Bryan R Cullen

Summary

Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Is RNA interference a physiologically relevant innate antiviral immune response in mammals?
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA Electronic address
    Cell Host Microbe 14:374-8. 2013
  2. pmc MicroRNAs as mediators of viral evasion of the immune system
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Immunol 14:205-10. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Making a NeST for a persistent virus
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 13:241-2. 2013
  4. pmc Herpesvirus microRNAs: phenotypes and functions
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Opin Virol 1:211-5. 2011
  5. doi request reprint Viral RNAs: lessons from the enemy
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell 136:592-7. 2009
  6. pmc Role and mechanism of action of the APOBEC3 family of antiretroviral resistance factors
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:1067-76. 2006
  7. pmc Overexpression of exportin 5 enhances RNA interference mediated by short hairpin RNAs and microRNAs
    Rui Yi
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Room 426 CARL Building, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    RNA 11:220-6. 2005
  8. pmc Functional domain organization of human APOBEC3G
    Barry D Gooch
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 379:118-24. 2008
  9. pmc The intrinsic antiretroviral factor APOBEC3B contains two enzymatically active cytidine deaminase domains
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 364:486-93. 2007
  10. pmc Exportin-5 mediates the nuclear export of pre-microRNAs and short hairpin RNAs
    Rui Yi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Genes Dev 17:3011-6. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications83

  1. doi request reprint Is RNA interference a physiologically relevant innate antiviral immune response in mammals?
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA Electronic address
    Cell Host Microbe 14:374-8. 2013
    ..Three recent papers provide evidence that either favors or challenges this hypothesis. Here, we discuss these new findings in the context of previous research. ..
  2. pmc MicroRNAs as mediators of viral evasion of the immune system
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Immunol 14:205-10. 2013
    ..This Review provides an overview of the present knowledge of the complex interactions of viruses with the microRNA machinery of cells...
  3. doi request reprint Making a NeST for a persistent virus
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 13:241-2. 2013
    ..NeST recruits histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases to the IFN-γ gene locus, enhancing IFN-γ expression in key T cell subsets...
  4. pmc Herpesvirus microRNAs: phenotypes and functions
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Curr Opin Virol 1:211-5. 2011
    ....
  5. doi request reprint Viral RNAs: lessons from the enemy
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell 136:592-7. 2009
    ..Here, I discuss the identification and characterization of viral mRNA structures and noncoding RNAs that have led to important insights into the molecular mechanisms of eukaryotic cells...
  6. pmc Role and mechanism of action of the APOBEC3 family of antiretroviral resistance factors
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:1067-76. 2006
  7. pmc Overexpression of exportin 5 enhances RNA interference mediated by short hairpin RNAs and microRNAs
    Rui Yi
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Room 426 CARL Building, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    RNA 11:220-6. 2005
    ..These data have implications for the future clinical utilization of shRNAs and also provide a simple method to enhance RNA interference by shRNAs in culture...
  8. pmc Functional domain organization of human APOBEC3G
    Barry D Gooch
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 379:118-24. 2008
    ....
  9. pmc The intrinsic antiretroviral factor APOBEC3B contains two enzymatically active cytidine deaminase domains
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 364:486-93. 2007
    ..While this inhibition was significantly less than the level seen with wild-type forms of A3G or A3B, these data, nevertheless argue that the inhibition of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 proteins is at least partly independent of DNA editing...
  10. pmc Exportin-5 mediates the nuclear export of pre-microRNAs and short hairpin RNAs
    Rui Yi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Genes Dev 17:3011-6. 2003
    ..Together, these findings define an additional cellular cofactor required for miRNA biogenesis and function...
  11. ncbi request reprint Specific packaging of APOBEC3G into HIV-1 virions is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of the gag polyprotein precursor
    Alexandra Schäfer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 328:163-8. 2004
    ..Surprisingly, RNA was also found to be essential for formation of the nucleocapsid--APOBEC3G complex in vitro, thus raising the possibility that RNA may form a bridge between these two proteins...
  12. pmc The betaretrovirus Mason-Pfizer monkey virus selectively excludes simian APOBEC3G from virion particles
    Brian P Doehle
    Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:12102-8. 2006
    ....
  13. pmc Cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by the primate gamma-herpesvirus rhesus monkey rhadinovirus
    Alexandra Schäfer
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 364:21-7. 2007
    ..These data set the stage for the mutational ablation and phenotypic analysis of RRV mutants lacking one or more viral microRNAs...
  14. pmc Virally induced cellular microRNA miR-155 plays a key role in B-cell immortalization by Epstein-Barr virus
    Sarah D Linnstaedt
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 84:11670-8. 2010
    ....
  15. pmc Inhibition of alpharetrovirus replication by a range of human APOBEC3 proteins
    Heather L Wiegand
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 81:13694-9. 2007
    ..e., the base state of a naïve retrovirus is susceptibility to inhibition...
  16. pmc A mammalian herpesvirus uses noncanonical expression and processing mechanisms to generate viral MicroRNAs
    Hal P Bogerd
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Cell 37:135-42. 2010
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Nonsense mediated decay induced by tethered human UPF3B is restricted to the cytoplasm
    Shihua Lu
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA Biol 1:42-7. 2004
    ..These data may suggest that truly nuclear NMD, if it occurs, is at least in part mechanistically distinct from cytoplasmic NMD...
  18. ncbi request reprint Efficient processing of primary microRNA hairpins by Drosha requires flanking nonstructured RNA sequences
    Yan Zeng
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:27595-603. 2005
    ..The requirement for single-stranded extensions on the pri-miRNA hairpin substrate for Drosha processing is currently unique among the RNase III enzymes...
  19. pmc MicroRNAs and small interfering RNAs can inhibit mRNA expression by similar mechanisms
    Yan Zeng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9779-84. 2003
    ..These data suggest that miRNAs and siRNAs can use similar mechanisms to repress mRNA expression and that the choice of mechanism may be largely or entirely determined by the degree of complementary of the RNA target...
  20. ncbi request reprint Human APOBEC3B is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infectivity and is resistant to HIV-1 Vif
    Brian P Doehle
    Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 339:281-8. 2005
    ..These studies therefore raise the possibility that activation of the endogenous APOBEC3B gene in primary human lymphoid cells could form a novel and effective strategy for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vivo...
  21. pmc In-depth analysis of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNA expression provides insights into the mammalian microRNA-processing machinery
    Jennifer L Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 84:695-703. 2010
    ..These data provide new insights into the pattern of miRNA processing in mammalian cells and indicate that this process is highly conserved during animal evolution...
  22. pmc Viral and cellular microRNAs as determinants of viral pathogenesis and immunity
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:375-87. 2008
    ..Here, we discuss what is known about how viral and cellular miRNAs influence viral replication and pathogenic potential through their regulation of viral mRNAs or by reshaping cellular gene expression...
  23. pmc Analysis of rhesus rhadinovirus microRNAs expressed in virus-induced tumors from infected rhesus macaques
    Jennifer L Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 405:592-9. 2010
    ..Several other RRV-derived moRNAs were obtained, including one recovered >600 times. Together, this research provides a comprehensive list of the miRNAs and moRNAs encoded by RRV...
  24. pmc Analysis of human alphaherpesvirus microRNA expression in latently infected human trigeminal ganglia
    Jennifer L Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 83:10677-83. 2009
    ....
  25. pmc Structural requirements for pre-microRNA binding and nuclear export by Exportin 5
    Yan Zeng
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:4776-85. 2004
    ..Moreover, these results argue that Exp5 binding not only mediates pre-microRNA nuclear export but also prevents nuclear pre-microRNA degradation...
  26. pmc Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved and differentially expressed
    Xuezhong Cai
    Center for Virology, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Pathog 2:e23. 2006
    ..Moreover, the differential regulation of EBV miRNA expression implies distinct roles during infection of different human tissues...
  27. pmc A second human antiretroviral factor, APOBEC3F, is suppressed by the HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vif proteins
    Heather L Wiegand
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    EMBO J 23:2451-8. 2004
    ..In contrast, both genes are quiescent in the permissive CEM derivative CEM-SS. Together, these data argue that HIV-1 Vif has evolved to suppress at least two distinct but related human antiretroviral DNA-editing enzymes...
  28. pmc MicroRNA target site identification by integrating sequence and binding information
    William H Majoros
    Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Methods 10:630-3. 2013
    ..It considerably outperforms sequence-only approaches and quantifies the prevalence of noncanonical binding modes. ..
  29. pmc Single-stranded RNA facilitates nucleocapsid: APOBEC3G complex formation
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 14:1228-36. 2008
    ....
  30. pmc Equine infectious anemia virus resists the antiretroviral activity of equine APOBEC3 proteins through a packaging-independent mechanism
    Hal P Bogerd
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 82:11889-901. 2008
    ..It therefore appears that EIAV has evolved a novel mechanism to specifically neutralize the biological activities of the cognate eA3F1 and eA3F2 proteins at a step subsequent to virion incorporation...
  31. pmc Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells
    Xuezhong Cai
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5570-5. 2005
    ..We hypothesize that these viral miRNAs play a critical role in the establishment and/or maintenance of KSHV latent infection in vivo and, hence, in KSHV-induced oncogenesis...
  32. ncbi request reprint Derivation and function of small interfering RNAs and microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virus Res 102:3-9. 2004
    ..While each of these entry points offers distinct advantages and disadvantages, they all have the potential to induce the effective knock-down of specific genes either in cell culture or in experimental animals...
  33. pmc Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary macrophages by using Tat- or CCR5-specific small interfering RNAs expressed from a lentivirus vector
    Ming Ta M Lee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 77:11964-72. 2003
    ..These data suggest that it should be possible to block the expression of specific viral or cellular genes in vivo by using viral vectors to stably express the appropriate siRNAs...
  34. pmc A novel assay for viral microRNA function identifies a single nucleotide polymorphism that affects Drosha processing
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:5321-6. 2006
    ..This is the first report of a naturally occurring sequence polymorphism in an miRNA precursor that results in reduced processing and therefore lower levels of mature miRNA expression and function...
  35. pmc A single amino acid difference in the host APOBEC3G protein controls the primate species specificity of HIV type 1 virion infectivity factor
    Hal P Bogerd
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3770-4. 2004
    ..Moreover, these results suggest that the biological barrier preventing the entry of additional SIV into the human population as zoonotic infections is potentially quite fragile...
  36. ncbi request reprint Transcription and processing of human microRNA precursors
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Cell 16:861-5. 2004
    ..This review describes recent insights into the mechanisms governing microRNA transcription and processing in vertebrates and their implications for understanding the regulation of microRNA biogenesis...
  37. pmc APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B are potent inhibitors of LTR-retrotransposon function in human cells
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:89-95. 2006
    ..Moreover, these results argue that APOBEC3A inhibits IAP retrotransposition via a novel mechanism that is distinct from, and in this case more effective than, the DNA editing mechanism characteristic of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3B...
  38. pmc Differential sensitivity of murine leukemia virus to APOBEC3-mediated inhibition is governed by virion exclusion
    Brian P Doehle
    Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 79:8201-7. 2005
    ..Moreover, these results suggest that APOBEC3 proteins may help prevent the zoonotic infection of humans by simple retroviruses and provide a mechanism for how simple retroviruses can avoid inhibition by APOBEC3 family members...
  39. pmc Mutational inactivation of herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs identifies viral mRNA targets and reveals phenotypic effects in culture
    Omar Flores
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    J Virol 87:6589-603. 2013
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that endogenous HSV-1 miRNA expression can significantly alter viral replication in culture, and they also identify two viral mRNA targets for miR-H2 and miR-H4 that can partially explain this phenotype...
  40. pmc The role of RNAi and microRNAs in animal virus replication and antiviral immunity
    Jennifer L Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1151-64. 2009
    ..Insights derived from this research will facilitate a better understanding of viral pathogenesis and the host innate immune response to viral infection...
  41. pmc The imprinted H19 noncoding RNA is a primary microRNA precursor
    Xuezhong Cai
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    RNA 13:313-6. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate that H19 can function as a primary microRNA precursor and suggest that H19 expression results in the post-transcriptional downregulation of specific mRNAs during vertebrate development...
  42. pmc MicroRNAs expressed by herpes simplex virus 1 during latent infection regulate viral mRNAs
    Jennifer Lin Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 454:780-3. 2008
    ..Thus, HSV-1 expresses at least two primary miRNA precursors in latently infected neurons that may facilitate the establishment and maintenance of viral latency by post-transcriptionally regulating viral gene expression...
  43. pmc Human papillomavirus genotype 31 does not express detectable microRNA levels during latent or productive virus replication
    Xuezhong Cai
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:10890-3. 2006
    ..Although over 500 cellular microRNAs were cloned and identified, not a single HPV31-specific microRNA was obtained. We therefore concluded that HPV31, and possibly human papillomaviruses in general, does not express viral microRNAs...
  44. pmc Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24248. 2011
    ..Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers...
  45. pmc Viruses, microRNAs, and host interactions
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 64:123-41. 2010
    ..Here we discuss our current knowledge of viral miRNAs and virally influenced cellular miRNAs and their relationship to viral infection...
  46. pmc Transcriptional origin of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNAs
    Xuezhong Cai
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:2234-42. 2006
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Use of RNA polymerase II to transcribe artificial microRNAs
    Yan Zeng
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Methods Enzymol 392:371-80. 2005
    ..Overexpression or inappropriate expression of authentic microRNAs may facilitate the study of their normal functions and expression of artificial microRNAs may permit effective, regulated RNA interference in vivo...
  48. ncbi request reprint Induction of stable RNA interference in mammalian cells
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Gene Ther 13:503-8. 2006
    ..Gene Therapy (2006) 13, 503-508. doi:10.1038/sj.gt.3302656; published online 29 September 2005...
  49. pmc Identification of viral microRNAs expressed in human sacral ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus 2
    Jennifer L Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 84:1189-92. 2010
    ..A third novel HSV-2 miRNA, miR-H10, is encoded within the unique long (U(L)) region of the genome, 3' to the U(L)15 open reading frame, and is presumably excised from a novel, latent HSV-2 transcript distinct from LAT...
  50. pmc In-depth analysis of the interaction of HIV-1 with cellular microRNA biogenesis and effector mechanisms
    Adam W Whisnant
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and the Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    MBio 4:e000193. 2013
    ....
  51. pmc Viral and cellular messenger RNA targets of viral microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 457:421-5. 2009
    ..Emerging data suggest that viral microRNAs are particularly important for regulating the transition from latent to lytic replication and for attenuating antiviral immune responses...
  52. pmc Recognition and cleavage of primary microRNA precursors by the nuclear processing enzyme Drosha
    Yan Zeng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    EMBO J 24:138-48. 2005
    ..While the sites of Drosha cleavage are determined largely by the distance from the terminal loop, variations in stem structure and sequence around the cleavage site can fine-tune the actual cleavage sites chosen...
  53. pmc Adenovirus VA1 noncoding RNA can inhibit small interfering RNA and MicroRNA biogenesis
    Shihua Lu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 78:12868-76. 2004
    ..Together, these data argue that adenovirus infection can result in inhibition of RNAi and identify VA1 RNA as the first viral gene product able to inhibit RNAi in human cells...
  54. ncbi request reprint Assaying nuclear messenger RNA export in human cells
    Bryan R Cullen
    HowardHughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 257:85-92. 2004
    ..This site can be a natural, high affinity RNA target for the nuclear export factor or alternately the export factor can be tethered to the unspliced cat mRNA by fusion to a heterologous RNA binding domain...
  55. ncbi request reprint Nuclear mRNA export: insights from virology
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 28:419-24. 2003
    ..to identify the cellular targets of these viral proteins and RNA elements have led to the identification of Crm1 and Tap as essential human nuclear RNA-export factors and continue to provide insights into how mRNAs are selected for export..
  56. pmc Human microRNAs are processed from capped, polyadenylated transcripts that can also function as mRNAs
    Xuezhong Cai
    Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    RNA 10:1957-66. 2004
    ..Together, these data show that human pri-miRNAs are not only structurally similar to mRNAs but can, in fact, function both as pri-miRNAs and mRNAs...
  57. pmc Recruitment of the Crm1 nuclear export factor is sufficient to induce cytoplasmic expression of incompletely spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs
    Rui Yi
    Department of Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 76:2036-42. 2002
    ....
  58. pmc A cluster of virus-encoded microRNAs accelerates acute systemic Epstein-Barr virus infection but does not significantly enhance virus-induced oncogenesis in vivo
    Angela Wahl
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    J Virol 87:5437-46. 2013
    ..Our results demonstrate that while the BHRF1 miRNAs facilitate the development of acute systemic EBV infection, they do not enhance the overall oncogenic potential of EBV in vivo...
  59. pmc Human APOBEC3 proteins can inhibit xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infectivity
    Hal P Bogerd
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 410:234-9. 2011
    ..Few human tissues fail to express hA3G, and we therefore hypothesize that XMRV replicates in one or more hA3G-negative reservoir tissues and/or that human XMRV infections are likely to be rare and potentially of zoonotic origin...
  60. ncbi request reprint Protocols for expression and functional analysis of viral microRNAs
    Eva Gottwein
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Methods Enzymol 427:229-43. 2007
    ..Techniques to achieve and validate the expression of viral miRNAs are described in this review...
  61. pmc Analysis of the interaction of primate retroviruses with the human RNA interference machinery
    Jennifer Lin
    Center for Virology, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 81:12218-26. 2007
    ..Together, these data argue that HIV-1 and HTLV-1 neither induce the production of viral small interfering RNAs or microRNAs nor repress the cellular RNA interference machinery in infected cells...
  62. ncbi request reprint siRNAs: a new wave of RNA-based therapeutics
    Glen A Coburn
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27701, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:753-6. 2003
  63. pmc RNA interference in human cells is restricted to the cytoplasm
    Yan Zeng
    Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 8:855-60. 2002
    ..Truly nucleoplasmic mRNAs or pre-mRNAs are, in contrast, resistant to RNAi...
  64. pmc Cellular inhibitors of long interspersed element 1 and Alu retrotransposition
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:8780-5. 2006
    ..These data suggest that the APOBEC3 protein family may have evolved, at least in part, to defend the integrity of the human genome against endogenous retrotransposons...
  65. pmc The viral and cellular microRNA targetome in lymphoblastoid cell lines
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002484. 2012
    ..This comprehensive survey of the miRNA targetome in EBV-infected B cells represents a key step towards defining the functions of EBV-encoded miRNAs, and potentially, identifying novel therapeutic targets for EBV-associated malignancies...
  66. pmc A human herpesvirus microRNA inhibits p21 expression and attenuates p21-mediated cell cycle arrest
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 84:5229-37. 2010
    ..Our data demonstrate that miR-K1 represses the expression of p21, a protein with known tumor suppressor functions, and suggest that this KSHV miRNA is likely to contribute to the oncogenic potential of this opportunistic viral pathogen...
  67. pmc A viral microRNA functions as an orthologue of cellular miR-155
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 450:1096-9. 2007
    ..Moreover, the known aetiological role of miR-155 in B-cell transformation suggests that miR-K12-11 may contribute to the induction of KSHV-positive B-cell tumours in infected patients...
  68. ncbi request reprint RNA interference: antiviral defense and genetic tool
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:597-9. 2002
  69. ncbi request reprint Both natural and designed micro RNAs can inhibit the expression of cognate mRNAs when expressed in human cells
    Yan Zeng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Cell 9:1327-33. 2002
    ..These data indicate that novel miRNAs can be readily produced in vivo and can be designed to specifically inactivate the expression of selected target genes in human cells...
  70. ncbi request reprint Using retroviruses to study the nuclear export of mRNA
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Genetics, Room 426 CARL Building, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Results Probl Cell Differ 35:151-68. 2002
  71. pmc Potent and specific inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by RNA interference
    Glen A Coburn
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 76:9225-31. 2002
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Nuclear RNA export
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Cell Sci 116:587-97. 2003
    ....
  73. pmc Formation of Tap/NXT1 heterodimers activates Tap-dependent nuclear mRNA export by enhancing recruitment to nuclear pore complexes
    Heather L Wiegand
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 22:245-56. 2002
    ..These data suggest that NXT1 may act as a molecular switch that regulates the ability of Tap to mediate nuclear mRNA export by controlling the interaction of Tap with components of the nuclear pore...
  74. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 Vif: counteracting innate antiretroviral defenses
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Ther 8:525-7. 2003
  75. ncbi request reprint Enhancing and confirming the specificity of RNAi experiments
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology, and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Methods 3:677-81. 2006
    ..Here I briefly review the potential pitfalls associated with RNAi, and then suggest experimental approaches that can be used to maximize the specificity of RNAi or to confirm that the data obtained are indeed valid...
  76. ncbi request reprint Is RNA interference involved in intrinsic antiviral immunity in mammals?
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:563-7. 2006
    ....
  77. ncbi request reprint Does RNA interference have a future as a treatment for HIV-1 induced disease?
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    AIDS Rev 7:22-5. 2005
    ....
  78. ncbi request reprint Immunology. Outwitted by viral RNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27707, USA
    Science 317:329-30. 2007
  79. pmc Viruses and microRNAs: RISCy interactions with serious consequences
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Genes Dev 25:1881-94. 2011
    ....
  80. pmc Analysis of the stimulatory effect of splicing on mRNA production and utilization in mammalian cells
    Shihua Lu
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 9:618-30. 2003
    ..Moreover, in the case of the highly intron-dependent beta-globin gene, splicing also significantly enhanced the translational utilization of cytoplasmic beta-globin mRNAs...
  81. pmc Sequence requirements for micro RNA processing and function in human cells
    Yan Zeng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 9:112-23. 2003
    ..These results suggest that miRNAs, and the closely similar small interfering RNAs, cannot totally discriminate between RNA targets differing by a single nucleotide...
  82. ncbi request reprint Viruses and microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Genet 38:S25-30. 2006
    ..Research into viral miRNA function might also suggest new approaches for treating some virally induced diseases...
  83. pmc Identification of microRNAs expressed in two mosquito vectors, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    BMC Genomics 11:119. 2010
    ..Using high-throughput deep sequencing, we examined the miRNA repertoire in Ae. albopictus cells and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes...