Karl G Linden

Summary

Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Comparative effectiveness of UV wavelengths for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water
    K G Linden
    Duke University, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Water Sci Technol 43:171-4. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint UV/H2O2 degradation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water evaluated via toxicity assays
    Karl G Linden
    Duke University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Durham, North Carolina 27708 0287, USA
    Water Sci Technol 55:313-9. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint UV disinfection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water
    Karl G Linden
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 36:2519-22. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Biological assessments of a mixture of endocrine disruptors at environmentally relevant concentrations in water following UV/H2O2 oxidation
    Pei Jen Chen
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, USA
    Sci Total Environ 376:18-26. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint Biological assessment of bisphenol A degradation in water following direct photolysis and UV advanced oxidation
    Pei Jen Chen
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, United States
    Chemosphere 65:1094-102. 2006
  6. pmc Phototransformation of selected organophosphorus pesticides: roles of hydroxyl and carbonate radicals
    Changlong Wu
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    Water Res 44:3585-94. 2010
  7. ncbi request reprint Degradation and by-product formation of diazinon in water during UV and UV/H(2)O(2) treatment
    Hilla Shemer
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall Engineering Building, Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    J Hazard Mater 136:553-9. 2006
  8. ncbi request reprint The ROH,UV concept to characterize and the model uv/H202 process in natural waters
    Erik J Rosenfeld
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, Durham, North Carolina 27708 0287, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:2548-53. 2007
  9. pmc Photooxidation and subsequent biodegradability of recalcitrant tri-alkyl phosphates TCEP and TBP in water
    Michael J Watts
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, FAMU FSU College of Engineering, Florida State University, USA
    Water Res 42:4949-54. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Comparative disinfection efficiency of pulsed and continuous-wave UV irradiation technologies
    Zuzana Bohrerova
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Water Res 42:2975-82. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications44

  1. ncbi request reprint Comparative effectiveness of UV wavelengths for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water
    K G Linden
    Duke University, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Water Sci Technol 43:171-4. 2001
    ....
  2. ncbi request reprint UV/H2O2 degradation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water evaluated via toxicity assays
    Karl G Linden
    Duke University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Durham, North Carolina 27708 0287, USA
    Water Sci Technol 55:313-9. 2007
    ..Based on these results it was concluded than complete destruction of oestrogenic activity was possible under practical advanced oxidation conditions for a variety of water qualities...
  3. ncbi request reprint UV disinfection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water
    Karl G Linden
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 36:2519-22. 2002
    ..We conclude that UV disinfection at practical doses achieves appreciable (much greater than 4 log) inactivation of G. lamblia cysts in water with no evidence of DNA repair leading to infectivity reactivation...
  4. ncbi request reprint Biological assessments of a mixture of endocrine disruptors at environmentally relevant concentrations in water following UV/H2O2 oxidation
    Pei Jen Chen
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, USA
    Sci Total Environ 376:18-26. 2007
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Biological assessment of bisphenol A degradation in water following direct photolysis and UV advanced oxidation
    Pei Jen Chen
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, United States
    Chemosphere 65:1094-102. 2006
    ..Furthermore, the UV/H(2)O(2) AOP was effective for reducing larval lethality in treated BPA solutions, suggesting BPA degradation occurred and that the degradation process did not result in the production of acutely toxic intermediates...
  6. pmc Phototransformation of selected organophosphorus pesticides: roles of hydroxyl and carbonate radicals
    Changlong Wu
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    Water Res 44:3585-94. 2010
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Degradation and by-product formation of diazinon in water during UV and UV/H(2)O(2) treatment
    Hilla Shemer
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall Engineering Building, Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    J Hazard Mater 136:553-9. 2006
    ..Photolysis kinetics, quantum yield and UV/H(2)O(2) degradation of the reaction product IMP was determined using MP UV lamp at pH values of 4, 7 and 10...
  8. ncbi request reprint The ROH,UV concept to characterize and the model uv/H202 process in natural waters
    Erik J Rosenfeld
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, Durham, North Carolina 27708 0287, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:2548-53. 2007
    ....
  9. pmc Photooxidation and subsequent biodegradability of recalcitrant tri-alkyl phosphates TCEP and TBP in water
    Michael J Watts
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, FAMU FSU College of Engineering, Florida State University, USA
    Water Res 42:4949-54. 2008
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Comparative disinfection efficiency of pulsed and continuous-wave UV irradiation technologies
    Zuzana Bohrerova
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Water Res 42:2975-82. 2008
    ..Inactivation was significantly faster using PUV irradiation compared to LP or MP UV lamps at equivalent fluence levels. A significant fraction of the enhanced PUV inactivation efficiency was due to wavelengths greater than 295 nm...
  11. pmc Ultraviolet photolysis of chlorpyrifos: developmental neurotoxicity modeled in PC12 cells
    Theodore A Slotkin
    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 117:338-43. 2009
    ..Ultraviolet photodegradation products from pesticides form both in the field and during water treatment...
  12. ncbi request reprint Destruction of estrogenic activity in water using UV advanced oxidation
    Erik J Rosenfeldt
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Sci Total Environ 377:105-13. 2007
    ..A steady state OH radical model was used to predict oxidation of EE2 in laboratory and natural waters...
  13. pmc Aqueous photodegradation and toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fluorene, dibenzofuran, and dibenzothiophene
    Hilla Shemer
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall Engineering Building, Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    Water Res 41:853-61. 2007
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Photodegradation of metolachlor applying UV and UV/H2O2
    Changlong Wu
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 0287, USA
    J Agric Food Chem 55:4059-65. 2007
    ..The formation of several photolysis byproducts was identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and a scheme for the metolachlor photodegradation pathway is proposed...
  15. pmc Degradation and byproduct formation of parathion in aqueous solutions by UV and UV/H(2)O(2) treatment
    Changlong Wu
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    Water Res 42:4780-90. 2008
    ..A photodegradation scheme suggesting three simultaneous pathways was proposed in the study...
  16. ncbi request reprint Chlorine photolysis and subsequent OH radical production during UV treatment of chlorinated water
    Michael J Watts
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    Water Res 41:2871-8. 2007
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Impact of hydrogen peroxide on nitrite formation during UV disinfection
    Charles M Sharpless
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, 121 Hudson Hall Engineering Bldg Box 90287, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Water Res 37:4730-6. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals bisphenol A, ethinyl estradiol, and estradiol during UV photolysis and advanced oxidation processes
    Erik J Rosenfeldt
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 0287, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 38:5476-83. 2004
    ..However, in all cases the EDCs were more effectively degraded utilizing UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation as compared to direct UV photolysis treatment...
  19. ncbi request reprint Relative rate constants of contaminant candidate list pesticides with hydroxyl radicals
    Hilla Shemer
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:4460-6. 2006
    ..A method was established that accounts for direct photolysis when calculating kOH using UV/H2O2 process for compounds which degrade significantly by a direct photolysis mechanism...
  20. pmc Advanced oxidation kinetics of aqueous trialkyl phosphate flame retardants and plasticizers
    Michael J Watts
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 43:2937-42. 2009
    ..TBEP oxidation rates were similar in the surface waters tested. Substantial TCEP oxidation in the model surface water required a significant increase in initial H2O2...
  21. ncbi request reprint Degradation of the pharmaceutical metronidazole via UV, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes
    Hilla Shemer
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    Chemosphere 63:269-76. 2006
    ..The major advantages and disadvantages of each process and the complexity of comparing the various advanced oxidation processes on an equal basis are discussed...
  22. ncbi request reprint Standardizing photoreactivation: comparison of DNA photorepair rate in Escherichia coli using four different fluorescent lamps
    Zuzana Bohrerova
    Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Water Res 41:2832-8. 2007
    ..Because the disinfection efficiency of the sun affected the results, laboratory-based repair experiments may only indicate "potential" photorepair, as sunlight may be more lethal than laboratory photorepair lamps...
  23. ncbi request reprint Ultraviolet and chlorine disinfection of mycobacterium in wastewater: effect of aggregation
    Zuzana Bohrerova
    Duke University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Water Environ Res 78:565-71. 2006
    ..terrae passed through 41- and 20-microm filters were inactivated rapidly, with no survivors after moderate disinfection doses. Inactivation of Mycobacteria in wastewater may be compromised by aggregates larger than 41 microns...
  24. pmc Enhanced UV inactivation of adenoviruses under polychromatic UV lamps
    Karl G Linden
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 73:7571-4. 2007
    ..Implications for water treatment, public health, and the future of UV regulations for virus disinfection are discussed...
  25. ncbi request reprint UV disinfection of indigenous aerobic spores: implications for UV reactor validation in unfiltered waters
    Hadas Mamane-Gravetz
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall Engineering Bldg, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Water Res 38:2898-906. 2004
    ..7 nm inactivation, can be a useful tool when validating plant performance, and might also be used as a regular monitor of UV fluence and performance in a water treatment plant...
  26. ncbi request reprint Experimental and model comparisons of low- and medium-pressure Hg lamps for the direct and H2O2 assisted UV photodegradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in simulated drinking water
    Charles M Sharpless
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, Durham, North Carolina 27708 0287, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 37:1933-40. 2003
    ..The model predicts that H2O2 may enhance NDMA removal for short optical path lengths but that light-screening by H2O2 may decrease the removal rates for optical path lengths typical of those found in UV reactors...
  27. pmc Molecular indications of protein damage in adenoviruses after UV disinfection
    Anne C Eischeid
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 77:1145-7. 2011
    ..To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate protein damage in UV-treated adenovirus, and the overview presented here is expected to provide a basis for further, more detailed work...
  28. ncbi request reprint Determining the viability response of pine pollen to atmospheric conditions during long-distance dispersal
    Zuzana Bohrerova
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Ecol Appl 19:656-67. 2009
    ..The empirical viability equations that resulted from our experiments can be used in an atmospheric dispersal model to estimate the viable range of tree pollen...
  29. ncbi request reprint Experimental measurements of fluence distribution in a UV reactor using fluorescent microspheres
    Zuzana Bohrerova
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 39:8925-30. 2005
    ..It also serves as a complement to biodosimetry testing by providing greater insights regarding reactor behavior and validation...
  30. ncbi request reprint UV photolysis of nitrate: effects of natural organic matter and dissolved inorganic carbon and implications for UV water disinfection
    C M Sharpless
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Box 90287, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0287, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 35:2949-55. 2001
    ..Under current U.S. regulations, NO2- formation should not pose a significant problem for water utilities during UV disinfection of drinking water with MP Hg lamps...
  31. ncbi request reprint Relationship between physiochemical properties, aggregation and u.v. inactivation of isolated indigenous spores in water
    H Mamane-Gravetz
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 98:351-63. 2005
    ..v. inactivation kinetics of spore isolates...
  32. ncbi request reprint Efficiency of pyrimidine dimer formation in Escherichia coli across UV wavelengths
    A C Eischeid
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 103:1650-6. 2007
    ..Inactivation of Escherichia coli as a function of ultraviolet (UV) wavelength was investigated by using the endonuclease-sensitive site (ESS) assay to quantify pyrimidine dimer formation...
  33. ncbi request reprint Assessment of DNA damage and repair in Mycobacterium terrae after exposure to UV irradiation
    Z Bohrerova
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    J Appl Microbiol 101:995-1001. 2006
    ..Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for drinking water treatment was examined for inactivation and subsequent dark and photo-repair of Mycobacterium terrae...
  34. ncbi request reprint Effect of UV irradiation on organic matter extracted from treated Ohio River water studied through the use of electrospray mass spectrometry
    Matthew L Magnuson
    United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 36:5252-60. 2002
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Treatment of volatile organic chemicals on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List using ozonation and the O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation process
    Wei R Chen
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 40:2734-9. 2006
    ..Bromide formation during the ozonation of bromobenzene indicates that bromate can be formed, and thus, ozonation and O3/H2O2 AOP may not be suitable for the treatment of bromobenzene...
  36. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of UV irradiation for photolytic and oxidative degradation of pharmaceutical compounds in water
    Vanessa J Pereira
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Water Res 41:4413-23. 2007
    ..Fundamental direct and indirect photolysis parameters obtained in LGW are reported and used to model the MP-UV photolysis and MP-UV/H(2)O(2) oxidation of the pharmaceuticals in SW, predicting the experimental results very well...
  37. ncbi request reprint Inactivation of E. coli, B. subtilis spores, and MS2, T4, and T7 phage using UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation
    Hadas Mamane
    School of Mechanical Engineering and Porter School of Environmental Studies, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    J Hazard Mater 146:479-86. 2007
    ..B. subtilis spores did not show any inactivation at any of the conditions used in this study. The OH radical exposure (CT value) was calculated to present the relationship between the hydroxyl radical dose and microbial inactivation...
  38. ncbi request reprint Impact of lamp shadowing and reflection on the fluence rate distribution in a multiple low-pressure UV lamp array
    Shanshan Jin
    Infilco Degremont North American Research and Development Center, 510 E Jackson St, Richmond, VA 23219, USA
    Water Res 39:2711-21. 2005
    ..If shadowing is not included in fluence rate distribution models, the fluence rate will be over predicted in the shadow zone of a neighboring lamp, falsely skewing model inactivation predictions...
  39. ncbi request reprint Comparisons of polychromatic and monochromatic UV-based treatments of bisphenol-A in water via toxicity assessments
    Pei Jen Chen
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, EPA, RTP, NC, USA
    Chemosphere 68:1041-9. 2007
    ..Furthermore, the UV/H2O2 process was effective for reducing embryo toxicity of BPA, but resulted in the production of acidic intermediates, causing acute toxicity and delayed hatching in some medaka embryos...
  40. ncbi request reprint UV degradation kinetics and modeling of pharmaceutical compounds in laboratory grade and surface water via direct and indirect photolysis at 254 nm
    Vanessa J Pereira
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Environ Sci Technol 41:1682-8. 2007
    ..These models were used to discuss the effects of optical path length and H2O2 concentration on the UV-based rate constant predictions...
  41. ncbi request reprint Comparison of the efficiency of *OH radical formation during ozonation and the advanced oxidation processes O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2
    Erik J Rosenfeldt
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Eawag, 8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland
    Water Res 40:3695-704. 2006
    ..As the *OH radical exposure increased, the energy gap between UV/H2O2 AOP and ozone processes decreased, becoming negligible in some water quality scenarios...
  42. ncbi request reprint Reactions of thiocarbamate, triazine and urea herbicides, RDX and benzenes on EPA Contaminant Candidate List with ozone and with hydroxyl radicals
    Wei R Chen
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Water Res 42:137-44. 2008
    ..Removal of a contaminant does not mean complete mineralization and reaction byproducts may be a problem if they are recalcitrant and are likely to cause health concerns...
  43. ncbi request reprint Ultraviolet light inactivation of protozoa in drinking water: a Bayesian meta-analysis
    Song S Qian
    The Cadmus Group, Inc, 6330 Quadrangle Drive, Suite 180, Chapel Hill, NC 27517, USA
    Water Res 38:317-26. 2004
    ..The Bayesian approach allows us to present the uncertainty in terms of risk, which is better suited for supporting US EPA in developing regulations...
  44. ncbi request reprint Spectral sensitivity of Bacillus subtilis spores and MS2 coliphage for validation testing of ultraviolet reactors for water disinfection
    Hadas Mamane-Gravetz
    Porter School of Environment, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
    Environ Sci Technol 39:7845-52. 2005
    ..Consequently, the action spectrum, which is specific for each microorganism, has implications on the uncertainty of UV fluence determination during validation of reactors with polychromatic UV lamps...