Javed Butler

Summary

Affiliation: Emory University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Developing therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: current state and future directions
    Javed Butler
    Department of Medicine, Emory Cardiovascular Clinical Research Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Electronic address
    JACC Heart Fail 2:97-112. 2014
  2. pmc Primary prevention of heart failure
    Javed Butler
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    ISRN Cardiol 2012:982417. 2012
  3. doi request reprint Scope of heart failure hospitalization
    Javed Butler
    Cardiology Division, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Congest Heart Fail 18:S1-4. 2012
  4. pmc Systolic blood pressure and incident heart failure in the elderly. The Cardiovascular Health Study and the Health, Ageing and Body Composition Study
    Javed Butler
    Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Heart 97:1304-11. 2011
  5. pmc Serum resistin concentrations and risk of new onset heart failure in older persons: the health, aging, and body composition (Health ABC) study
    Javed Butler
    Emory University, Atlanta GA, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29:1144-9. 2009
  6. pmc Validation of the health ABC heart failure model for incident heart failure risk prediction: the Cardiovascular Health Study
    Andreas Kalogeropoulos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Heart Fail 3:495-502. 2010
  7. pmc Inflammatory markers and incident heart failure risk in older adults: the Health ABC (Health, Aging, and Body Composition) study
    Andreas Kalogeropoulos
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 55:2129-37. 2010
  8. pmc Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors and heart failure risk in older adults: Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study
    Catherine N Marti
    Cardiology Division, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
    Circ Heart Fail 7:5-11. 2014
  9. doi request reprint Right ventricular function with standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography and clinical events in adults with D-transposition of the great arteries post atrial switch
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Am Soc Echocardiogr 25:304-12. 2012
  10. pmc Epidemiology of incident heart failure in a contemporary elderly cohort: the health, aging, and body composition study
    Andreas Kalogeropoulos
    Cardiology Division, Emory University Hospital, Emory University, 1365 Clifton Rd NE, Ste AT430, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Arch Intern Med 169:708-15. 2009

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. pmc Developing therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: current state and future directions
    Javed Butler
    Department of Medicine, Emory Cardiovascular Clinical Research Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Electronic address
    JACC Heart Fail 2:97-112. 2014
    ..This document summarizes the proceedings from this meeting. ..
  2. pmc Primary prevention of heart failure
    Javed Butler
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    ISRN Cardiol 2012:982417. 2012
    ..Given the current importance and the projected worsening of heart failure epidemiology, a more focused effort on prevention is urgently needed...
  3. doi request reprint Scope of heart failure hospitalization
    Javed Butler
    Cardiology Division, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Congest Heart Fail 18:S1-4. 2012
    ..These efforts are even more important now that readmission rates for HF have quality and reimbursement implications...
  4. pmc Systolic blood pressure and incident heart failure in the elderly. The Cardiovascular Health Study and the Health, Ageing and Body Composition Study
    Javed Butler
    Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Heart 97:1304-11. 2011
    ..The exact form of the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart failure (HF) risk in the elderly remains incompletely defined, especially in individuals not receiving antihypertensive drugs...
  5. pmc Serum resistin concentrations and risk of new onset heart failure in older persons: the health, aging, and body composition (Health ABC) study
    Javed Butler
    Emory University, Atlanta GA, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29:1144-9. 2009
    ..We investigated the association of serum resistin concentrations with risk for incident heart failure (HF) in humans...
  6. pmc Validation of the health ABC heart failure model for incident heart failure risk prediction: the Cardiovascular Health Study
    Andreas Kalogeropoulos
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Heart Fail 3:495-502. 2010
    ..The recently developed and internally validated Health ABC HF model uses 9 routinely available clinical variables to determine incident heart failure risk. In this study, we sought to externally validate the Health ABC HF model...
  7. pmc Inflammatory markers and incident heart failure risk in older adults: the Health ABC (Health, Aging, and Body Composition) study
    Andreas Kalogeropoulos
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 55:2129-37. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between inflammation and heart failure (HF) risk in older adults...
  8. pmc Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors and heart failure risk in older adults: Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study
    Catherine N Marti
    Cardiology Division, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
    Circ Heart Fail 7:5-11. 2014
    ..The soluble TNF type 1 (sTNF-R1) and type 2 (sTNF-R2) receptors are elevated in patients with manifest HF, but whether they are associated with risk for incident HF is unclear...
  9. doi request reprint Right ventricular function with standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography and clinical events in adults with D-transposition of the great arteries post atrial switch
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Am Soc Echocardiogr 25:304-12. 2012
    ..The prognostic value of deformation parameters of the systemic right ventricle in adults with D-transposition of the great arteries and prior atrial switch has not been reported...
  10. pmc Epidemiology of incident heart failure in a contemporary elderly cohort: the health, aging, and body composition study
    Andreas Kalogeropoulos
    Cardiology Division, Emory University Hospital, Emory University, 1365 Clifton Rd NE, Ste AT430, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Arch Intern Med 169:708-15. 2009
    ..The race- and sex-specific epidemiology of incident heart failure (HF) among a contemporary elderly cohort are not well described...
  11. doi request reprint Relationship between clinical trial site enrollment with participant characteristics, protocol completion, and outcomes: insights from the EVEREST (Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure: Outcome Study with Tolvaptan) trial
    Javed Butler
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 61:571-9. 2013
    ..The study investigated whether the number of participants enrolled per site in an acute heart failure trial is associated with participant characteristics and outcomes...
  12. ncbi request reprint Digoxin therapy does not improve outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure on contemporary medical therapy
    Vasiliki V Georgiopoulou
    Center for Heart Failure Therapy, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Heart Fail 2:90-7. 2009
    ..The impact of digoxin on outcomes of patients with advanced heart failure (HF) receiving optimal contemporary therapy is not known...
  13. pmc Glycemic status and incident heart failure in elderly without history of diabetes mellitus: the health, aging, and body composition study
    Andreas Kalogeropoulos
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Card Fail 15:593-9. 2009
    ..It is unclear whether measures of glycemic status beyond fasting glucose (FG) levels improve incident heart failure (HF) prediction in patients without history of diabetes mellitus (DM)...
  14. ncbi request reprint The immunological axis in heart failure: importance of the leukocyte differential
    Muthiah Vaduganathan
    Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Heart Fail Rev 18:835-45. 2013
    ..Variations in leukocyte differentials may identify a high-risk subset of patients that may benefit from tailored immune therapies. ..
  15. pmc Patient-reported selective adherence to heart failure self-care recommendations: a prospective cohort study: the Atlanta Cardiomyopathy Consortium
    Catherine N Marti
    Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Congest Heart Fail 19:16-24. 2013
    ..Patient-reported adherence with HF self-care recommendations is alarmingly low and selective. Good adherence was associated with lower resource utilization and better health status...
  16. doi request reprint The disconnect between phase II and phase III trials of drugs for heart failure
    Muthiah Vaduganathan
    Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, GRB 740, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Nat Rev Cardiol 10:85-97. 2013
    ..Additionally, drug development programs should be targeted not only to change short-term symptoms, but also to improve the postdischarge event rate...
  17. pmc Lung function and risk for heart failure among older adults: the Health ABC Study
    Vasiliki V Georgiopoulou
    Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am J Med 124:334-41. 2011
    ..The impact of abnormal spirometric findings on risk for incident heart failure among older adults without clinically apparent lung disease is not well elucidated...
  18. doi request reprint Classification of patients hospitalized for heart failure
    Muthiah Vaduganathan
    Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, GRB 740, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Heart Fail Clin 9:277-83, v. 2013
    ..HHF is not a single disease but a manifestation of several cardiac and noncardiac processes and thus should be approached as such. ..
  19. doi request reprint Incremental value of renal function in risk prediction with the Seattle Heart Failure Model
    Grigorios Giamouzis
    Center for Heart Failure Therapy, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Am Heart J 157:299-305. 2009
    ..In this study, we assessed the incremental value of renal function over the SHFS in patients with advanced HF on contemporary optimal treatment...
  20. doi request reprint Utility of the Seattle Heart Failure Model in patients with advanced heart failure
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 53:334-42. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to validate the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) in patients with advanced heart failure (HF)...
  21. ncbi request reprint Influence of race/ethnic differences in pre-transplantation panel reactive antibody on outcomes in heart transplant recipients
    Alanna A Morris
    Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia Electronic address
    J Am Coll Cardiol 62:2308-15. 2013
    ..This study sought to investigate post-transplantation outcomes as a function of race and panel reactive antibody (PRA)...
  22. doi request reprint Nitrate therapy for heart failure: benefits and strategies to overcome tolerance
    Divya Gupta
    Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
    JACC Heart Fail 1:183-91. 2013
    ..In this paper, we summarize data that support studying such an approach. ..
  23. doi request reprint Renal dysfunction in heart failure
    Robert T Cole
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Med Clin North Am 96:955-74. 2012
    ..WRF may result from any number of important processes. Understanding the role of each of these factors and their interplay are essential in understanding how to improve outcomes in patients with renal dysfunction and HF...
  24. pmc Echocardiography, natriuretic peptides, and risk for incident heart failure in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 5:131-40. 2012
    ..This study sought to examine the potential utility of echocardiography and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for heart failure (HF) risk stratification in concert with a validated clinical HF risk score in older adults...
  25. doi request reprint Hospitalization epidemic in patients with heart failure: risk factors, risk prediction, knowledge gaps, and future directions
    Gregory Giamouzis
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Card Fail 17:54-75. 2011
    ..We also discuss issues with using HF readmission rate as a quality indicator...
  26. doi request reprint Epidemiology and cost of advanced heart failure
    Catherine Norton
    Cardiology Division, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 54:78-85. 2011
    ..Newer medical and device therapies as well as regenerative techniques hold considerable promise for these patients in future...
  27. doi request reprint Right ventricular function in adult patients with Eisenmenger physiology: insights from quantitative echocardiography
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30345, USA
    Echocardiography 27:937-45. 2010
    ..However, conventional measures of RV function may not adequately express this adaptation...
  28. doi request reprint Usefulness of cardiac index and peak exercise oxygen consumption for determining priority for cardiac transplantation
    Amanda Methvin
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia
    Am J Cardiol 105:1353-5. 2010
    ..These results suggest that the former group may be safely monitored on medical therapy, whereas the latter may benefit from early listing...
  29. doi request reprint Reassessing the use of vasodilators in heart failure
    Robert T Cole
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 10:1141-51. 2012
    ..Future studies of vasodilators will need to consider these issues in trial design...
  30. pmc Incident coronary revascularization and subsequent mortality in chronic heart failure: a propensity-matched study
    Grigorios Giamouzis
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Int J Cardiol 140:55-9. 2010
    ..Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is common in heart failure (HF), yet the association between incident coronary revascularization and mortality in these patients has not been examined in a propensity-matched study...
  31. pmc Patient perception versus medical record entry of health-related conditions among patients with heart failure
    Adnan S Malik
    Cardiology Division, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Cardiol 107:569-72. 2011
    ..In conclusion, there is significant variation in the perceptions of patients with heart failure compared to providers' records of co-morbidities and habits. The root causes of this variation and its impact on outcomes need further study...
  32. pmc Predictors of incident heart failure in a large insured population: a one million person-year follow-up study
    Abhinav Goyal
    Emory Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Circ Heart Fail 3:698-705. 2010
    ..Studies on the incidence and predictors of heart failure (HF) are often restricted to elderly persons or identify only inpatient cases...
  33. pmc Association of electrocardiogram abnormalities and incident heart failure events
    Baris Gencer
    Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland
    Am Heart J 167:869-75.e3. 2014
    ..Few data exist on whether baseline electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities can refine risk prediction for HF...
  34. doi request reprint Influence of sex on risk stratification with stress myocardial perfusion Rb-82 positron emission tomography: Results from the PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Prognosis Multicenter Registry
    Jenna Kay
    Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia
    J Am Coll Cardiol 62:1866-76. 2013
    ..The aim of the current analysis was to compare sex differences in the prognostic accuracy of stress myocardial perfusion rubidum-82 (Rb-82) positron emission tomography (PET)...
  35. ncbi request reprint Myocardial deformation imaging of the systemic right ventricle by two-dimensional strain echocardiography in patients with d-transposition of the great arteries
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Hellenic J Cardiol 50:275-82. 2009
    ..The clinical applicability of myocardial deformation imaging by two-dimensional strain (2DS) echocardiography in this setting is still under investigation...
  36. pmc Clinical adoption of prognostic biomarkers: the case for heart failure
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Prog Cardiovasc Dis 55:3-13. 2012
    ..We use this framework to identify the challenges of biomarker adoption for risk prediction, disease management, and treatment selection for HF and suggest considerations for future research...
  37. doi request reprint From risk factors to structural heart disease: the role of inflammation
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, 1462 Clifton Road Northeast, Suite 535B, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Heart Fail Clin 8:113-23. 2012
    ..Inflammation also contributes to progression of peripheral vascular changes...
  38. doi request reprint Long-term response of the left ventricle to cardiac resynchronization therapy: insights from standard and strain echocardiography
    Andreas Kalogeropoulos
    Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, 1462 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Congest Heart Fail 17:71-9. 2011
    ..A wide range of long-term LV responses to CRT was observed, with approximately 50% of patients showing favorable responses...
  39. doi request reprint Chronic stable angina: pathophysiology and innovations in treatment
    Catherine Norton
    Cardiology Division, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 12:218-9. 2011
    ..In this article, the pathophysiology, currently recommended clinical management and emerging therapies to treat symptoms of chronic stable angina are reviewed...
  40. pmc Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary artery systolic pressure and outcomes in ambulatory heart failure patients
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
    J Am Heart Assoc 3:e000363. 2014
    ..To facilitate pragmatic research efforts, data regarding the prognostic importance of noninvasively assessed pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in stable ambulatory patients with HF are needed...
  41. doi request reprint Favorable bed utilization and readmission rates for emergency department observation unit heart failure patients
    Justin Schrager
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Acad Emerg Med 20:554-61. 2013
    ....
  42. doi request reprint Echocardiography and risk prediction in advanced heart failure: incremental value over clinical markers
    Syed A Agha
    Cardiology Division, Emory University Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Card Fail 15:586-92. 2009
    ..Incremental value of echocardiography over clinical parameters for outcome prediction in advanced heart failure (HF) is not well established...
  43. doi request reprint Heart failure in hypertension: prevention and treatment
    Vasiliki V Georgiopoulou
    Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Drugs 72:1373-98. 2012
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Update on aldosterone antagonists use in heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Heart Failure Society of America Guidelines Committee
    Javed Butler
    Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Card Fail 18:265-81. 2012
    ..The efficacy of eplerenone in patients with mild HF symptoms translates into a unique opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality earlier in the course of the disease...
  45. doi request reprint Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertensive heart disease
    Vasiliki V Georgiopoulou
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Cardiol Clin 28:675-91. 2010
    ..Antihypertensive agents exhibit variable effectiveness in inducing LVH regression. Currently, renin-angiotensin system blocking agents seem to be the most effective approach for LVH regression and reverse remodeling in these patients...
  46. doi request reprint Effect of pulmonary hypertension on clinical outcomes in advanced heart failure: analysis of the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) database
    Kiran K Khush
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Am Heart J 157:1026-34. 2009
    ....
  47. doi request reprint Medical therapy for acute decompensated heart failure: what recent clinical trials have taught us about diuretics and vasodilators
    Catherine Marti
    Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Curr Heart Fail Rep 9:1-7. 2012
    ....
  48. doi request reprint Endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and heart failure
    Catherine N Marti
    Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Am Coll Cardiol 60:1455-69. 2012
    ..Endothelial function and arterial stiffness may therefore serve as important physiological targets for new HF therapies and facilitate patient selection for improved application of existing agents...
  49. doi request reprint Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular structure and function: new modalities and potential applications in clinical trials
    Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
    Emory University, Division of Cardiology, Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Card Fail 18:159-72. 2012
    ..However, these modalities provide the best opportunity currently available to demonstrate treatment effects on the myocardium with investigational therapies and provide mechanistic insights for future directions...
  50. ncbi request reprint Diabetes, inflammation, and functional decline in older adults: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (ABC) study
    M Kathleen Figaro
    Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center GRECC, 1310 24th Ave South, Room 4B111, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
    Diabetes Care 29:2039-45. 2006
    ..We examined the effect of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the incident mobility limitation in older adults with and without diabetes...
  51. doi request reprint Digoxin use and heart failure outcomes: results from the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT)
    Javed Butler
    Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Congest Heart Fail 16:191-5. 2010
    ..These results remained materially unchanged with propensity matched analysis. No benefit with digoxin use was observed in this study, underscoring the need to reassess the role of digoxin in the contemporary management of heart failure...
  52. ncbi request reprint Serum resistin: physiology, pathophysiology and implications for heart failure
    Vikas Bhalla
    Cardiology Division, Emory University Hospital, 1365 Clifton Road NE, Suite AT 430, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Biomark Med 4:445-52. 2010
    ..Some of the salient points reviewed include the possible association of resistin with hyperglycemia and substrate metabolism, inflammation through TNF-alpha and direct cardiac effects...
  53. pmc A propensity-matched study of the association of cardiothoracic ratio with morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure
    Grigorios Giamouzis
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Am J Cardiol 101:343-7. 2008
    ..27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.44, p<0.0001) for HF hospitalization. In conclusion, a baseline CTR>0.50 was associated with increased mortality and morbidity in ambulatory patients with chronic HF...
  54. doi request reprint Predictive value of low relative lymphocyte count in patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insights from the EVEREST trial
    Muthiah Vaduganathan
    Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Circ Heart Fail 5:750-8. 2012
    ..Limited data exist regarding whether relative lymphocyte count correlates with postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for HF...
  55. pmc Left-ventricular systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony as assessed by multi-harmonic phase analysis of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with end-stage renal disease and normal LVEF
    Ji Chen
    Department of Radiology, Emory University, 1364 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    J Nucl Cardiol 18:299-308. 2011
    ....
  56. pmc A pilot test of an integrated self-care intervention for persons with heart failure and concomitant diabetes
    Sandra B Dunbar
    Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA Electronic address
    Nurs Outlook 62:97-111. 2014
    ..Future studies testing HF-DM integrated self-care interventions in larger samples with longer follow-up and on other outcomes such as hospitalization and clinical markers are warranted...
  57. ncbi request reprint The emerging role of multi-detector computed tomography in heart failure
    Javed Butler
    Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    J Card Fail 13:215-26. 2007
    ..Recent advances in cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) technology now permits entire coronary tree evaluation in a single breath hold with submillimeter slice collimation and improved temporal resolution...