William J Steinbach

Summary

Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Newer antifungal therapy for emerging fungal pathogens
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3499, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 7:5-20. 2003
  2. doi request reprint Results from a prospective, international, epidemiologic study of invasive candidiasis in children and neonates
    William J Steinbach
    Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:1252-7. 2012
  3. pmc In vitro interactions between antifungals and immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from transplant and nontransplant patients
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4922-5. 2004
  4. pmc The Aspergillus fumigatus P-type Golgi apparatus Ca2+/Mn2+ ATPase PmrA is involved in cation homeostasis and cell wall integrity but is not essential for pathogenesis
    Nadthanan Pinchai
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 9:472-6. 2010
  5. pmc Aspergillus fumigatus calcipressin CbpA is involved in hyphal growth and calcium homeostasis
    Nadthanan Pinchai
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 8:511-9. 2009
  6. pmc Differential effects of inhibiting chitin and 1,3-{beta}-D-glucan synthesis in ras and calcineurin mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus
    Jarrod R Fortwendel
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:476-82. 2009
  7. doi request reprint Polyhexamethylene biguanide and calcineurin inhibitors as novel antifungal treatments for Aspergillus keratitis
    Rachelle A Rebong
    Duke University Eye Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:7309-15. 2011
  8. pmc In vitro interactions between antifungals and immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1664-9. 2004
  9. pmc Calcineurin inhibition or mutation enhances cell wall inhibitors against Aspergillus fumigatus
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2979-81. 2007
  10. pmc Calcineurin target CrzA regulates conidial germination, hyphal growth, and pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus
    Robert A Cramer
    Duke University Medical Center, Box 3499, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 7:1085-97. 2008

Detail Information

Publications72

  1. ncbi request reprint Newer antifungal therapy for emerging fungal pathogens
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3499, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 7:5-20. 2003
    ..We review many of the newer antifungal agents (second-generation triazoles, echinocandins, etc.) as therapeutic options for the recently emerging fungal pathogens...
  2. doi request reprint Results from a prospective, international, epidemiologic study of invasive candidiasis in children and neonates
    William J Steinbach
    Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:1252-7. 2012
    ..To our knowledge, this report from the International Pediatric Fungal Network is the largest prospective, multicenter observational study dedicated to pediatric and neonatal invasive candidiasis...
  3. pmc In vitro interactions between antifungals and immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from transplant and nontransplant patients
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:4922-5. 2004
    ..We were not able to detect a difference in calcineurin inhibitor antifungal activity against isolates from transplant recipients and nontransplant patients...
  4. pmc The Aspergillus fumigatus P-type Golgi apparatus Ca2+/Mn2+ ATPase PmrA is involved in cation homeostasis and cell wall integrity but is not essential for pathogenesis
    Nadthanan Pinchai
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 9:472-6. 2010
    ..Despite increased beta-glucan and chitin content, it is hypersensitive to cell wall inhibitors but remains virulent, suggesting a role for PmrA in cation homeostasis and cell wall integrity...
  5. pmc Aspergillus fumigatus calcipressin CbpA is involved in hyphal growth and calcium homeostasis
    Nadthanan Pinchai
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 8:511-9. 2009
    ..fumigatus and provides evidence that CbpA may serve as a feedback inhibitor in some aspects of calcineurin functions...
  6. pmc Differential effects of inhibiting chitin and 1,3-{beta}-D-glucan synthesis in ras and calcineurin mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus
    Jarrod R Fortwendel
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:476-82. 2009
    ..Additionally, the calcineurin pathway elements cnaA and crzA play a major role in proper chitin and glucan incorporation into the A. fumigatus cell wall...
  7. doi request reprint Polyhexamethylene biguanide and calcineurin inhibitors as novel antifungal treatments for Aspergillus keratitis
    Rachelle A Rebong
    Duke University Eye Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:7309-15. 2011
    ..To determine the ability of the calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporine A (CSA) to enhance the activity of PHMB, amphotericin B (AMB), and voriconazole (VCZ) against Aspergillus keratitis...
  8. pmc In vitro interactions between antifungals and immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:1664-9. 2004
    ..Our findings suggest a potential role for combination therapy with calcineurin pathway inhibitors and existing antifungal agents to augment activity against A. fumigatus...
  9. pmc Calcineurin inhibition or mutation enhances cell wall inhibitors against Aspergillus fumigatus
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:2979-81. 2007
    ..Quantification of 1,3-beta-d-glucan revealed decreased amounts in the calcineurin A (DeltacnaA) mutant. Calcineurin can be an excellent adjunct therapeutic target in combination with other cell wall inhibitors against A. fumigatus...
  10. pmc Calcineurin target CrzA regulates conidial germination, hyphal growth, and pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus
    Robert A Cramer
    Duke University Medical Center, Box 3499, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 7:1085-97. 2008
    ..In addition, the importance of CrzA to the production of disease is critical, and thus CrzA is an attractive fungus-specific antifungal target for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis...
  11. ncbi request reprint Antifungal treatment in pediatric patients
    Theoklis E Zaoutis
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    Drug Resist Updat 8:235-45. 2005
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Antifungal agents in children
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Pediatr Clin North Am 52:895-915, viii. 2005
    ..Newer second-generation azoles (posaconazole and ravuconazole) and echinocandins (micafungin and anidulafungin) that are likely to be licensed in the United States in the next few years also are addressed...
  13. pmc In vitro activity of calcineurin and heat shock protein 90 Inhibitors against Aspergillus fumigatus azole- and echinocandin-resistant strains
    Frederic Lamoth
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:1035-9. 2013
    ..Targeting the Hsp90-calcineurin axis is a promising alternative strategy against azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains...
  14. pmc Localization and activity of the calcineurin catalytic and regulatory subunit complex at the septum is essential for hyphal elongation and proper septation in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Praveen Rao Juvvadi
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Mol Microbiol 82:1235-59. 2011
    ..These findings confirm a cooperative role for the calcineurin complex in regulating hyphal growth and septation...
  15. pmc Transcriptional regulation of chitin synthases by calcineurin controls paradoxical growth of Aspergillus fumigatus in response to caspofungin
    Jarrod R Fortwendel
    Departments of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:1555-63. 2010
    ..Taken together, our data suggest a mechanistic role for A. fumigatus calcineurin signaling in the chitin biosynthetic response observed during paradoxical growth in the presence of high-dose caspofungin treatment...
  16. pmc Heat shock protein 90 is required for conidiation and cell wall integrity in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Frederic Lamoth
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 11:1324-32. 2012
    ..Targeting Hsp90 with fungal-specific inhibitors to cripple stress response compensatory pathways represents an attractive new antifungal strategy...
  17. ncbi request reprint Infections due to Aspergillus terreus: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 83 cases
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 39:192-8. 2004
    ..29; 95% CI, 0.15-0.56). Voriconazole is likely to be a better treatment choice for A. terreus infection than is a polyene...
  18. pmc Calcineurin localizes to the hyphal septum in Aspergillus fumigatus: implications for septum formation and conidiophore development
    Praveen Rao Juvvadi
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 7:1606-10. 2008
    ..This is the first study to implicate calcineurin in septum formation and conidiophore development of a filamentous fungus...
  19. ncbi request reprint Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in an immunodeficient child treated medically with combination antifungal therapy
    Jane V Trinh
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Med Mycol 41:339-45. 2003
    ..Despite the fatal outcome for our patient, we encourage other clinicians to try unique medical approaches for this historically life-threatening infection when adjunctive surgery is impossible...
  20. pmc Regulation of expression, activity and localization of fungal chitin synthases
    Luise E Rogg
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Med Mycol 50:2-17. 2012
    ..Thus, an in-depth understanding of the precise roles of each protein in cell wall maintenance and repair will be essential to identifying the most likely therapeutic targets...
  21. ncbi request reprint A meta-analysis of medical versus surgical therapy for Candida endocarditis
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Infect 51:230-47. 2005
    ..The optimal management of Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is unknown...
  22. pmc The chitin synthase genes chsA and chsC are not required for cell wall stress responses in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus
    Luise E Rogg
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 411:549-54. 2011
    ..Our findings support the existence of complex post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms controlling chitin biosynthetic machinery in response to cell wall damage...
  23. pmc Calcineurin controls growth, morphology, and pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Box 3499, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 5:1091-103. 2006
    ..Our findings reveal that calcineurin appears to play a globally conserved role in the virulence of several pathogenic fungi and yet plays specialized roles in each and can be an excellent target for therapeutic intervention...
  24. pmc Surfactant protein D binding to Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae is calcineurin-sensitive
    Scarlett Geunes-Boyer
    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Med Mycol 48:580-8. 2010
    ..Elucidation of the interaction between lung innate immune factors and A. fumigatus could lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions...
  25. doi request reprint Newer combination antifungal therapies for invasive aspergillosis
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Med Mycol 49:S77-81. 2011
    ..The calcineurin and the Hsp90 pathways are two such untouched arenas in which targeted manipulation may lead to great advances against aspergillosis...
  26. ncbi request reprint Mortality following blood culture in premature infants: increased with Gram-negative bacteremia and candidemia, but not Gram-positive bacteremia
    Daniel K Benjamin
    Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC 27715, USA
    J Perinatol 24:175-80. 2004
    ..To describe survival following nosocomial bloodstream infections and quantify excess mortality associated with positive blood culture...
  27. ncbi request reprint Combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis: utilizing new targeting strategies
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord 5:203-10. 2005
    ..There has been a great deal of new data published exploring the possibilities of combination therapy, but clinicians need to be aware of the potential advantages and disadvantages of combination antifungal therapy for IA...
  28. pmc In vitro analyses, animal models, and 60 clinical cases of invasive Aspergillus terreus infection
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3217-25. 2004
  29. ncbi request reprint Harnessing calcineurin as a novel anti-infective agent against invasive fungal infections
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:418-30. 2007
    ..This Review summarizes our current understanding of calcineurin biology in these fungal species, and its exciting potential role in treating invasive fungal infections...
  30. pmc Phosphorylation of Calcineurin at a Novel Serine-Proline Rich Region Orchestrates Hyphal Growth and Virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Praveen R Juvvadi
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 9:e1003564. 2013
    ..These findings suggest the possibility of harnessing this unique SPRR for innovative antifungal drug design to combat invasive aspergillosis. ..
  31. doi request reprint Clinical epidemiology of 960 patients with invasive aspergillosis from the PATH Alliance registry
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Infect 65:453-64. 2012
    ..The study investigated the epidemiology and outcome of invasive aspergillosis (IA), an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients...
  32. ncbi request reprint Anidulafungin: a new echinocandin for the treatment of fungal infections
    Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
    Department of Pediatrics, Miami Children s Hospital, Florida, USA
    Drugs Today (Barc) 42:533-44. 2006
    ..In February 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the echinocandin anidulafungin for the treatment of patients with candidemia, peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscesses and esophageal candidiasis...
  33. pmc Plasma membrane localization is required for RasA-mediated polarized morphogenesis and virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus
    Jarrod R Fortwendel
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 11:966-77. 2012
    ..Our results demonstrate that plasma membrane-associated RasA is critical for polarized morphogenesis, cell wall stability, and virulence in A. fumigatus...
  34. ncbi request reprint Review of newer antifungal and immunomodulatory strategies for invasive aspergillosis
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:S157-87. 2003
    ..This review will detail the available in vitro, in vivo, and clinical experience with the newer antifungal and immunomodulatory therapies in development for treatment of invasive aspergillosis...
  35. ncbi request reprint Combination and sequential antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis: review of published in vitro and in vivo interactions and 6281 clinical cases from 1966 to 2001
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:S188-224. 2003
    ..Improvement was noted with amphotericin B or itraconazole followed by voriconazole but not with itraconazole followed by amphotericin B...
  36. ncbi request reprint Value of an inhalational model of invasive aspergillosis
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Box 3499, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Med Mycol 42:417-25. 2004
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Invasive Candida infections in the neonate
    P Brian Smith
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, PO Box 17969, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Drug Resist Updat 8:147-62. 2005
    ..In addition, diagnostic alternatives to traditional blood culture, experience with antifungal agents for prophylaxis and therapeutic options, including newer antifungal agents, will be presented...
  38. pmc Differential localization patterns of septins during growth of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus reveal novel functions
    Praveen Rao Juvvadi
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 405:238-43. 2011
    ..Localization of AspD and AspE has never been reported in filamentous fungi. Taken together these results suggest that septins in A. fumigatus might have unique functions in morphogenesis and pathogenicity...
  39. pmc Regulatable Ras activity is critical for proper establishment and maintenance of polarity in Aspergillus fumigatus
    Jarrod R Fortwendel
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 10:611-5. 2011
    ..These findings highlight the requirement for balanced Ras activity in the establishment and maintenance of polarized growth in filamentous fungi...
  40. ncbi request reprint Candida bloodstream infection in neonates
    Daniel K Benjamin
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
    Semin Perinatol 27:375-83. 2003
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Candida endocarditis: contemporary cases from the International Collaboration of Infectious Endocarditis Merged Database (ICE-mD)
    Daniel K Benjamin
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
    Scand J Infect Dis 36:453-5. 2004
    ..We evaluated 16 patients with Candida IE nested within a cohort of 2,022 patients with IE. Prosthetic valve IE was more common in patients with Candida (50% vs 17%); mortality was 37% for patients with Candida...
  42. ncbi request reprint Neonatal candidemia and end-organ damage: a critical appraisal of the literature using meta-analytic techniques
    Daniel K Benjamin
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Pediatrics 112:634-40. 2003
    ..We evaluated the current medical literature in an effort to critique the literature and to document the reported prevalences of end-organ damage after neonatal candidemia...
  43. ncbi request reprint Prospective Aspergillus galactomannan antigen testing in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:558-64. 2007
    ..There have been few studies with this assay in pediatric patients, but early reports suggest that there may be differences in the performance such that false-positive GM tests in pediatric patients are more common than in adult patients...
  44. ncbi request reprint Micafungin: the US perspective
    Aimee K Zaas
    Duke University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 3:183-90. 2005
    ..Micafungin holds promise as a first-line treatment option for candidiasis, as well as prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections during periods of neutropenia in high-risk patients...
  45. ncbi request reprint Status of medical mycology education
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Med Mycol 41:457-67. 2003
    ....
  46. pmc Filamentous fungal-specific septin AspE is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with actin, tubulin and other septins in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus
    Praveen Rao Juvvadi
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 431:547-53. 2013
    ..Furthermore, the novel GFP-TrapĀ® affinity purification method used here complements widely-used GFP localization studies in fungal systems...
  47. doi request reprint Antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric hematology/oncology: new choices & new data
    Christopher C Dvorak
    Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 1278, USA
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 59:21-6. 2012
    ..The echinocandins are well-tolerated, but only available in intravenous form. Ultimately, studies demonstrating biologic risk factors for the development of IFI may lead to personalized prophylactic strategies...
  48. ncbi request reprint New antifungal agents under development in children and neonates
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 18:484-9. 2005
    ..The larger body of data in adult patients is used for comparative purposes only in an attempt to understand pediatric implications...
  49. ncbi request reprint Disseminated Candida tropicalis in a patient with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
    Terry C Dixon
    Department of Pediatrics, the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
    South Med J 97:788-90. 2004
    ..The authors report a case of a 16-year-old with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis who developed a fungemia with Candida tropicalis...
  50. ncbi request reprint Pediatric aspergillosis: disease and treatment differences in children
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:358-64. 2005
    ..Antifungal management of pediatric aspergillosis also requires unique dosing schemes that are not used in adult patients...
  51. pmc Quantification of 1,3-beta-D-glucan levels in children: preliminary data for diagnostic use of the beta-glucan assay in a pediatric setting
    P Brian Smith
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 14:924-5. 2007
    ..We found higher 1,3-beta-D-glucan levels in children than those previously reported in adults...
  52. pmc Disruption of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase in Aspergillus fumigatus eliminates gliotoxin production
    Robert A Cramer
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eukaryot Cell 5:972-80. 2006
    ..This result suggests that gliotoxin is not required for virulence in an immunosuppressed host with an invasive pulmonary infection...
  53. ncbi request reprint Phylogenomic analysis of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases in the genus Aspergillus
    Robert A Cramer
    Duke University Medical Center, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Gene 383:24-32. 2006
    ..Further analysis of these genes and their peptide products may identify important roles for secondary metabolites produced by NRPS in Aspergillus physiology, ecology, and fungal pathogenicity...
  54. ncbi request reprint Pediatric resident training in the diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Pediatrics 109:404-8. 2002
    ..To investigate the presence and characteristics of formalized curricula for pediatric resident education for the diagnosis and treatment of acute otitis media...
  55. ncbi request reprint Pediatric residents' clinical diagnostic accuracy of otitis media
    William J Steinbach
    Division of General Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA
    Pediatrics 109:993-8. 2002
    ..Pediatric resident physicians' clinical diagnostic accuracy of otitis media is unknown. We attempted to correlate the clinical examination of pediatric house staff with pediatric otolaryngologists and tympanometry...
  56. doi request reprint Pediatric invasive aspergillosis: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 139 contemporary cases
    Ana Burgos
    Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Pediatrics 121:e1286-94. 2008
    ..Invasive aspergillosis has been well characterized in adults; however, the incidence and analysis of risk factors, diagnostic tools, treatments, and outcomes have not been well described for a large cohort of pediatric patients...
  57. ncbi request reprint Neonatal candidiasis
    P Brian Smith
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 19:603-15. 2005
    ..Although some pharmacokinetic data for some products are available for term and near-term infants, optimal product choice, closing, and other treatment strategies also are unknown in this older age group...
  58. ncbi request reprint Teaching old drugs new tricks: reincarnating immunosuppressants as antifungal drugs
    Jill R Blankenship
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 4:192-9. 2003
    ..In summary, these highly successful pharmaceutical agents may find an even broader clinical application in combating infectious diseases...
  59. ncbi request reprint Mycoses in pediatric patients
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 20:663-78. 2006
    ..Through the efforts of dedicated clinicians and collaboration, pediatric indications and dosing strategies will eventually be discovered that directly benefit pediatric patients...
  60. pmc Scedosporium prolificans osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent child treated with voriconazole and caspofungin, as well as locally applied polyhexamethylene biguanide
    William J Steinbach
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3981-5. 2003
    ..We also review the treatments and outcomes of 28 reported cases of osteomyelitis or septic arthritis caused by Scedosporium species in immunocompetent patients...
  61. doi request reprint Invasive aspergillosis in pediatric patients
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 26:1779-87. 2010
    ..Further research is required to better establish optimal approaches to the management of pediatric patients with invasive aspergillosis recalcitrant to initial primary therapy...
  62. ncbi request reprint Advances against aspergillosis
    William J Steinbach
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 37:S155-6. 2003
  63. ncbi request reprint Empirical therapy for neonatal candidemia in very low birth weight infants
    Daniel K Benjamin
    Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Pediatrics 112:543-7. 2003
    ..Although guidelines for empirical therapy exist for patients with fever and neutropenia, these do not exist for neonates...
  64. ncbi request reprint Latent class analysis: an illustrative application for education in the assessment of resident otoscopic skills
    Daniel K Benjamin
    Duke University Medical Center Department of Pediatrics, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC 27715, USA
    Ambul Pediatr 4:13-7. 2004
    ..This is one reason why the otoscopic examination is difficult to teach. Available techniques can assess diagnostic exams when there is no gold standard-one of these is latent class analysis...
  65. ncbi request reprint Clinical research in the lay press: irresponsible journalism raises a huge dose of doubt
    Elias J Anaissie
    Myeloma Institute for Research and Therapy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1031-9. 2006
  66. ncbi request reprint Advances against aspergillosis (September 9-11, 2004, San Francisco, California)
    Karl V Clemons
    Department of Medicine, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, 751 So Bascom Av, San Jose, California 95128 2699, USA
    Mycopathologia 159:315-7. 2005
  67. doi request reprint Treatment of aspergillosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
    Thomas J Walsh
    Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 46:327-60. 2008
  68. ncbi request reprint Combination antifungals: an update
    Brahm H Segal
    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Division of Infectious Diseases, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 5:883-92. 2007
    ..We review data from in vitro and animal model studies as well as insights from clinical trials to discuss current thoughts and highlight the gaps in our knowledge surrounding combination antifungal therapy...
  69. ncbi request reprint Presentation of the PATH Alliance registry for prospective data collection and analysis of the epidemiology, therapy, and outcomes of invasive fungal infections
    David L Horn
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 59:407-14. 2007
    ..As enrollment continues, additional data will be analyzed and published, which will provide valuable information concerning the epidemiology, therapy, and outcomes of IFIs...
  70. pmc Stress, drugs, and evolution: the role of cellular signaling in fungal drug resistance
    Leah E Cowen
    University of Toronto, Department of Molecular Genetics, Medical Sciences Bldg, Rm 4368, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto M5S 1A8, Canada
    Eukaryot Cell 7:747-64. 2008
  71. ncbi request reprint Clinical considerations in the diagnosis of otitis media
    Monte R Klaudt
    Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 750 Welch Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3:313-20. 2003
    ..Finally, we address the issues involved in ensuring that both current and future physicians are appropriately trained in the diagnosis of this common illness...
  72. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology, outcomes, and costs of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised children in the United States, 2000
    Theoklis E Zaoutis
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Pediatrics 117:e711-6. 2006
    ..IA in adults has been well characterized; however, only a few small studies of IA in children have been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the incidence and outcomes of children with IA...