BRYAN CULLEN

Summary

Affiliation: Duke University Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Identification of microRNAs expressed in two mosquito vectors, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    BMC Genomics 11:119. 2010
  2. ncbi request reprint Nuclear mRNA export: insights from virology
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 28:419-24. 2003
  3. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 Vif: counteracting innate antiretroviral defenses
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Ther 8:525-7. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Viruses and microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Genet 38:S25-30. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Derivation and function of small interfering RNAs and microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virus Res 102:3-9. 2004
  6. pmc Adenovirus VA1 noncoding RNA can inhibit small interfering RNA and MicroRNA biogenesis
    Shihua Lu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 78:12868-76. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Transcription and processing of human microRNA precursors
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Cell 16:861-5. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Immunology. Outwitted by viral RNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27707, USA
    Science 317:329-30. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Enhancing and confirming the specificity of RNAi experiments
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology, and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Methods 3:677-81. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Does RNA interference have a future as a treatment for HIV-1 induced disease?
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    AIDS Rev 7:22-5. 2005

Research Grants

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. pmc Identification of microRNAs expressed in two mosquito vectors, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    BMC Genomics 11:119. 2010
    ..Using high-throughput deep sequencing, we examined the miRNA repertoire in Ae. albopictus cells and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes...
  2. ncbi request reprint Nuclear mRNA export: insights from virology
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 28:419-24. 2003
    ..to identify the cellular targets of these viral proteins and RNA elements have led to the identification of Crm1 and Tap as essential human nuclear RNA-export factors and continue to provide insights into how mRNAs are selected for export..
  3. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 Vif: counteracting innate antiretroviral defenses
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Ther 8:525-7. 2003
  4. ncbi request reprint Viruses and microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Genet 38:S25-30. 2006
    ..Research into viral miRNA function might also suggest new approaches for treating some virally induced diseases...
  5. ncbi request reprint Derivation and function of small interfering RNAs and microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virus Res 102:3-9. 2004
    ..While each of these entry points offers distinct advantages and disadvantages, they all have the potential to induce the effective knock-down of specific genes either in cell culture or in experimental animals...
  6. pmc Adenovirus VA1 noncoding RNA can inhibit small interfering RNA and MicroRNA biogenesis
    Shihua Lu
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 78:12868-76. 2004
    ..Together, these data argue that adenovirus infection can result in inhibition of RNAi and identify VA1 RNA as the first viral gene product able to inhibit RNAi in human cells...
  7. ncbi request reprint Transcription and processing of human microRNA precursors
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Cell 16:861-5. 2004
    ..This review describes recent insights into the mechanisms governing microRNA transcription and processing in vertebrates and their implications for understanding the regulation of microRNA biogenesis...
  8. ncbi request reprint Immunology. Outwitted by viral RNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27707, USA
    Science 317:329-30. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Enhancing and confirming the specificity of RNAi experiments
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology, and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Methods 3:677-81. 2006
    ..Here I briefly review the potential pitfalls associated with RNAi, and then suggest experimental approaches that can be used to maximize the specificity of RNAi or to confirm that the data obtained are indeed valid...
  10. ncbi request reprint Does RNA interference have a future as a treatment for HIV-1 induced disease?
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    AIDS Rev 7:22-5. 2005
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Is RNA interference involved in intrinsic antiviral immunity in mammals?
    Bryan R Cullen
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:563-7. 2006
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Induction of stable RNA interference in mammalian cells
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Gene Ther 13:503-8. 2006
    ..Gene Therapy (2006) 13, 503-508. doi:10.1038/sj.gt.3302656; published online 29 September 2005...
  13. pmc Role and mechanism of action of the APOBEC3 family of antiretroviral resistance factors
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:1067-76. 2006
  14. pmc Viral and cellular messenger RNA targets of viral microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 457:421-5. 2009
    ..Emerging data suggest that viral microRNAs are particularly important for regulating the transition from latent to lytic replication and for attenuating antiviral immune responses...
  15. ncbi request reprint RNA interference: antiviral defense and genetic tool
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Nat Immunol 3:597-9. 2002
  16. ncbi request reprint A new entry route for HIV
    B R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Nat Med 7:20-1. 2001
    ..Identification of HIV-1 variants capable of entering T cells via the CD8 receptor suggests a new mode of viral pathogenesis. But are these variants rare, aberrant viruses or a real problem?..
  17. ncbi request reprint Nuclear RNA export
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Cell Sci 116:587-97. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Specific packaging of APOBEC3G into HIV-1 virions is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of the gag polyprotein precursor
    Alexandra Schäfer
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 328:163-8. 2004
    ..Surprisingly, RNA was also found to be essential for formation of the nucleocapsid--APOBEC3G complex in vitro, thus raising the possibility that RNA may form a bridge between these two proteins...
  19. pmc A single amino acid difference in the host APOBEC3G protein controls the primate species specificity of HIV type 1 virion infectivity factor
    Hal P Bogerd
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3770-4. 2004
    ..Moreover, these results suggest that the biological barrier preventing the entry of additional SIV into the human population as zoonotic infections is potentially quite fragile...
  20. pmc The intrinsic antiretroviral factor APOBEC3B contains two enzymatically active cytidine deaminase domains
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 364:486-93. 2007
    ..While this inhibition was significantly less than the level seen with wild-type forms of A3G or A3B, these data, nevertheless argue that the inhibition of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 proteins is at least partly independent of DNA editing...
  21. pmc Exportin-5 mediates the nuclear export of pre-microRNAs and short hairpin RNAs
    Rui Yi
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Genes Dev 17:3011-6. 2003
    ..Together, these findings define an additional cellular cofactor required for miRNA biogenesis and function...
  22. pmc RNA interference in human cells is restricted to the cytoplasm
    Yan Zeng
    Department of Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 8:855-60. 2002
    ..Truly nucleoplasmic mRNAs or pre-mRNAs are, in contrast, resistant to RNAi...
  23. pmc A second human antiretroviral factor, APOBEC3F, is suppressed by the HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vif proteins
    Heather L Wiegand
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    EMBO J 23:2451-8. 2004
    ..In contrast, both genes are quiescent in the permissive CEM derivative CEM-SS. Together, these data argue that HIV-1 Vif has evolved to suppress at least two distinct but related human antiretroviral DNA-editing enzymes...
  24. pmc The role of RNAi and microRNAs in animal virus replication and antiviral immunity
    Jennifer L Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Genes Dev 23:1151-64. 2009
    ..Insights derived from this research will facilitate a better understanding of viral pathogenesis and the host innate immune response to viral infection...
  25. pmc Recruitment of the Crm1 nuclear export factor is sufficient to induce cytoplasmic expression of incompletely spliced human immunodeficiency virus mRNAs
    Rui Yi
    Department of Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 76:2036-42. 2002
    ....
  26. ncbi request reprint Nonsense mediated decay induced by tethered human UPF3B is restricted to the cytoplasm
    Shihua Lu
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA Biol 1:42-7. 2004
    ..These data may suggest that truly nuclear NMD, if it occurs, is at least in part mechanistically distinct from cytoplasmic NMD...
  27. ncbi request reprint Using retroviruses to study the nuclear export of mRNA
    Bryan R Cullen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Genetics, Room 426 CARL Building, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Results Probl Cell Differ 35:151-68. 2002
  28. pmc Viruses, microRNAs, and host interactions
    Rebecca L Skalsky
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 64:123-41. 2010
    ..Here we discuss our current knowledge of viral miRNAs and virally influenced cellular miRNAs and their relationship to viral infection...
  29. pmc Equine infectious anemia virus resists the antiretroviral activity of equine APOBEC3 proteins through a packaging-independent mechanism
    Hal P Bogerd
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 82:11889-901. 2008
    ..It therefore appears that EIAV has evolved a novel mechanism to specifically neutralize the biological activities of the cognate eA3F1 and eA3F2 proteins at a step subsequent to virion incorporation...
  30. ncbi request reprint Human APOBEC3B is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infectivity and is resistant to HIV-1 Vif
    Brian P Doehle
    Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 339:281-8. 2005
    ..These studies therefore raise the possibility that activation of the endogenous APOBEC3B gene in primary human lymphoid cells could form a novel and effective strategy for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vivo...
  31. doi request reprint Viral RNAs: lessons from the enemy
    Bryan R Cullen
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell 136:592-7. 2009
    ..Here, I discuss the identification and characterization of viral mRNA structures and noncoding RNAs that have led to important insights into the molecular mechanisms of eukaryotic cells...
  32. ncbi request reprint Both natural and designed micro RNAs can inhibit the expression of cognate mRNAs when expressed in human cells
    Yan Zeng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Cell 9:1327-33. 2002
    ..These data indicate that novel miRNAs can be readily produced in vivo and can be designed to specifically inactivate the expression of selected target genes in human cells...
  33. pmc A mammalian herpesvirus uses noncanonical expression and processing mechanisms to generate viral MicroRNAs
    Hal P Bogerd
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Mol Cell 37:135-42. 2010
    ....
  34. pmc Formation of Tap/NXT1 heterodimers activates Tap-dependent nuclear mRNA export by enhancing recruitment to nuclear pore complexes
    Heather L Wiegand
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 22:245-56. 2002
    ..These data suggest that NXT1 may act as a molecular switch that regulates the ability of Tap to mediate nuclear mRNA export by controlling the interaction of Tap with components of the nuclear pore...
  35. pmc Potent and specific inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by RNA interference
    Glen A Coburn
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 76:9225-31. 2002
    ....
  36. pmc Viral and cellular microRNAs as determinants of viral pathogenesis and immunity
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:375-87. 2008
    ..Here, we discuss what is known about how viral and cellular miRNAs influence viral replication and pathogenic potential through their regulation of viral mRNAs or by reshaping cellular gene expression...
  37. pmc Structural requirements for pre-microRNA binding and nuclear export by Exportin 5
    Yan Zeng
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 32:4776-85. 2004
    ..Moreover, these results argue that Exp5 binding not only mediates pre-microRNA nuclear export but also prevents nuclear pre-microRNA degradation...
  38. pmc Functional domain organization of human APOBEC3G
    Barry D Gooch
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Virology, Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 379:118-24. 2008
    ....
  39. pmc Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary macrophages by using Tat- or CCR5-specific small interfering RNAs expressed from a lentivirus vector
    Ming Ta M Lee
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 77:11964-72. 2003
    ..These data suggest that it should be possible to block the expression of specific viral or cellular genes in vivo by using viral vectors to stably express the appropriate siRNAs...
  40. pmc A novel assay for viral microRNA function identifies a single nucleotide polymorphism that affects Drosha processing
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:5321-6. 2006
    ..This is the first report of a naturally occurring sequence polymorphism in an miRNA precursor that results in reduced processing and therefore lower levels of mature miRNA expression and function...
  41. pmc Inhibition of alpharetrovirus replication by a range of human APOBEC3 proteins
    Heather L Wiegand
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 81:13694-9. 2007
    ..e., the base state of a naïve retrovirus is susceptibility to inhibition...
  42. pmc A viral microRNA functions as an orthologue of cellular miR-155
    Eva Gottwein
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 450:1096-9. 2007
    ..Moreover, the known aetiological role of miR-155 in B-cell transformation suggests that miR-K12-11 may contribute to the induction of KSHV-positive B-cell tumours in infected patients...
  43. pmc Single-stranded RNA facilitates nucleocapsid: APOBEC3G complex formation
    Hal P Bogerd
    Center for Virology, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 14:1228-36. 2008
    ....
  44. pmc Recognition and cleavage of primary microRNA precursors by the nuclear processing enzyme Drosha
    Yan Zeng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    EMBO J 24:138-48. 2005
    ..While the sites of Drosha cleavage are determined largely by the distance from the terminal loop, variations in stem structure and sequence around the cleavage site can fine-tune the actual cleavage sites chosen...
  45. pmc Analysis of the stimulatory effect of splicing on mRNA production and utilization in mammalian cells
    Shihua Lu
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 9:618-30. 2003
    ..Moreover, in the case of the highly intron-dependent beta-globin gene, splicing also significantly enhanced the translational utilization of cytoplasmic beta-globin mRNAs...
  46. ncbi request reprint siRNAs: a new wave of RNA-based therapeutics
    Glen A Coburn
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27701, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 51:753-6. 2003
  47. ncbi request reprint Efficient processing of primary microRNA hairpins by Drosha requires flanking nonstructured RNA sequences
    Yan Zeng
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:27595-603. 2005
    ..The requirement for single-stranded extensions on the pri-miRNA hairpin substrate for Drosha processing is currently unique among the RNase III enzymes...
  48. pmc Sequence requirements for micro RNA processing and function in human cells
    Yan Zeng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    RNA 9:112-23. 2003
    ..These results suggest that miRNAs, and the closely similar small interfering RNAs, cannot totally discriminate between RNA targets differing by a single nucleotide...
  49. pmc Human microRNAs are processed from capped, polyadenylated transcripts that can also function as mRNAs
    Xuezhong Cai
    Box 3025, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    RNA 10:1957-66. 2004
    ..Together, these data show that human pri-miRNAs are not only structurally similar to mRNAs but can, in fact, function both as pri-miRNAs and mRNAs...
  50. pmc Overexpression of exportin 5 enhances RNA interference mediated by short hairpin RNAs and microRNAs
    Rui Yi
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Room 426 CARL Building, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    RNA 11:220-6. 2005
    ..These data have implications for the future clinical utilization of shRNAs and also provide a simple method to enhance RNA interference by shRNAs in culture...
  51. pmc Analysis of the interaction of primate retroviruses with the human RNA interference machinery
    Jennifer Lin
    Center for Virology, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 81:12218-26. 2007
    ..Together, these data argue that HIV-1 and HTLV-1 neither induce the production of viral small interfering RNAs or microRNAs nor repress the cellular RNA interference machinery in infected cells...
  52. pmc MicroRNAs expressed by herpes simplex virus 1 during latent infection regulate viral mRNAs
    Jennifer Lin Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    Nature 454:780-3. 2008
    ..Thus, HSV-1 expresses at least two primary miRNA precursors in latently infected neurons that may facilitate the establishment and maintenance of viral latency by post-transcriptionally regulating viral gene expression...
  53. ncbi request reprint Use of RNA polymerase II to transcribe artificial microRNAs
    Yan Zeng
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Methods Enzymol 392:371-80. 2005
    ..Overexpression or inappropriate expression of authentic microRNAs may facilitate the study of their normal functions and expression of artificial microRNAs may permit effective, regulated RNA interference in vivo...
  54. pmc Cloning and analysis of microRNAs encoded by the primate gamma-herpesvirus rhesus monkey rhadinovirus
    Alexandra Schäfer
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 364:21-7. 2007
    ..These data set the stage for the mutational ablation and phenotypic analysis of RRV mutants lacking one or more viral microRNAs...
  55. ncbi request reprint Assaying nuclear messenger RNA export in human cells
    Bryan R Cullen
    HowardHughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 257:85-92. 2004
    ..This site can be a natural, high affinity RNA target for the nuclear export factor or alternately the export factor can be tethered to the unspliced cat mRNA by fusion to a heterologous RNA binding domain...
  56. pmc The imprinted H19 noncoding RNA is a primary microRNA precursor
    Xuezhong Cai
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    RNA 13:313-6. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate that H19 can function as a primary microRNA precursor and suggest that H19 expression results in the post-transcriptional downregulation of specific mRNAs during vertebrate development...
  57. pmc Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus expresses an array of viral microRNAs in latently infected cells
    Xuezhong Cai
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5570-5. 2005
    ..We hypothesize that these viral miRNAs play a critical role in the establishment and/or maintenance of KSHV latent infection in vivo and, hence, in KSHV-induced oncogenesis...
  58. pmc MicroRNAs and small interfering RNAs can inhibit mRNA expression by similar mechanisms
    Yan Zeng
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9779-84. 2003
    ..These data suggest that miRNAs and siRNAs can use similar mechanisms to repress mRNA expression and that the choice of mechanism may be largely or entirely determined by the degree of complementary of the RNA target...
  59. pmc Human papillomavirus genotype 31 does not express detectable microRNA levels during latent or productive virus replication
    Xuezhong Cai
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:10890-3. 2006
    ..Although over 500 cellular microRNAs were cloned and identified, not a single HPV31-specific microRNA was obtained. We therefore concluded that HPV31, and possibly human papillomaviruses in general, does not express viral microRNAs...
  60. pmc Differential sensitivity of murine leukemia virus to APOBEC3-mediated inhibition is governed by virion exclusion
    Brian P Doehle
    Duke University Medical Center, Box 3025, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 79:8201-7. 2005
    ..Moreover, these results suggest that APOBEC3 proteins may help prevent the zoonotic infection of humans by simple retroviruses and provide a mechanism for how simple retroviruses can avoid inhibition by APOBEC3 family members...
  61. pmc Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved and differentially expressed
    Xuezhong Cai
    Center for Virology, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    PLoS Pathog 2:e23. 2006
    ..Moreover, the differential regulation of EBV miRNA expression implies distinct roles during infection of different human tissues...
  62. pmc Transcriptional origin of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNAs
    Xuezhong Cai
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:2234-42. 2006
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Protocols for expression and functional analysis of viral microRNAs
    Eva Gottwein
    Center for Virology and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Methods Enzymol 427:229-43. 2007
    ..Techniques to achieve and validate the expression of viral miRNAs are described in this review...
  64. pmc Analysis of rhesus rhadinovirus microRNAs expressed in virus-induced tumors from infected rhesus macaques
    Jennifer L Umbach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Center for Virology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Virology 405:592-9. 2010
    ..Several other RRV-derived moRNAs were obtained, including one recovered >600 times. Together, this research provides a comprehensive list of the miRNAs and moRNAs encoded by RRV...
  65. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus: nuclear RNA export unwound
    Bryan R Cullen
    Nature 433:26-7. 2005
  66. pmc The crystal structure and mutational analysis of a novel RNA-binding domain found in the human Tap nuclear mRNA export factor
    Dona N Ho
    Waksman Institute and Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:1888-93. 2002
    ..The second critical CTE-interacting surface on Tap is defined by three previously identified residues on the surface of the ribonucleoprotein domain. The structural and mutational data define a novel RNA-binding site on the Tap protein...
  67. pmc Foamy virus Bet proteins function as novel inhibitors of the APOBEC3 family of innate antiretroviral defense factors
    Rebecca A Russell
    Jefferiss Trust Laboratories, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    J Virol 79:8724-31. 2005
    ..While these data identify the foamy virus Bet protein as a functional ortholog of the HIV-1 Vif auxiliary protein, they also indicate that Vif and Bet block APOBEC3 protein function by distinct mechanisms...
  68. pmc Inhibition of a yeast LTR retrotransposon by human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases
    James A Dutko
    Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, Wadsworth Center and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University at Albany, P O Box 22002, Albany, New York 12201, USA
    Curr Biol 15:661-6. 2005
    ..Our findings indicate that APOBEC3G restricts Ty1 and HIV-1 by similar mechanisms and suggest that the APOBEC3 proteins target a substantially broader spectrum of retroelements than previously appreciated...
  69. ncbi request reprint Recognition and cleavage of primary microRNA transcripts
    Yan Zeng
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Methods Mol Biol 342:49-56. 2006
    ..This chapter describes methods that allow the overexpression of human miRNAs and also discusses how primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs), the much longer precursors of mature miRNAs, are processed in human cells, as well as in vitro...
  70. pmc Human topoisomerase I promotes HIV-1 proviral DNA synthesis: implications for the species specificity and cellular tropism of HIV-1 infection
    Yuko Shoya
    Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 8640, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8442-7. 2003
    ..Thus, human topoisomerase I plays an important role in HIV-1 replication and infectivity, and differences in the species specificity of HIV-1 infection can at least in part be attributed to differences in topoisomerase I activities...
  71. pmc Selective inhibition of Alu retrotransposition by APOBEC3G
    Amy E Hulme
    Department of Human Genetics, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Gene 390:199-205. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate a differential restriction of L1 and Alu retrotransposition by APOBEC3G, and suggest that the Alu ribonucleoprotein complex may be targeted by APOBEC3G...
  72. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 infection: fooling the gatekeeper
    Bryan R Cullen
    Nat Med 9:1112-3. 2003
  73. ncbi request reprint Stable inhibition of hepatitis B virus proteins by small interfering RNA expressed from viral vectors
    Michael D Moore
    Jefferiss Trust Laboratories, Wright Fleming Institute, Imperial College London, UK
    J Gene Med 7:918-25. 2005
    ..Many viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), are susceptible to inhibition by this mechanism. However, for RNAi to be effective therapeutically, a suitable delivery system is required...
  74. ncbi request reprint RNAi the natural way
    Bryan R Cullen
    Nat Genet 37:1163-5. 2005

Research Grants25

  1. Role and mechanism of action of Gamma herpesvirus microRNAs
    BRYAN CULLEN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Together, these studies should identify human mRNA targets for several KSHV and EBV miRNAs and shed light on the role of these miRNAs in the replication cycle of Gamma herpesviruses in general. ..
  2. Molecular Mechanism of HIV-1 Vif Function
    BRYAN CULLEN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Together, this wide-ranging series of experiments should lead to considerable insight into how HIV-1 Vif functions and potentially suggest approaches to inhibit Vif function. ..
  3. Regulation of human microRNA biosynthesis and activity
    BRYAN CULLEN; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Finally, in specific aim 5, we seek to extend our exciting initial data demonstrating inhibition of miRNA function by the adenovirus VA1 non-coding RNA by trying to define the underlying mechanism. ..
  4. Effect of APOBEC3G on retroviruses and retrotransposons
    BRYAN CULLEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  5. Role and mechanism of action of Gamma herpesvirus microRNAs
    Bryan R Cullen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Together, these studies should identify human mRNA targets for several KSHV and EBV miRNAs and shed light on the role of these miRNAs in the replication cycle of Gamma herpesviruses in general. ..
  6. HIV-1 TROPISM AND CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS
    BRYAN CULLEN; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The final specific aim focusses on the promoter regions of CCR5, the identification of transcription factors that may interact with the promoter, and the use of antisense strategies to block CCR5 expression. ..
  7. HIV-1: microRNA interactions
    Bryan R Cullen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This research has the potential to not only shed new light on HIV-1 pathogenesis but also suggest new approaches to inhibit virus replication. ..