J E Rose

Summary

Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Potentiation of nicotine reward by alcohol
    Jed E Rose
    Nicotine Research Program, Duke University and VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:1930-1. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol
    Jed E Rose
    VA Medical Center and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:133-44. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint PET studies of the influences of nicotine on neural systems in cigarette smokers
    Jed E Rose
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:323-33. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Platelet monoamine oxidase, smoking cessation, and tobacco withdrawal symptoms
    J E Rose
    VA Medical Center, and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 3:383-90. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint Acute effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, cigarette reward and ad lib smoking
    J E Rose
    V A Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 68:187-97. 2001
  6. ncbi request reprint Dissociating nicotine and nonnicotine components of cigarette smoking
    J E Rose
    VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 67:71-81. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Arterial nicotine kinetics during cigarette smoking and intravenous nicotine administration: implications for addiction
    J E Rose
    Nicotine Research Program, Duke University and V A Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 56:99-107. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint Nicotine self-administration in animals and humans: similarities and differences
    J E Rose
    Nicotine Research Laboratory, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 130:28-40. 1997
  9. ncbi request reprint Nicotine-mecamylamine treatment for smoking cessation: the role of pre-cessation therapy
    J E Rose
    Nicotine Research Program, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6:331-43. 1998
  10. ncbi request reprint Dissociating the nicotine and airway sensory effects of smoking
    E C Westman
    Nicotine Research Laboratory, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, NC 27705, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 53:309-15. 1996

Detail Information

Publications59

  1. ncbi request reprint Potentiation of nicotine reward by alcohol
    Jed E Rose
    Nicotine Research Program, Duke University and VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:1930-1. 2002
  2. ncbi request reprint Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol
    Jed E Rose
    VA Medical Center and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:133-44. 2004
    ..These results highlight the potent interaction between ethanol and nicotinic systems, and suggest that ethanol can potentiate the rewarding effects of nicotine as well as offset some of the effects of a nicotinic antagonist...
  3. ncbi request reprint PET studies of the influences of nicotine on neural systems in cigarette smokers
    Jed E Rose
    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 160:323-33. 2003
    ..The effects of acute nicotine administration and smoking on brain function were investigated in two studies, with the primary goal of identifying neural systems that mediate these effects...
  4. ncbi request reprint Platelet monoamine oxidase, smoking cessation, and tobacco withdrawal symptoms
    J E Rose
    VA Medical Center, and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 3:383-90. 2001
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Acute effects of nicotine and mecamylamine on tobacco withdrawal symptoms, cigarette reward and ad lib smoking
    J E Rose
    V A Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 68:187-97. 2001
    ....
  6. ncbi request reprint Dissociating nicotine and nonnicotine components of cigarette smoking
    J E Rose
    VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 67:71-81. 2000
    ..Thus, addressing smokers' needs for both for the sensorimotor aspects of smoking as well as for the direct CNS effects of nicotine may be critical in enhancing smoking cessation treatment outcome...
  7. ncbi request reprint Arterial nicotine kinetics during cigarette smoking and intravenous nicotine administration: implications for addiction
    J E Rose
    Nicotine Research Program, Duke University and V A Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 56:99-107. 1999
    ..These results have significant implications for theories of addiction to nicotine as well as other drugs such as cocaine that may be subject to binding by lung tissue...
  8. ncbi request reprint Nicotine self-administration in animals and humans: similarities and differences
    J E Rose
    Nicotine Research Laboratory, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 130:28-40. 1997
    ..Animal models allow for analysis of anatomical and physiological mechanisms underlying nicotine self-administration; human studies validate the relevance to tobacco dependence and smoking cessation treatment...
  9. ncbi request reprint Nicotine-mecamylamine treatment for smoking cessation: the role of pre-cessation therapy
    J E Rose
    Nicotine Research Program, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6:331-43. 1998
    ..Moreover, the orthostatic decrease in blood pressure caused by mecamylamine was offset by nicotine. Mecamylamine before smoking cessation may be an effective adjunct to nicotine patch therapy...
  10. ncbi request reprint Dissociating the nicotine and airway sensory effects of smoking
    E C Westman
    Nicotine Research Laboratory, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, NC 27705, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 53:309-15. 1996
    ..These data support the hypothesis that replacement of the sensory cues of smoking with "airway sensory replacement" may be useful for smoking cessation...
  11. ncbi request reprint Naltrexone blockade of nicotine effects in cigarette smokers
    L H Brauer
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 143:339-46. 1999
    ..The role of endogenous opiate systems in cigarette smoking remains unclear. In laboratory animals, opiate antagonists block many of the effects of nicotine, but in humans they do not consistently alter smoking behavior...
  12. doi request reprint Nicotinic receptors in the habenula: importance for memory
    D Sanders
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Neuroscience 166:386-90. 2010
    ..Descending projections from the telencephalon through the habenula to brainstem nuclei using nicotinic receptors appear to be a key pathway for memory processing...
  13. ncbi request reprint Individual differences in smoking reward from de-nicotinized cigarettes
    L H Brauer
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 3:101-9. 2001
    ..The implications of these findings for smoking cessation treatment and for future research are discussed...
  14. ncbi request reprint Transdermal nicotine effects on attention
    E D Levin
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 140:135-41. 1998
    ..This study shows that, in addition to reducing attentional impairment, nicotine administered via transdermal patches can improve attentiveness in normal adult non-smokers...
  15. pmc Nicotinic alpha7- or beta2-containing receptor knockout: effects on radial-arm maze learning and long-term nicotine consumption in mice
    Edward D Levin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Behav Brain Res 196:207-13. 2009
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint Effects of smoking abstinence on adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a preliminary study
    F Joseph McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 2701, Durham, NC, 27708, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 197:95-105. 2008
    ..Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke at higher rates than the general population; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity...
  17. ncbi request reprint Individual differences in nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and sex predict transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues
    Francis J McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2148-57. 2008
    ..These findings provide further evidence that reactivity to conditioned drug cues is multiply determined and suggest that smoking cessation treatments designed to reduce cue reactivity focus on each of these variables...
  18. ncbi request reprint The effects of foods, beverages, and other factors on cigarette palatability
    F Joseph McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 9:505-10. 2007
    ..Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed...
  19. ncbi request reprint Multiple brain pathways and receptors underlying tobacco addiction
    Jed E Rose
    Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 74:1263-70. 2007
    ..Tobacco addiction may thus be seen as a complex neuropsychopharmacological disorder; further progress in smoking cessation treatment may require that we address the multiple molecular and brain components of this addiction...
  20. ncbi request reprint DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is associated with transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues
    F Joseph McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 194:433-41. 2007
    ..A dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism has been related to reactivity to smoking cues among smokers, but the effect of this genetic variation on brain responses to smoking cues has not been evaluated...
  21. ncbi request reprint Selectively reduced responses to smoking cues in amygdala following extinction-based smoking cessation: results of a preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    F Joseph McClernon
    Duke University Medical Center, NC 27708, USA
    Addict Biol 12:503-12. 2007
    ....
  22. pmc Ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, decreases nicotine self-administration in rats
    Edward D Levin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 600:93-7. 2008
    ..5-HT mechanisms play critical roles in the maintenance of nicotine self-administration. Better understanding of those roles may help lead to new 5-HT-based treatments for tobacco addiction...
  23. doi request reprint Disrupting nicotine reinforcement: from cigarette to brain
    Jed E Rose
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1141:233-56. 2008
    ..In addition to unimodal therapies, treatment combinations will be discussed that might more effectively block cigarette reward and thereby further enhance smoking abstinence...
  24. pmc 24-h smoking abstinence potentiates fMRI-BOLD activation to smoking cues in cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum
    F Joseph McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204:25-35. 2009
    ..Exposure to smoking-related cues can trigger relapse in smokers attempting to maintain abstinence...
  25. pmc Effects of sazetidine-A, a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitizing agent on alcohol and nicotine self-administration in selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) rats
    Amir H Rezvani
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 104790, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 211:161-74. 2010
    ..Sazetidine-A [6-(5(((S)-azetidine-2-yl)methoxy)pyridine-3-yl)hex-5-yn-1-ol] is a novel compound that potently and selectively desensitizes alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors with only modest receptor activation...
  26. pmc Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score
    Jed E Rose
    Department of Psychiatry and Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Mol Med 16:247-53. 2010
    ..These assessments, taken together, can help match most smokers with optimal NRT doses and help rapidly identify some who may be better treated using other methods...
  27. doi request reprint Reinforcing effects of nicotine and non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke
    Jed E Rose
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:1-12. 2010
    ..Nicotine and non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke contribute to its reinforcing effects; however, the specific role of each component in maintaining behavior has not yet been elucidated...
  28. pmc Kinetics of brain nicotine accumulation in dependent and nondependent smokers assessed with PET and cigarettes containing 11C-nicotine
    Jed E Rose
    Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5190-5. 2010
    ..For these reasons, smokers' dependence on cigarette smoking, or the resistance of NDS to becoming dependent, cannot be explained solely by a faster brain nicotine accumulation...
  29. doi request reprint Silver acetate interactions with nicotine and non-nicotine smoke components
    Jed E Rose
    Department of Psychiatry and Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research, Duke University, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18:462-9. 2010
    ..Further exploration is warranted of the use of silver-based preparations as a short-term adjunct to smoking cessation treatment...
  30. doi request reprint Sazetidine-A, a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor desensitizing agent and partial agonist, reduces nicotine self-administration in rats
    Edward D Levin
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Box 104790, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 332:933-9. 2010
    ..Saz-A, which is a selective alpha4beta2-desensitizing agent and partial agonist, effectively reduces nicotine self-administration. This type of treatment holds promise for a new therapy to aid smoking cessation...
  31. doi request reprint Precessation treatment with nicotine patch significantly increases abstinence rates relative to conventional treatment
    Jed E Rose
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 11:1067-75. 2009
    ..We hypothesized that smoking in the presence of continuous levels of nicotine would attenuate the reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and lead to a decline in dependence on inhaled nicotine, thus facilitating cessation...
  32. doi request reprint Pulmonary delivery of nicotine pyruvate: sensory and pharmacokinetic characteristics
    Jed E Rose
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18:385-94. 2010
    ..Further trials of this promising nicotine inhalation technology are warranted to assess its safety and efficacy in smoking cessation treatment or harm reduction approaches...
  33. ncbi request reprint Regional brain activity correlates of nicotine dependence
    Jed E Rose
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2441-52. 2007
    ..The results also highlight the likely role of thalamic gating processes as well as striatal reward and corticolimbic regulatory pathways in the maintenance of cigarette addiction...
  34. ncbi request reprint Adolescent-onset nicotine self-administration modeled in female rats
    Edward D Levin
    Neurobehavioral Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, 341 Bell Building, Box 3412, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 169:141-9. 2003
    ..Although the great majority of tobacco addiction begins during adolescence, little is known about differential nicotine effects in adolescents versus adults...
  35. ncbi request reprint Pharmacologic and sensorimotor components of satiation in cigarette smoking
    Jed E Rose
    VA Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 76:243-50. 2003
    ..v. nicotine and denicotinized smoke approximated the effects of the usual brand. The results of this study underscore the importance of both sensorimotor aspects of smoking and the pharmacologic effects of nicotine in tobacco dependence...
  36. ncbi request reprint Mecamylamine acutely increases human intravenous nicotine self-administration
    Jed E Rose
    VA Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 76:307-13. 2003
    ..Thus, animal models of nicotine dependence may need to be employed in conjunction with self-administration procedures in order to duplicate the effects of mecamylamine observed in studies of human smokers...
  37. ncbi request reprint The effects of controlled deep breathing on smoking withdrawal symptoms in dependent smokers
    F Joseph McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry, Nicotine Research Program, Duke University and Durham VA Medical Centers, 2200 W Main St, B 150, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Addict Behav 29:765-72. 2004
    ..The results of this preliminary study suggest that controlled deep breathing may be useful for relieving symptoms of smoking withdrawal...
  38. ncbi request reprint Extinguishing the rewarding value of smoke cues: pharmacological and behavioral treatments
    Jed E Rose
    VA Medical Center, and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 6:523-32. 2004
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Mecamylamine moderates cue-induced emotional responses in smokers
    F Joseph McClernon
    Tobacco Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3516, Durham, NC 27710, United States
    Addict Behav 30:741-53. 2005
    ..A similar trend was observed for negative affect. These results suggest that mecamylamine can moderate smoking cue-induced emotional responses in smokers...
  40. pmc Abstinence-induced changes in self-report craving correlate with event-related FMRI responses to smoking cues
    F Joseph McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:1940-7. 2005
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Immediate antecedents of cigarette smoking in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study
    Jean C Beckham
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 13:219-28. 2005
    ..These results are consistent with previous ambulatory findings regarding mood in smokers but also underscore that, in certain populations, mood and symptom variables may be significantly associated with ad lib smoking...
  42. ncbi request reprint Nicotine and nonnicotine factors in cigarette addiction
    Jed E Rose
    Center for Nicotine and Smoking Cessation Research, Duke University Medical Center, 2424 Erwin Road, Suite 201, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184:274-85. 2006
    ..These include constituents that provide reinforcing sensory stimulation, components that minimize excessive irritation from inhaled nicotine and other pharmacologically active compounds in cigarette smoke...
  43. ncbi request reprint Neuroactive steroids, negative affect, and nicotine dependence severity in male smokers
    Christine E Marx
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, and Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:462-72. 2006
    ..These molecules may be relevant to tobacco addiction and affective symptoms...
  44. ncbi request reprint Precessation treatment with nicotine skin patch facilitates smoking cessation
    Jed E Rose
    Nicotine Research Program, VA Medical Center and Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 8:89-101. 2006
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Transdermal nicotine attenuates depression symptoms in nonsmokers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    F Joseph McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:125-33. 2006
    ..Despite established links between nicotine dependence and depression, little research has examined the effects of nicotine on depression symptoms...
  46. ncbi request reprint Oral nicotine solution for smoking cessation: a pilot tolerability study
    E C Westman
    Smoking Research Laboratory and Nicotine Research Program, Duke University and Durham VA Medical Centers, Department of Medicine, Duke University, North Carolina 27705, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 3:391-6. 2001
    ..Further research to clarify appropriate dosages and optimal beverages for mixture, and controlled trials to assess safety and efficacy, appear in order...
  47. ncbi request reprint The nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine preferentially inhibits cocaine vs. food self-administration in rats
    E D Levin
    Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Physiol Behav 71:565-70. 2000
    ..Nicotinic antagonistic treatment may be a useful new approach to treat cocaine addiction...
  48. pmc Increases in impulsivity following smoking abstinence are related to baseline nicotine intake and boredom susceptibility
    Jasmine Pettiford
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27707, United States
    Addict Behav 32:2351-7. 2007
    ..These results suggest that smoking abstinence significantly increases errors of response inhibition and that the magnitude of this increase is related to trait impulsivity and nicotine intake variables...
  49. ncbi request reprint Quitting smoking raises whole blood glutathione
    J D Lane
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Physiol Behav 60:1379-81. 1996
    ..Results suggest that oxidative stress and free-radical damage diminish soon after smoking cessation. Thus, some significant health benefits may appear rapidly when people quit smoking...
  50. doi request reprint Hippocampal and striatal gray matter volume are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome: results of an exploratory voxel-based morphometric analysis
    Brett Froeliger
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 2701, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210:577-83. 2010
    ..However, associations between brain structure and smoking cessation treatment outcomes have not been reported...
  51. ncbi request reprint The effects of trauma recall on smoking topography in posttraumatic stress disorder and non-posttraumatic stress disorder trauma survivors
    F Joseph McClernon
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Addict Behav 30:247-57. 2005
    ....
  52. ncbi request reprint Mecamylamine modifies the pharmacokinetics and reinforcing effects of alcohol
    Ola Blomqvist
    Alcohol Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030 2103, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26:326-31. 2002
    ..This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that, during the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration curve, mecamylamine would reduce the stimulating and pleasurable effects of an intoxicating dose of alcohol in humans...
  53. ncbi request reprint Reliabilities and intercorrelations of reported and objective measures of smoking in patients with schizophrenia
    Yen Kuang Yang
    National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan
    Schizophr Res 60:9-12. 2003
    ..All measures demonstrated good test-retest reliability. Objective measures of smoking were consistently intercorrelated and should be the preferred outcome measures in studies testing strategies to reduce smoking...
  54. ncbi request reprint Denicotinized cigarettes: a new tool to combat cigarette addiction?
    Jed E Rose
    Addiction 102:181-2. 2007
  55. pmc Molecular genetics of successful smoking cessation: convergent genome-wide association study results
    George R Uhl
    Molecular Neurobiology Research Branch, National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 333 Cassell Dr, Ste 3510, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:683-93. 2008
    ..Smoking remains a major public health problem. Twin studies indicate that the ability to quit smoking is substantially heritable, with genetics that overlap modestly with the genetics of vulnerability to dependence on addictive substances...
  56. pmc Molecular genetics of nicotine dependence and abstinence: whole genome association using 520,000 SNPs
    George R Uhl
    Molecular Neurobiology Branch, NIH IRP, NIDA, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    BMC Genet 8:10. 2007
    ....
  57. doi request reprint A randomized trial of nicotine replacement therapy in combination with reduced-nicotine cigarettes for smoking cessation
    Karen M Becker
    Becker and Associates Consulting, Inc, Washington, DC, USA
    Nicotine Tob Res 10:1139-48. 2008
    ..4% vs. 21.9%). No serious adverse events were attributable to the investigational product. Quest plus NRT offers promise as a new smoking cessation treatment...
  58. ncbi request reprint Ethics of tobacco company funding
    Jed E Rose
    Science 308:632. 2005
  59. ncbi request reprint Guidelines on nicotine dose selection for in vivo research
    Shannon G Matta
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 874 Union Avenue, Crowe 115, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 190:269-319. 2007
    ..In many cases, such discrepancies could be attributed to the complex variables comprising species-specific in vivo responses to acute or chronic nicotine exposure...