K Klugman

Summary

Affiliation: Emory University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Mathias W R Pletz
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1462-3. 2006
  2. pmc Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants on pneumonia and influenza hospitalization and mortality in all age groups in the United States
    Lone Simonsen
    Sage Analytica, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    MBio 2:e00309-10. 2011
  3. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    K P Klugman
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, USA
    S Afr Med J 97:1129-32. 2007
  4. ncbi request reprint [Clinical impact of antibiotic resistance in respiratory tract infections]
    K Klugman
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, Etats Unis, USA
    Med Mal Infect 37:6-10. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint HIV and pneumococcal disease
    Keith P Klugman
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:11-5. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Timing of serotype 1 pneumococcal disease suggests the need for evaluation of a booster dose
    K P Klugman
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Medical Research Council, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 29:3372-3. 2011
  7. ncbi request reprint Oral antibiotics for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children
    Keith P Klugman
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Lancet 364:1104-5. 2004
  8. pmc Contribution of vaccines to our understanding of pneumococcal disease
    Keith P Klugman
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, N E CNR Room 6009, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:2790-8. 2011
  9. ncbi request reprint Clinical impact of antibiotic resistance in respiratory tract infections
    Keith P Klugman
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, and Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 29:S6-10. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Resurgence of the multiresistant pneumococcus in the United States: a commentary
    Keith P Klugman
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:473-4. 2007

Detail Information

Publications89

  1. pmc Fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Mathias W R Pletz
    Emerg Infect Dis 12:1462-3. 2006
  2. pmc Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of infants on pneumonia and influenza hospitalization and mortality in all age groups in the United States
    Lone Simonsen
    Sage Analytica, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    MBio 2:e00309-10. 2011
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    K P Klugman
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, USA
    S Afr Med J 97:1129-32. 2007
    ..Conjugate pneumococcal vaccine affords protection from resistant strains belonging to vaccine serotypes, but resistance is emerging in non-vaccine types...
  4. ncbi request reprint [Clinical impact of antibiotic resistance in respiratory tract infections]
    K Klugman
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, Etats Unis, USA
    Med Mal Infect 37:6-10. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint HIV and pneumococcal disease
    Keith P Klugman
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 20:11-5. 2007
    ..To describe the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the burden of pneumococcal disease and advances in our understanding of the impact of HIV on this disease...
  6. doi request reprint Timing of serotype 1 pneumococcal disease suggests the need for evaluation of a booster dose
    K P Klugman
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Medical Research Council, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Vaccine 29:3372-3. 2011
    ..These data suggest that a booster dose given at 9 months of age, or early in the second year of life, should be evaluated for protection against type 1 pneumococcal disease...
  7. ncbi request reprint Oral antibiotics for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children
    Keith P Klugman
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Lancet 364:1104-5. 2004
  8. pmc Contribution of vaccines to our understanding of pneumococcal disease
    Keith P Klugman
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, N E CNR Room 6009, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366:2790-8. 2011
    ..Finally, there has been a recent demonstration that pneumococcal pneumonia in children may be an important cause of hospitalization for those with underlying tuberculosis...
  9. ncbi request reprint Clinical impact of antibiotic resistance in respiratory tract infections
    Keith P Klugman
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, and Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 29:S6-10. 2007
    ..pneumoniae present numerous clinical challenges, and require carefully selected treatment strategies to preserve antibacterial efficacy. Antibiotics with a low propensity for stimulating resistance should be chosen wherever possible...
  10. ncbi request reprint Resurgence of the multiresistant pneumococcus in the United States: a commentary
    Keith P Klugman
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:473-4. 2007
  11. doi request reprint Novel approaches to the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of community-acquired pneumonia
    Keith P Klugman
    Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 47:S202-6. 2008
    ....
  12. pmc Hidden epidemic of macrolide-resistant pneumococci
    Keith P Klugman
    Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:802-7. 2005
    ..We provide an overview of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae and assess the impact of this resistance on the empiric treatment of community-acquired RTIs...
  13. ncbi request reprint Pneumonia vaccines for all who need them
    Keith P Klugman
    William H Foege Chair in Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Hum Vaccin 5:779-80. 2009
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Molecular basis and clonal nature of increasing pneumococcal macrolide resistance in South Africa, 2000-2005
    Nicole Wolter
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council and University of the Witwatersrand, Sandringham, South Africa
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 32:62-7. 2008
    ..Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) could reduce the burden of macrolide-resistant pneumococcal disease in South Africa...
  15. pmc Use of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein to evaluate vaccine efficacy against pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    PLoS Med 2:e38. 2005
    ..The poor specificity of chest radiographs (CXRs) to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia may underestimate the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in preventing pneumococcal pneumonia...
  16. ncbi request reprint Five-year cohort study of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus associated lower respiratory tract infection in African children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Clin Virol 36:215-21. 2006
    ....
  17. pmc Molecular characterization of emerging non-levofloxacin-susceptible pneumococci isolated from children in South Africa
    Nicole Wolter
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham, Gauteng, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 47:1319-24. 2009
    ..These data suggest that a low-level non-levofloxacin-susceptible strain transformed into a highly resistant strain under antibiotic pressure and underwent capsular switching in order to have increased fitness...
  18. ncbi request reprint Usefulness of C-reactive protein to define pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy in the prevention of pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council National Institute of Communicable Diseases Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:30-6. 2006
    ....
  19. pmc An unusual pneumococcal sequence type is the predominant cause of serotype 3 invasive disease in South Africa
    Kedibone M Mothibeli
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 48:184-91. 2010
    ..We have therefore identified ST458 as predominating in South Africa, but with an invasive potential similar to that of the predominant global clone ST180...
  20. ncbi request reprint Long-term immunogenicity and efficacy of a 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in human immunodeficient virus infected and non-infected children in the absence of a booster dose of vaccine
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:2451-7. 2007
    ..2microg/ml to vaccine-serotypes analyzed compared to HIV infected vaccinees at 5.3 years of age...
  21. ncbi request reprint The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and -uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1511-8. 2005
    ..Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) may be used as a probe to define the burden of pneumococcal disease and better characterize the clinical presentation of pneumococcal pneumonia...
  22. pmc Emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae with very-high-level resistance to penicillin
    Stephanie J Schrag
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3016-23. 2004
    ..The emergence, clonality, and association of very-high-level penicillin resistance with multiple drug resistance requires further monitoring and highlights the need for novel agents active against the pneumococcus...
  23. doi request reprint Emergence of levofloxacin-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children in South Africa: a cohort observational surveillance study
    Anne Von Gottberg
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Lancet 371:1108-13. 2008
    ..Our aim was to estimate the incidence of, and risk factors for, invasive pneumococcal disease caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children in South Africa...
  24. ncbi request reprint A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection
    Keith P Klugman
    Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 349:1341-8. 2003
    ..We evaluated the efficacy of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a randomized, double-blind study in Soweto, South Africa...
  25. doi request reprint Pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza: a deadly combination
    Keith P Klugman
    Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Vaccine 27:C9-C14. 2009
    ..Vaccination with PCV for children and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for adults should be considered essential to pandemic influenza preparedness...
  26. pmc In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of ceftaroline against cephalosporin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Lesley McGee
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:552-6. 2009
    ..pneumoniae strains resistant to existing parenteral cephalosporins and support its continued development for the treatment of infections caused by resistant S. pneumoniae strains...
  27. pmc Heterogeneous macrolide resistance and gene conversion in the pneumococcus
    Nicole Wolter
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Private Bag X4, Sandringham, 2131, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:359-61. 2006
    ..These data explain the disappearance on subculture of heterogeneous macrolide resistance in the pneumococcus...
  28. pmc Neisseria meningitidis intermediately resistant to penicillin and causing invasive disease in South Africa in 2001 to 2005
    Mignon du Plessis
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 46:3208-14. 2008
    ..This is the first report describing the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Pen(i) meningococcal isolates from sub-Saharan Africa...
  29. ncbi request reprint The role of clonality in the global spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria
    Keith P Klugman
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 36:783-5. 2003
    ..Although these clones remain fluoroquinolone susceptible in children, their widespread distribution argues against the extension of fluoroquinolone use to the management of respiratory tract infection in children...
  30. pmc Fitness costs of fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Daniel E Rozen
    Department of Biology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:412-6. 2007
    ..We discuss the implications of these results for the epidemiology of fluoroquinolone resistance and the evolution of acquired resistance in treated patients...
  31. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing rural Malawian children
    Daniel R Feikin
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, PHS DHHS, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop C23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:564-7. 2003
    ..Forty-three percent of isolates were serotypes included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and 37% were vaccine-related serotypes, particularly 6A and 19A...
  32. pmc Interspecies recombination in type II topoisomerase genes is not a major cause of fluoroquinolone resistance in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in the United States
    Mathias W R Pletz
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:779-80. 2005
    ..We analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of 49 invasive levofloxacin-resistant pneumococcal isolates and did not find any evidence for interspecies recombination...
  33. pmc High-level telithromycin resistance in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Nicole Wolter
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council and University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:1092-5. 2007
    ..By transformation of susceptible strains, this study shows that high-level telithromycin resistance is conferred by erm(B), wild type or mutant, in combination with a (69)GTG(71)-to-TPS mutation in ribosomal protein L4...
  34. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis to eleven antimicrobial agents including novel fluoroquinolones and a ketolide
    John Frean
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:297-9. 2003
    ..To determine the susceptibility of southern African strains of Bacillus anthracis to new, investigational agents as well as conventional antibiotics...
  35. ncbi request reprint Gender as a risk factor for both antibiotic resistance and infection with pediatric serogroups/serotypes, in HIV-infected and -uninfected adults with pneumococcal bacteremia
    Kimberly A Buie
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:1996-2000. 2004
    ..25-2.36]) than were men. Thus, conjugate pneumococcal vaccination of children may reduce, in particular, both antibiotic resistance and the burden of conjugate vaccine serotype pneumococcal disease in young, HIV-infected women...
  36. pmc Levofloxacin-resistant invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States: evidence for clonal spread and the impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccine
    Mathias W R Pletz
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3491-7. 2004
    ..Our results suggest that invasive pneumococcal isolates resistant to levofloxacin in the United States show considerable evidence of multiple resistance and of clonal spread...
  37. ncbi request reprint Seasonality, incidence, and repeat human metapneumovirus lower respiratory tract infections in an area with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Bertsham, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:693-9. 2007
    ..There is limited information regarding the epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) from Africa, despite it being identified as a common pathogen in children with pneumonia...
  38. ncbi request reprint Vaccines as tools against resistance: the example of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
    Cynthia G Whitney
    Epidemiology Section, Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Disease, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS C23, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 15:86-93. 2004
    ..Surveillance is needed to monitor the spread of antimicrobial resistance into nonvaccine serotypes, which may lead to a resurgence of resistance...
  39. pmc Prevalence of first-step mutants among levofloxacin-susceptible invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States
    Mathias W R Pletz
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1561-3. 2006
    ..Among those with a levofloxacin MIC of 2 mg/liter, 16.2% of isolates recovered from nursing home residents and 6.4% from non-nursing home residents had first-step mutations...
  40. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal coinfection with human metapneumovirus
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Bertsham, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 193:1236-43. 2006
    ..Infection with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) may lead to hospitalization of children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), although the pathogenesis thereof remains to be elucidated...
  41. ncbi request reprint Bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia: impact of HIV on clinical presentation and outcome
    Charles Feldman
    Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, Johannesburg Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Medical School, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect 55:125-35. 2007
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Long-term effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae--and associated interactions with Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae colonization--in HIV-Infected and HIV-uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Bertsham, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 196:1662-6. 2007
    ..aureus and colonization by H. influenzae were observed only in HIV-uninfected children, possibly as a result of suboptimal adaptive immunity after previous colonization in HIV-infected children...
  43. pmc Telithromycin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is conferred by a deletion in the leader sequence of erm(B) that increases rRNA methylation
    Nicole Wolter
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:435-40. 2008
    ..Elevated erm(B) expression results in a higher level of rRNA methylation that presumably hinders telithromycin binding to the ribosome...
  44. ncbi request reprint Quantitative and qualitative antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among African human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute of Communicable Diseases University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:410-6. 2005
    ..To determine the quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infected and uninfected children...
  45. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity after one, two or three doses and impact on the antibody response to coadministered antigens of a nonavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants of Soweto, South Africa
    Robin E Huebner
    MRS NHLS Wits Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:1004-7. 2002
    ..Children <6 months of age are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease. The early immunogenicity of conjugate vaccines therefore may be important to prevent disease in young children...
  46. ncbi request reprint Historical changes in pneumococcal serogroup distribution: implications for the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
    Daniel R Feikin
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 35:547-55. 2002
    ..These historical trends in serogroup distribution may be explained by changes in antibiotic use, socioeconomic conditions, the immunocompromised status of populations, and blood-culturing practices...
  47. ncbi request reprint Emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a South African child in a tuberculosis treatment facility
    Anne Von Gottberg
    Respiratory and Memingeal Pathogens Research Unit, Medical Research Council, University of the Witwatersrand, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:1020-1. 2003
  48. ncbi request reprint Fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae belonging to international multiresistant clones
    Lesley McGee
    Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit of the Medical Research Council, The South African Institute for Medical Research and The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:173-6. 2002
    ....
  49. pmc Novel mechanism of resistance to oxazolidinones, macrolides, and chloramphenicol in ribosomal protein L4 of the pneumococcus
    Nicole Wolter
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, P O Box 1038, Johannesburg, 2000, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3554-7. 2005
    ..We demonstrate a novel bacterial mechanism of resistance to chloramphenicol and nonsusceptibility to linezolid...
  50. pmc Amino acid mutations essential to production of an altered PBP 2X conferring high-level beta-lactam resistance in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Anthony M Smith
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Medical Research Council, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4622-7. 2005
    ..Our data reveal that, for isolate 3191, the six amino acid substitutions described above are collectively essential to the production of an altered PBP 2X required for high-level resistance to penicillin and cefotaxime...
  51. ncbi request reprint Impact of haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in South Africa and Argentina
    Michael Martin
    Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:842-7. 2004
    ..Because surveillance for culture-confirmed Hib meningitis is not available in many countries, alternative means to measure the impact of Hib conjugate vaccine would be useful...
  52. ncbi request reprint Human metapneumovirus-associated lower respiratory tract infections among hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and HIV-1-uninfected African infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1705-10. 2003
    ..1-fold more common than parainfluenza virus types 1-3. Genotyping of 7 of 14 isolates revealed the circulation of 2 major phylogenetic groups of the virus, which were similar to those described in North America and Europe...
  53. ncbi request reprint Recommendations for treatment of childhood non-severe pneumonia
    Gavin B Grant
    National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 9:185-96. 2009
    ..If failure of the first-line agent remains a possible explanation, suitable second-line agents include high-dose amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with or without an affordable macrolide for children over 3 years of age...
  54. doi request reprint Quantitative and qualitative anamnestic immune responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children 5 years after vaccination
    Shabir A Madhi
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 199:1168-76. 2009
    ..e., previous vaccinees) and in those receiving their first dose of vaccine (i.e., control subjects)...
  55. ncbi request reprint Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 23:5517-25. 2005
    ..001). The estimated risk of HibCV failure was 35.1-fold greater (95% CI 14.6-84.6) amongst HIV infected than HIV uninfected children...
  56. ncbi request reprint Implications for antimicrobial prescribing of strategies based on bacterial eradication
    Keith P Klugman
    Department of International Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 7:S27-31. 2003
    ..To maximize clinical cure and minimize the emergence and spread of resistance, antimicrobial prescribing should maximize bacterial eradication, and clinical drug evaluation needs to be brought into line with this need...
  57. ncbi request reprint Increased prevalence of pediatric pneumococcal serotypes in elderly adults
    Daniel R Feikin
    Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 41:481-7. 2005
    ..Pneumococcal disease is most prevalent among young children and elderly adults. We explored whether similarities exist in the serotypes that cause disease in these 2 high-risk groups...
  58. ncbi request reprint World Health Organisation definition of "radiologically-confirmed pneumonia" may under-estimate the true public health value of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council, Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, South Africa
    Vaccine 25:2413-9. 2007
    ....
  59. pmc Site-specific mutagenesis analysis of PBP 1A from a penicillin-cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal isolate
    Anthony M Smith
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:387-9. 2003
    ..Our data reveal that mutations at amino acid positions 574 to 577 and position 539 cause penicillin and cefotaxime resistance...
  60. ncbi request reprint Apnea and its possible relationship to immunization in ex-premature infants
    Peter A Cooper
    Department of Paediatrics, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
    Vaccine 26:3410-3. 2008
    ..More of the VLBW infants in the apnea group had neonatal neurological complications compared with the VLBW control group (p=0.005). Ten of 11 children with apnea within 72 h of immunization were possibly related to vaccination...
  61. pmc Genotypic comparison of invasive Neisseria meningitidis serogroup Y isolates from the United States, South Africa, and Israel, isolated from 1999 through 2002
    Anne M Whitney
    Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:2787-93. 2009
    ....
  62. ncbi request reprint Reduced effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    NHLS Wits MRC Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:315-21. 2002
    ..Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have successfully reduced the burden of invasive Hib disease in developed countries; however, their effectiveness in countries with a high incidence of pediatric HIV-1 is unknown...
  63. ncbi request reprint Lower respiratory tract infections associated with influenza A and B viruses in an area with a high prevalence of pediatric human immunodeficiency type 1 infection
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Pneumococcal Diseases Rearch Unit, Johannesburg, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:291-7. 2002
    ..Despite the high burden of pediatric HIV-1 infection in developing countries, there are few data on the clinical course of influenza virus-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in these children...
  64. ncbi request reprint Increased incidence of meningococcal disease in HIV-infected individuals associated with higher case-fatality ratios in South Africa
    Cheryl Cohen
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
    AIDS 24:1351-60. 2010
    ..We aimed to compare the incidence of meningococcal disease amongst HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and to evaluate whether HIV is a risk factor for mortality and bacteremia amongst patients with meningococcal disease...
  65. pmc Effect of HIV infection status and anti-retroviral treatment on quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in infants
    Shabir A Madhi
    Department of Science National Research Foundation, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 202:355-61. 2010
    ..Nevertheless, M-/I- infants had superior OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART+ infants, who in turn had better OPA responses, compared with those in HIV+/ART- infants...
  66. ncbi request reprint Susceptibility of Yersinia pestis to novel and conventional antimicrobial agents
    John Frean
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Antimicrob Chemother 52:294-6. 2003
    ..To determine the susceptibility of southern African strains of Yersinia pestis to novel as well as conventional antimicrobial agents...
  67. ncbi request reprint Antibiotic prescribing practices for common childhood illnesses in South Africa
    Robin E Huebner
    MRC Respiratory and Meningeal, Pathogens Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg
    S Afr Med J 93:505-8. 2003
  68. ncbi request reprint Bacterial aetiology of non-resolving otitis media in South African children
    Robin E Huebner
    Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit of the MRC NHLS University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Laryngol Otol 117:169-72. 2003
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Epidemiological differences among pneumococcal serotypes
    William P Hausdorff
    GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, King of Prussia, PA 19406 2772, USA
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:83-93. 2005
    ....
  70. pmc Capsule homology does not increase the frequency of transformation of linked penicillin binding proteins PBP 1a and PBP 2x in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Krzysztof Trzcinski
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Room 903, Building 1, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:1591-2. 2005
    ..Transformation rates in homologous donor-recipient pairs were no higher than expected, falsifying this hypothesis...
  71. pmc Analysis of penicillin-binding protein genes of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin
    Mignon du Plessis
    Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit of the Medical Research Council, National Health Laboratory Service and University of the Witwatersrand, de Korte Street, Hillbrow, PO Box 1038, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2349-57. 2002
    ..Furthermore, an additional (as yet unidentified) non-PBP-mediated resistance determinant is required for full resistance development in some pneumococci...
  72. pmc Altered PBP 2A and its role in the development of penicillin, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone resistance in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Anthony M Smith
    MRC NICD WITS Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, P O Box 1038, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2002-7. 2005
    ..In all likelihood, these events produced a strain which evolved into a fitter and more virulent type, isolate 3, that resulted in an aggravated pneumococcal infection and ultimately in the patient's death...
  73. ncbi request reprint No impact of penicillin resistance on mortality
    Keith P Klugman
    Clin Infect Dis 43:261; author reply 261-2. 2006
  74. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal vaccination in developing countries
    Orin S Levine
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Lancet 367:1880-2. 2006
  75. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of faropenem against respiratory pathogens
    Mignon du Plessis
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:575-7. 2002
  76. pmc Emergence and spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae with erm(B) and mef(A) resistance
    David J Farrell
    G R Micro Ltd, London, United Kingdom
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:851-8. 2005
    ..3% were CC271, with the highest prevalence seen in South Africa, South Korea, and the United States. This study confirms the increasing global emergence and rapidly increasing US prevalence of this multidrug-resistant pneumococcal clone...
  77. ncbi request reprint Failures of beta-lactam therapy for invasive pneumococcal disease
    Keith P Klugman
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 23:980-1; author reply 981. 2004
  78. ncbi request reprint Increased antimicrobial resistance among nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pediatric population after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine in the United States
    David J Farrell
    G R Micro Ltd, London, UK
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:123-8. 2007
    ....
  79. pmc Virulence characteristics of Klebsiella and clinical manifestations of K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections
    Victor L Yu
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:986-93. 2007
    ..001). Differences in clinical features of bacteremic infection with K. pneumoniae are due to the virulence factors expressed by the organism...
  80. ncbi request reprint An international prospective study of pneumococcal bacteremia: correlation with in vitro resistance, antibiotics administered, and clinical outcome
    Victor L Yu
    Division of Infectious Disease, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:230-7. 2003
    ..beta-Lactam antibiotics should still be useful for treatment of pneumococcal infections that do not involve cerebrospinal fluid, regardless of in vitro susceptibility, as determined by current NCCLS breakpoints...
  81. ncbi request reprint Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia: pharmacodynamic correlations with outcome and macrolide resistance--a controlled study
    Jerome J Schentag
    CPL Associates, LLC, 3980 Sheridan Drive, Suite 501, Amherst, NY 14226 1727, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 30:264-9. 2007
    ....
  82. ncbi request reprint Correlation between erythromycin and azithromycin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Avril D Wasas
    S Afr Med J 93:283. 2003
  83. ncbi request reprint A role for Streptococcus pneumoniae in virus-associated pneumonia
    Shabir A Madhi
    University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council National Institute for Communicable Diseases Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Atlanta 30332, USA
    Nat Med 10:811-3. 2004
    ..These data suggest that the pneumococcus has a major role in the development of pneumonia associated with these viruses and that viruses contribute to the pathogenesis of bacterial pneumonia...
  84. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: proceedings from an interactive symposium at the 41st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
    Stephen I Pelton
    Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
    Vaccine 21:1562-71. 2003
    ....
  85. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal vaccines and flu preparedness
    Keith P Klugman
    Science 316:49-50. 2007
  86. ncbi request reprint The battle against emerging antibiotic resistance: should fluoroquinolones be used to treat children?
    Lionel A Mandell
    Division of Infectious Diseases, McMaster University School of Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Infect Dis 35:721-7. 2002
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint Estimating the protective concentration of anti-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antibodies
    George R Siber
    Wyeth Vaccines Research, Pearl River, New York, USA
    Vaccine 25:3816-26. 2007
    ..35 microg/ml to 0.32 microg/ml. These data support retaining the 0.35 microg/ml minimum protective concentration recommended by WHO for assessing the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in infants...
  88. ncbi request reprint Defining the potential impact of conjugate bacterial polysaccharide-protein vaccines in reducing the burden of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and -uninfected children
    Shabir A Madhi
    SAIMR University of the Witwatersrand Medical Research Council Pneumococcal Diseases Research Unit
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:393-9. 2002
    ..One such possible outcome measure is alveolar consolidation confirmed by chest radiograph (CXR)...