Leonard Lee Howell

Summary

Affiliation: Emory University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates as treatments for stimulant abuse
    Leonard L Howell
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Electronic address
    Adv Pharmacol 69:129-76. 2014
  2. pmc Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research
    Leonard Lee Howell
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337:324-34. 2011
  3. pmc Cortical activation during cocaine use and extinction in rhesus monkeys
    Leonard L Howell
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 208:191-9. 2010
  4. pmc Nonhuman primate neuroimaging and cocaine medication development
    Leonard L Howell
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16:446-57. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Monoamine transporters and psychostimulant addiction
    Leonard L Howell
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 75:196-217. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Serotonergic attenuation of the reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys
    Paul W Czoty
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:831-7. 2002
  7. pmc Interactions between the mGluR2/3 agonist, LY379268, and cocaine on in vivo neurochemistry and behavior in squirrel monkeys
    Rayna M Bauzo
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 94:204-10. 2009
  8. pmc Impact of early life stress on the reinforcing and behavioral-stimulant effects of psychostimulants in rhesus monkeys
    Sarah B Ewing Corcoran
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center bDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 21:69-76. 2010
  9. pmc Effects of cocaine self-administration history under limited and extended access conditions on in vivo striatal dopamine neurochemistry and acoustic startle in rhesus monkeys
    Porche Kirkland Henry
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:237-47. 2009
  10. pmc Behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine and diphenhydramine combinations in rhesus monkeys
    Matthew L Banks
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:467-74. 2009

Research Grants

  1. PET IMAGING AND COCAINE NEUROPHARMACOLOGY
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2005
  2. PET IMAGING AND COCAINE NEUROPHARMACOLOGY IN MONKEYS
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2006
  3. Transitional States in Drug Addiction
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2007
  4. Cocaine Use and Monoamine Function
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2009
  5. PET IMAGING AND COCAINE NEUROPHARMACOLOGY IN MONKEYS
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2000
  6. COCAINE USE AND MONOAMINE FUNCTION IN NONHUMAN PRIMATES
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2004
  7. Cocaine Use and Monoamine Function
    Leonard L Howell; Fiscal Year: 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications31

  1. doi request reprint Monoamine transporter inhibitors and substrates as treatments for stimulant abuse
    Leonard L Howell
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Electronic address
    Adv Pharmacol 69:129-76. 2014
    ....
  2. pmc Nonhuman primate positron emission tomography neuroimaging in drug abuse research
    Leonard Lee Howell
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 337:324-34. 2011
    ..Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research...
  3. pmc Cortical activation during cocaine use and extinction in rhesus monkeys
    Leonard L Howell
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 208:191-9. 2010
    ..Neuroimaging studies have begun to define neurobiological substrates underlying the acute effects of cocaine or cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent subjects...
  4. pmc Nonhuman primate neuroimaging and cocaine medication development
    Leonard L Howell
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16:446-57. 2008
    ..The results indicate that combined inhibition of DAT and SERT may be a viable approach to treat cocaine addiction...
  5. ncbi request reprint Monoamine transporters and psychostimulant addiction
    Leonard L Howell
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 75:196-217. 2008
    ..However, additional clinical studies are required in order to identify safe and efficacious pharmacotherapies...
  6. ncbi request reprint Serotonergic attenuation of the reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cocaine in squirrel monkeys
    Paul W Czoty
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:831-7. 2002
    ..These findings extend those reported previously for the behavioral-stimulant effects of cocaine and identify a potential neurochemical mechanism underlying drug interactions on behavior...
  7. pmc Interactions between the mGluR2/3 agonist, LY379268, and cocaine on in vivo neurochemistry and behavior in squirrel monkeys
    Rayna M Bauzo
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 94:204-10. 2009
    ..Moreover, reinstatement of previously extinguished cocaine self-administration was not significantly attenuated by LY379268. Hence, drug interactions on neurochemistry did not correlate well with behavioral measures...
  8. pmc Impact of early life stress on the reinforcing and behavioral-stimulant effects of psychostimulants in rhesus monkeys
    Sarah B Ewing Corcoran
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center bDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Behav Pharmacol 21:69-76. 2010
    ..Taken together, the results of this study do not provide support for early life stress leading to enhanced vulnerability to stimulant use in the nonhuman primate model employed...
  9. pmc Effects of cocaine self-administration history under limited and extended access conditions on in vivo striatal dopamine neurochemistry and acoustic startle in rhesus monkeys
    Porche Kirkland Henry
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:237-47. 2009
    ..The transition from infrequent and controlled cocaine use to dependence may involve enduring changes in neurobiology as a consequence of persistent drug use...
  10. pmc Behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine and diphenhydramine combinations in rhesus monkeys
    Matthew L Banks
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:467-74. 2009
    ..While DPH abuse is infrequent, recent preclinical evidence suggests that DPH and cocaine combinations may have enhanced reinforcing properties...
  11. pmc Cocaine-induced reinstatement during limited and extended drug access conditions in rhesus monkeys
    Porche Kirkland Henry
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:523-9. 2009
    ..The progression of addiction from controlled to compulsive drug use leads to serious adverse consequences, including a greater propensity to relapse to drug use after sustained periods of abstinence...
  12. ncbi request reprint Effects of dopamine transporter inhibitors on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys: relationship to transporter occupancy determined by positron emission tomography neuroimaging
    Kimberly P Lindsey
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:959-69. 2004
    ..Moreover, the behavioral profile of DAT inhibitors may be influenced by actions at other monoamine transporters...
  13. pmc Effects of histamine H(3) receptor activation on the behavioral-stimulant effects of methamphetamine and cocaine in mice and squirrel monkeys
    Matthew L Banks
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Pharmacology 83:164-9. 2009
    ..The aim of the present study was to examine the role of H(3)R in the behavioral-stimulant effects of cocaine and METH in mice and monkeys...
  14. ncbi request reprint In vivo comparison of the reinforcing and dopamine transporter effects of local anesthetics in rhesus monkeys
    Kristin M Wilcox
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Synapse 58:220-8. 2005
    ..Overall, reinforcing effects were consistent with DAT effects determined with in vivo techniques. The results further support a role for the DAT in the abuse liability of local anesthetics...
  15. pmc Behavioral and neurochemical effects of amphetamine analogs that release monoamines in the squirrel monkey
    Heather L Kimmel
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 94:278-84. 2009
    ..In addition, these results support further investigation of PAL-313 and similar compounds as a potential medication for treating psychostimulant abuse...
  16. ncbi request reprint Measurement of dopamine transporter occupancy for multiple injections of cocaine using a single injection of [F-18]FECNT
    John R Votaw
    Department of Radiology, Emory University, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Synapse 44:203-10. 2002
    ..Two advantages of this technique are: reduced variability in dose-response curves because the subject is his/her own control, and the (18)F label allows evaluation of longer-acting drugs...
  17. ncbi request reprint Cocaine-induced brain activation determined by positron emission tomography neuroimaging in conscious rhesus monkeys
    Leonard L Howell
    Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 159:154-60. 2002
    ..The acute effects of cocaine administration on cerebral blood flow may have direct relevance to the etiology of cocaine addiction...
  18. ncbi request reprint Changes in extracellular dopamine during cocaine self-administration in squirrel monkeys
    Heather L Kimmel
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Synapse 56:129-34. 2005
    ..The results suggest that the environmental context associated with drug self-administration can modulate cocaine-induced elevations in extracellular dopamine...
  19. ncbi request reprint Functional imaging and neurochemical correlates of stimulant self-administration in primates
    Leonard L Howell
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 163:352-61. 2002
    ..These approaches have significant strengths and important limitations that should be considered...
  20. ncbi request reprint Olanzapine-induced suppression of cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys
    Leonard L Howell
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:585-93. 2006
    ..The results indicate that olanzapine can effectively suppress cocaine self-administration behavior in nonhuman primates at doses that enhance dopamine release but do not maintain drug self-administration...
  21. pmc Relationship between rate of drug uptake in brain and behavioral pharmacology of monoamine transporter inhibitors in rhesus monkeys
    Heather L Kimmel
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:453-62. 2008
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that the rate of drug entry in brain can play an important role in the behavioral pharmacology of psychomotor stimulants...
  22. ncbi request reprint Effects of combined dopamine and serotonin transporter inhibitors on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys
    Leonard L Howell
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:757-65. 2007
    ..Collectively, the results indicate that combined inhibition of DAT and SERT warrants consideration as a viable approach in the development of cocaine medications...
  23. pmc Faster onset and dopamine transporter selectivity predict stimulant and reinforcing effects of cocaine analogs in squirrel monkeys
    Heather L Kimmel
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:45-54. 2007
    ..Hence, there was a general trend for compounds that had a faster onset and/or DAT selectivity to produce significant behavioral-stimulant and reinforcing effects...
  24. pmc Nonhuman primate neuroimaging and the neurobiology of psychostimulant addiction
    Leonard L Howell
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1141:176-94. 2008
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint Interaction of cocaine and dopamine transporter inhibitors on behavior and neurochemistry in monkeys
    Brett C Ginsburg
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 80:481-91. 2005
    ..Importantly, there was little evidence of additivity on behavioral or neurochemical measures when cocaine was administered in combination with behavioral-stimulant doses of the DAT inhibitors...
  26. pmc Reinstatement of extinguished amphetamine self-administration by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its enantiomers in rhesus monkeys
    Jessica McClung
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:75-83. 2010
    ..The effectiveness of MDMA and its enantiomers to reinstate responding previously maintained by drug self-administration has not been thoroughly investigated...
  27. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of carbon-11-labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-[4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl]nortropane as a potential radioligand for imaging the serotonin transporter by PET
    Christophe Plisson
    Department of Radiology, Emory University, 1364 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Med Chem 49:942-6. 2006
    ..Synthesis of the labeling precursor, radiosynthesis of [(11)C]ZIENT, and in vivo evaluation in anesthetized and awake monkeys have been performed to determine the suitability of [(11)C]ZIENT as a PET agent for SERT imaging...
  28. pmc Development of an apparatus and methodology for conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with pharmacological stimuli in conscious rhesus monkeys
    Kevin Sean Murnane
    Division of Neuroscience, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Neurosci Methods 191:11-20. 2010
    ..These findings document the feasibility of fMRI data collection in conscious rhesus monkeys using these procedures and allow for the further study of the neural effects of psychoactive drugs...
  29. pmc Effects of exposure to amphetamine derivatives on passive avoidance performance and the central levels of monoamines and their metabolites in mice: correlations between behavior and neurochemistry
    Kevin Sean Murnane
    Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Diseases, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Yerkes Imaging Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30322 4250, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 220:495-508. 2012
    ..Considerable evidence indicates that amphetamine derivatives can deplete brain monoaminergic neurotransmitters. However, the behavioral and cognitive consequences of neurochemical depletions induced by amphetamines are not well established...
  30. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and monoamine transporter binding properties of 3beta-(3',4'-disubstituted phenyl)tropane-2beta-carboxylic acid methyl esters
    F Ivy Carroll
    Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    J Med Chem 48:2767-71. 2005
    ..12 nM) and the 3'-bromo-4'-iodo analogue 3i (K(i) = 0.14 nM) are the most potent analogues at the DAT and 5-HTT, respectively. These compounds will be useful to further characterize the highly interesting behavioral profile of 3b...
  31. pmc Development of the dopamine transporter selective RTI-336 as a pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse
    F Ivy Carroll
    Center for Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    AAPS J 8:E196-203. 2006
    ..Based on these studies, 3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)-2beta-[3-(4'-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl]tropane (RTI-336) has been selected for preclinical development...

Research Grants24

  1. PET IMAGING AND COCAINE NEUROPHARMACOLOGY
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Collectively, the proposed research will provide an innovative preclinical model to evaluate the use of selective DAT inhibitors as pharmacotherapies for cocaine abuse. ..
  2. PET IMAGING AND COCAINE NEUROPHARMACOLOGY IN MONKEYS
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results obtained will also evaluate the effectiveness of monoamine transporters as potential targets for cocaine medications development. ..
  3. Transitional States in Drug Addiction
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These integrated efforts, including behavioral and mechanistic approaches, will provide a comprehensive analysis to elucidate transitional states in cocaine addiction. ..
  4. Cocaine Use and Monoamine Function
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Moreover, the elucidation of basic neurochemical interactions berween glutamate and dopamine in vivo in primates should have significant impact on the development of therapeutics outside the field of drug addiction. ..
  5. PET IMAGING AND COCAINE NEUROPHARMACOLOGY IN MONKEYS
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The use of neuroimaging techniques in conjunction with well-established self-administration procedures in nonhuman primates will provide a novel preclinical model to identify pharmacotherapies for cocaine abuse. ..
  6. COCAINE USE AND MONOAMINE FUNCTION IN NONHUMAN PRIMATES
    Leonard Howell; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  7. Cocaine Use and Monoamine Function
    Leonard L Howell; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Moreover, the documentation of basic neurochemical interactions between serotonin and dopamine in vivo in nonhuman primates should have significant impact on the development of therapeutics outside the field of drug addiction. ..