Penelope P Howards

Summary

Affiliation: Emory University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Invited commentary: the use of imperfect data--compromise or compromising?
    Penelope P Howards
    Epidemiology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:641-3; discussion 644-5. 2008
  2. pmc Spontaneous abortion and a diet drug containing caffeine and ephedrine: a study within the Danish national birth cohort
    Penelope P Howards
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e50372. 2012
  3. pmc "Toward a clearer definition of confounding" revisited with directed acyclic graphs
    Penelope P Howards
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 176:506-11. 2012
  4. pmc Timing clinic visits to phases of the menstrual cycle by using a fertility monitor: the BioCycle Study
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:105-12. 2009
  5. pmc Effect of daily fiber intake on reproductive function: the BioCycle Study
    Audrey J Gaskins
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 90:1061-9. 2009
  6. ncbi request reprint Misclassification of gestational age in the study of spontaneous abortion
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 164:1126-36. 2006
  7. ncbi request reprint Conditions for bias from differential left truncation
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 165:444-52. 2007
  8. doi request reprint Chlamydia trachomatis infections among women attending prenatal clinics: United States, 2004-2009
    Catherine Lindsey Satterwhite
    Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 39:416-20. 2012
  9. ncbi request reprint Potential confounding by exposure history and prior outcomes: an example from perinatal epidemiology
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Epidemiology 18:544-51. 2007
  10. doi request reprint Pregnancy termination following prenatal diagnosis of anencephaly or spina bifida: a systematic review of the literature
    Candice Y Johnson
    National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 94:857-63. 2012

Detail Information

Publications15

  1. doi request reprint Invited commentary: the use of imperfect data--compromise or compromising?
    Penelope P Howards
    Epidemiology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 167:641-3; discussion 644-5. 2008
    ..Automated databases are certainly valuable, but they should be used with caution and where possible should be linked to databases that can fill the critical gaps...
  2. pmc Spontaneous abortion and a diet drug containing caffeine and ephedrine: a study within the Danish national birth cohort
    Penelope P Howards
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e50372. 2012
    ..In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen) containing ephedrine (20 mg) and caffeine (200 mg) with spontaneous abortion (SAB) in the Danish National Birth Cohort...
  3. pmc "Toward a clearer definition of confounding" revisited with directed acyclic graphs
    Penelope P Howards
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 176:506-11. 2012
    ..Thoughtful DAG analyses require clear research questions but are easily modified for examining different causal assumptions that may affect confounder assessment...
  4. pmc Timing clinic visits to phases of the menstrual cycle by using a fertility monitor: the BioCycle Study
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 169:105-12. 2009
    ..Fertility monitors appear to be useful in timing clinic visits in a compliant population with flexible schedules...
  5. pmc Effect of daily fiber intake on reproductive function: the BioCycle Study
    Audrey J Gaskins
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 90:1061-9. 2009
    ..The influence of fiber on aspects of reproduction, which include ovulation, has not been well studied in premenopausal women...
  6. ncbi request reprint Misclassification of gestational age in the study of spontaneous abortion
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 164:1126-36. 2006
    ..Bias was greatest when the magnitude of error for pregnancies at higher risk was much larger than that for pregnancies at lower risk...
  7. ncbi request reprint Conditions for bias from differential left truncation
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 165:444-52. 2007
    ..Cox regression can correct for left truncation and is no more difficult to perform than logistic regression...
  8. doi request reprint Chlamydia trachomatis infections among women attending prenatal clinics: United States, 2004-2009
    Catherine Lindsey Satterwhite
    Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 39:416-20. 2012
    ..Chlamydia screening practices, positivity, and trends from 2004 to 2009 in publicly funded prenatal clinics have not been described...
  9. ncbi request reprint Potential confounding by exposure history and prior outcomes: an example from perinatal epidemiology
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Epidemiology 18:544-51. 2007
    ..There is no single answer as to whether reproductive history should be included in the model; the decision depends on the research question and the underlying DAG...
  10. doi request reprint Pregnancy termination following prenatal diagnosis of anencephaly or spina bifida: a systematic review of the literature
    Candice Y Johnson
    National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 94:857-63. 2012
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Birth weight, postnatal growth, and risk for high blood pressure at 7 years of age: results from the Collaborative Perinatal Project
    Anusha H Hemachandra
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Pediatrics 119:e1264-70. 2007
    ....
  12. doi request reprint Dependence of confounding on the target population: a modification of causal graphs to account for co-action
    W Dana Flanders
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Ann Epidemiol 21:698-705. 2011
    ..We propose a simple modification of DAG rules to overcome this limitation...
  13. pmc Detection of pelvic inflammatory disease: development of an automated case-finding algorithm using administrative data
    Catherine L Satterwhite
    Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop E 02, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2011:428351. 2011
    ..4%; KPCO = 90.3%) and PPV (GH = 86.9%; KPCO = 84.5%) were high, but specificity was poor (GH = 45.9%; KPCO = 37.0%). In GH, the algorithm offered a practical alternative to medical record review to further improve PID case identification...
  14. ncbi request reprint Disentangling causal paths between obesity and in vitro fertilization outcomes: an intractable problem?
    Penelope P Howards
    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Fertil Steril 89:1604-5. 2008
    ..Disentangling causal paths between obesity and in vitro fertilization outcomes may be an intractable problem, but other research questions of clinical importance can be addressed through appropriate study designs and analytic methods...
  15. ncbi request reprint Recruitment for a community-based study of early pregnancy: the Right From The Start study
    Joanne H E Promislow
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 18:143-52. 2004
    ..Although intensive, diverse efforts were required, when recruitment efforts were maximised, we successfully recruited over 10% of the estimated number of pregnant women in the community...

Research Grants1