H M Stapleton


Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center
Country: USA


  1. Dembsey N, Brokaw F, Stapleton H, Dodson R, Onasch J, Jazan E, et al. Intervention to reduce gymnast exposure to flame retardants from pit foam: A case study. Environ Int. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..02), indicating that replacing the foam in a pit using materials free of FRs can reduce gymnast exposure to these chemicals during practice. ..
  2. Kassotis C, Kollitz E, Hoffman K, Sosa J, Stapleton H. Thyroid receptor antagonism as a contributory mechanism for adipogenesis induced by environmental mixtures in 3T3-L1 cells. Sci Total Environ. 2019;666:431-444 pubmed publisher
  3. Stapleton H, Misenheimer J, Hoffman K, Webster T. Flame retardant associations between children's handwipes and house dust. Chemosphere. 2014;116:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall these data suggest that exposure to these alternative FRs will be similar to PBDE exposure, and the influence of hand-to-mouth behavior in children's exposure needs to be further examined to better estimate exposure potential. ..
  4. Hoffman K, Daniels J, Stapleton H. Urinary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants and their variability in pregnant women. Environ Int. 2014;63:169-72 pubmed publisher
  5. Kassotis C, Nagel S, Stapleton H. Unconventional oil and gas chemicals and wastewater-impacted water samples promote adipogenesis via PPARγ-dependent and independent mechanisms in 3T3-L1 cells. Sci Total Environ. 2018;640-641:1601-1610 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that UOG wastewater has the potential to impact metabolic health at environmentally relevant concentrations. ..
  6. Davis E, Klosterhaus S, Stapleton H. Measurement of flame retardants and triclosan in municipal sewage sludge and biosolids. Environ Int. 2012;40:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of these contaminants of emerging concern in biosolids suggests that these chemicals have the potential to migrate out of consumer products and enter the outdoor environment. ..
  7. Dishaw L, Macaulay L, Roberts S, Stapleton H. Exposures, mechanisms, and impacts of endocrine-active flame retardants. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2014;19:125-33 pubmed publisher
  8. request reprint
    Stapleton H, Sjodin A, Jones R, Niehüser S, Zhang Y, Patterson D. Serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in foam recyclers and carpet installers working in the United States. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:3453-8 pubmed
    ..e., carpet padding), have higher body burdens of PBDEs, and thus may be at higher risk from adverse health effects associated with brominated flame retardant exposure. ..
  9. Dishaw L, Hunter D, Padnos B, Padilla S, Stapleton H. Developmental exposure to organophosphate flame retardants elicits overt toxicity and alters behavior in early life stage zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicol Sci. 2014;142:445-54 pubmed publisher
    ..For all chemicals tested, developmental exposures that were not overtly toxic significantly altered larval swimming activity. These data indicate that OPFRs adversely affect development of early life stage zebrafish. ..

More Information


  1. request reprint
    Stapleton H, Harner T, Shoeib M, Keller J, Schantz M, Leigh S, et al. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor dust standard reference materials. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;384:791-800 pubmed
    ..These SRMs are the first reference materials with certified concentrations for PBDEs, which will aid in validating future measurements of PBDEs in house dust and other similar matrices. ..
  2. request reprint
    Stapleton H, Brazil B, Holbrook R, Mitchelmore C, Benedict R, Konstantinov A, et al. In vivo and in vitro debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) by juvenile rainbow trout and common carp. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:4653-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, carp liver microsomes biotransformed up to 65% of the BDE 209 mass, primarily down to hexaBDE congeners. These microsomal incubations confirm a metabolic pathway for BDE 209 debromination. ..
  3. Mendelsohn E, Hagopian A, Hoffman K, Butt C, Lorenzo A, Congleton J, et al. Nail polish as a source of exposure to triphenyl phosphate. Environ Int. 2016;86:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that nail polish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed. ..
  4. Butt C, Hoffman K, Chen A, Lorenzo A, Congleton J, Stapleton H. Regional comparison of organophosphate flame retardant (PFR) urinary metabolites and tetrabromobenzoic acid (TBBA) in mother-toddler pairs from California and New Jersey. Environ Int. 2016;94:627-634 pubmed publisher
    ..In the children, several predictors of hand-mouth behavior were associated with BDCIPP, DPHP and ip-PPP urine levels, but no associations were observed with BCIPHIPP conjugates. ..
  5. Macaulay L, Bailey J, Levin E, Stapleton H. Persisting effects of a PBDE metabolite, 6-OH-BDE-47, on larval and juvenile zebrafish swimming behavior. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015;52:119-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that early life exposure to a PBDE metabolite can have immediate or later life (more than a month after exposure) effects on activity levels, habituation, and fear/anxiety. ..
  6. Stapleton H, Dodder N. Photodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether in house dust by natural sunlight. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008;27:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The ratio of BDE 197 to BDE 201 may also be indicative of BDE 209 degradation. as the ratio of these two congeners appeared to reach a steady-state value (~1) in both exposure scenarios in the present study. ..
  7. Phillips A, Hammel S, Hoffman K, Lorenzo A, Chen A, Webster T, et al. Children's residential exposure to organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers: Investigating exposure pathways in the TESIE study. Environ Int. 2018;116:176-185 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). OPE exposures are highly prevalent, and data provided herein further substantiate hand-to-mouth contact and dermal absorption as important pathways of OPE exposure, especially for young children. ..
  8. Hoffman K, Hammel S, Phillips A, Lorenzo A, Chen A, Calafat A, et al. Biomarkers of exposure to SVOCs in children and their demographic associations: The TESIE Study. Environ Int. 2018;119:26-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provide evidence that the assessments of SVOC-associated health impacts should focus on chemical mixtures. ..
  9. Leonetti C, Butt C, Hoffman K, Hammel S, Miranda M, Stapleton H. Brominated flame retardants in placental tissues: associations with infant sex and thyroid hormone endpoints. Environ Health. 2016;15:113 pubmed
    ..More research is needed to elucidate the effects of BFRs on placenta function during pregnancy, as well as the biological consequences of exposure and thyroid disruption. ..
  10. Butt C, Miranda M, Stapleton H. Development of an analytical method to quantify PBDEs, OH-BDEs, HBCDs, 2,4,6-TBP, EH-TBB, and BEH-TEBP in human serum. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408:2449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, 2,4,6-TBP was positively correlated with PBDEs, suggesting that they may have a similar source of exposure, or that 2,4,6-TBP may result from metabolism of PBDEs in vivo. ..
  11. Phillips A, Chen A, Rock K, Horman B, Patisaul H, Stapleton H. Editor's Highlight: Transplacental and Lactational Transfer of Firemaster® 550 Components in Dosed Wistar Rats. Toxicol Sci. 2016;153:246-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to confirm ip-PPP as a urinary metabolite of ITPs and establish a pharmacokinetic profile of FM 550 in a mammalian model. Firemaster 550 ;: lactational transfer ;: gestational transfer; metabolites; rodent. ..
  12. Carignan C, Fang M, Stapleton H, Heiger Bernays W, McClean M, Webster T. Urinary biomarkers of flame retardant exposure among collegiate U.S. gymnasts. Environ Int. 2016;94:362-368 pubmed publisher
    ..Such exposures are likely widespread, as we identified flame retardants in 89% of foam samples collected from gyms across the U.S. ..
  13. Leonetti C, Butt C, Stapleton H. Disruption of thyroid hormone sulfotransferase activity by brominated flame retardant chemicals in the human choriocarcinoma placenta cell line, BeWo. Chemosphere. 2018;197:81-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This research demonstrates that total TH SULT activity in placental cells are sensitive to BFR exposure; however, the mechanisms and consequences have yet to be fully elucidated. ..
  14. Stapleton H, Klosterhaus S, Keller A, Ferguson P, Van Bergen S, Cooper E, et al. Identification of flame retardants in polyurethane foam collected from baby products. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:5323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are therefore warranted to specifically measure infants exposure to these flame retardants from intimate contact with these products and to determine if there are any associated health concerns...
  15. Stapleton H, Klosterhaus S, Eagle S, Fuh J, Meeker J, Blum A, et al. Detection of organophosphate flame retardants in furniture foam and U.S. house dust. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:7490-5 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of these chemicals in foam and the high concentrations measured in dust (as high as 1.8 mg/g) warrant further studies to evaluate potential health effects from dust exposure, particularly for children. ..
  16. Carignan C, Butt C, Stapleton H, Meeker J, Mínguez Alarcón L, Williams P, et al. Influence of storage vial material on measurement of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites in urine. Chemosphere. 2017;181:440-446 pubmed publisher
  17. Carignan C, Mínguez Alarcón L, Williams P, Meeker J, Stapleton H, Butt C, et al. Paternal urinary concentrations of organophosphate flame retardant metabolites, fertility measures, and pregnancy outcomes among couples undergoing in vitro fertilization. Environ Int. 2018;111:232-238 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that paternal preconception exposure to TDCIPP may adversely impact successful oocyte fertilization, whereas female preconception exposure to ΣPFRs may be more relevant to adverse pregnancy outcomes. ..
  18. Thomas M, Stapleton H, Dills R, Violette H, Christakis D, Sathyanarayana S. Demographic and dietary risk factors in relation to urinary metabolites of organophosphate flame retardants in toddlers. Chemosphere. 2017;185:918-925 pubmed publisher
    ..Research with larger sample sizes and more detailed dietary data is required to confirm these preliminary findings. ..
  19. Hammel S, Hoffman K, Lorenzo A, Chen A, Phillips A, Butt C, et al. Associations between flame retardant applications in furniture foam, house dust levels, and residents' serum levels. Environ Int. 2017;107:181-189 pubmed publisher
    ..01). These results suggest that FR applications in sofas are likely major sources of exposure to these compounds in the home. ..
  20. Macaulay L, Chen A, Rock K, Dishaw L, Dong W, Hinton D, et al. Developmental toxicity of the PBDE metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 in zebrafish and the potential role of thyroid receptor β. Aquat Toxicol. 2015;168:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that OH-BDEs can adversely affect early life development of zebrafish and suggest they may be impacting thyroid hormone regulation in vivo through downregulation of the thyroid hormone receptor. ..
  21. request reprint
    Stapleton H, Kelly S, Allen J, McClean M, Webster T. Measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on hand wipes: estimating exposure from hand-to-mouth contact. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:3329-34 pubmed
    ..These estimates are greater than dietary intake rates and suggest hand-to-mouth contact may be a key exposure route for PBDEs. ..
  22. request reprint
    Stapleton H, Allen J, Kelly S, Konstantinov A, Klosterhaus S, Watkins D, et al. Alternate and new brominated flame retardants detected in U.S. house dust. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:6910-6 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the fact that numerous types of brominated flame retardants are present in indoor environments, raising questions about exposure to mixtures of these contaminants. ..
  23. Lefèvre E, Bossa N, Gardner C, Gehrke G, Cooper E, Stapleton H, et al. Biochar and activated carbon act as promising amendments for promoting the microbial debromination of tetrabromobisphenol A. Water Res. 2018;128:102-110 pubmed publisher
  24. Luz A, Kassotis C, Stapleton H, Meyer J. The high-production volume fungicide pyraclostrobin induces triglyceride accumulation associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, and promotes adipocyte differentiation independent of PPARγ activation, in 3T3-L1 cells. Toxicology. 2018;393:150-159 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposures that disrupt mitochondrial function may have the potential to contribute to the rising incidence of metabolic syndrome, and thus more research is needed to understand the human health impact of pyraclostrobin exposure. ..
  25. Siebenaler R, Cameron R, Butt C, Hoffman K, Higgins C, Stapleton H. Serum perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and associations with behavioral attributes. Chemosphere. 2017;184:687-693 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that personal behaviors may be important determinants of PFAS exposures. ..
  26. Stapleton H, Eagle S, Sjodin A, Webster T. Serum PBDEs in a North Carolina toddler cohort: associations with handwipes, house dust, and socioeconomic variables. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, serum ?BDE3 was inversely associated with socioeconomic status, whereas serum BDE-153 was positively associated with duration of breast-feeding and mother's education. ..
  27. request reprint
    Stapleton H, Dodder N, Kucklick J, Reddy C, Schantz M, Becker P, et al. Determination of HBCD, PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranded between 1993 and 2003. Mar Pollut Bull. 2006;52:522-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, HBCD concentrations appear to be increasing in California sea lion populations, whereas PBDE concentrations, between 1993 and 2003, were highly variable...