal analgesic actions of morphine in mice
    M Imad Damaj
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, P O Box 980613, MCV Sta, Richmond, VA 23298 0613, USA
    Brain Res 1024:146-9. 2004
    ..These results suggest that CART (55-102) potentiates the effects of opioids to inhibit the nociceptive information transmission...
  83. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and monoamine transporter binding properties of 2,3-diaryltropanes
    Sharadsrikar V Kotturi
    Center for Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Research Triangle Institute, P O Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Med Chem 48:7437-44. 2005
    ..23 nM at the DAT with 289- and 185-fold selectivity for the DAT relative to the NET and 5-HTT. The 2alpha,3alpha-diaryltropanes were much less potent at all three transporters than 2beta,3beta-diaryltropanes...
  84. ncbi request reprint Modeling the onset of drug dependence: a consideration of the requirement for protein synthesis
    Andrew R Joyce
    Bioinformatics Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla CA 92093, USA
    J Theor Biol 240:531-7. 2006
    ..It is also possible that individual components of the withdrawal syndrome have individual and unique rate limiting mechanisms. In any case, time course analysis may be helpful in revealing underlying mechanisms of change...
  85. ncbi request reprint Effects of adrenalectomy on CART expression in the rat arcuate nucleus
    Burcu Balkan
    Ege University Center for Brain Research, School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
    Synapse 50:14-9. 2003
    ..The regulation could be direct through an action of glucocorticoid receptors or indirectly through ADX-induced changes in leptin levels. These findings suggest a role for CART in the stress response...
  86. ncbi request reprint Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) and the stress response
    Ersin O Koylu
    Ege University Center for Brain Research, Department of Physiology, Bornova, 35100 Izmir, Turkey
    Peptides 27:1956-69. 2006
    ..CART may be a mediator peptide in the interaction between stress, drug abuse, and feeding. The review discusses the established role of CART as it relates to the stress response...
  87. ncbi request reprint Social rank and vulnerability to drug abuse
    Michael J Kuhar
    Nat Neurosci 5:88-90. 2002
  88. pmc Development of the dopamine transporter selective RTI-336 as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse
    F Ivy Carroll
    Center for Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    AAPS J 8:E196-203. 2006
    ..Based on these studies, 3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)-2beta-[3-(4'-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]tropane (RTI-336) has been selected for preclinical development...