J K Carr

Summary

Affiliation: Division of Retrovirology
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Diverse BF recombinants have spread widely since the introduction of HIV-1 into South America
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    AIDS 15:F41-7. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of a West African recombinant of HIV-1 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
    Jean K Carr
    US Military HIV Research Program, Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:570-5. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint The AG recombinant IbNG and novel strains of group M HIV-1 are common in Cameroon
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Virology 286:168-81. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Full genome sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes G and A/G intersubtype recombinants
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    Virology 247:22-31. 1998
  5. pmc Full-length sequence and mosaic structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from Thailand
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Virol 70:5935-43. 1996
  6. pmc Evolution and probable transmission of intersubtype recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in a Zambian couple
    M O Salminen
    Henry M Jackson Foundation and Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Virol 71:2647-55. 1997
  7. ncbi request reprint Characterization of subtype A HIV-1 from Africa by full genome sequencing
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD, USA
    AIDS 13:1819-26. 1999
  8. pmc Seroprevalence of and risk factors for HIV-1 infection among female commercial sex workers in South America
    C T Bautista
    U S Military HIV Research Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and the Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc, 1 Taft Court, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 82:311-6. 2006
  9. ncbi request reprint Subtype G and multiple forms of A/G intersubtype recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Nigeria
    F E McCutchan
    The Henry M Jackson Foundation, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, Maryland, 20850, USA
    Virology 254:226-34. 1999
  10. pmc Infectious molecular clones with the nonhomologous dimer initiation sequences found in different subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can recombine and initiate a spreading infection in vitro
    D C St Louis
    The Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine and Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Virol 72:3991-8. 1998

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications56

  1. ncbi request reprint Diverse BF recombinants have spread widely since the introduction of HIV-1 into South America
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    AIDS 15:F41-7. 2001
    ..To describe the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in South America by full genome sequencing and analysis...
  2. ncbi request reprint Outbreak of a West African recombinant of HIV-1 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
    Jean K Carr
    US Military HIV Research Program, Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 39:570-5. 2005
    ..This research describes the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Uzbekistan...
  3. ncbi request reprint The AG recombinant IbNG and novel strains of group M HIV-1 are common in Cameroon
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Virology 286:168-81. 2001
    ..This suggests that there was an ancestral AG recombinant that gave rise to CRF02 AG (IbNG), the successful circulating recombinant form, and to others that were less successful and are now rare...
  4. ncbi request reprint Full genome sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes G and A/G intersubtype recombinants
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    Virology 247:22-31. 1998
    ..The geographic spread of the IbNG-like strains suggests that, like the subtype E recombinants, these should be given a specific name to facilitate future identification and tracking; the name "IbNG subtype" is proposed...
  5. pmc Full-length sequence and mosaic structure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate from Thailand
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Virol 70:5935-43. 1996
    ..The mosaic structure of a CM240 virion is suggestive of phenotypic differences which might have contributed to the emergence of this variant...
  6. pmc Evolution and probable transmission of intersubtype recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in a Zambian couple
    M O Salminen
    Henry M Jackson Foundation and Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Virol 71:2647-55. 1997
    ..Intersubtype recombination apparently played a central role in the evolution of HIV-1 in this couple and may contribute substantially to the rapid emergence of HIV-1 variants whenever mixed-subtype HIV-1 infections occur...
  7. ncbi request reprint Characterization of subtype A HIV-1 from Africa by full genome sequencing
    J K Carr
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD, USA
    AIDS 13:1819-26. 1999
    ..To improve our understanding of the genetic complexity of HIV-1 subtype A by increasing the number of subtype A isolates that have been sequenced in their entirety...
  8. pmc Seroprevalence of and risk factors for HIV-1 infection among female commercial sex workers in South America
    C T Bautista
    U S Military HIV Research Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and the Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc, 1 Taft Court, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 82:311-6. 2006
    ..Assessment of HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviours among female commercial sex workers (FCSW) across major cities in South America...
  9. ncbi request reprint Subtype G and multiple forms of A/G intersubtype recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Nigeria
    F E McCutchan
    The Henry M Jackson Foundation, 1600 East Gude Drive, Rockville, Maryland, 20850, USA
    Virology 254:226-34. 1999
    ..The remaining patient had a strain that was otherwise subtype G but shared an unclassified carboxyl-terminal gp41 segment with the CA1-like strains. Other subtypes and group O were not found...
  10. pmc Infectious molecular clones with the nonhomologous dimer initiation sequences found in different subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can recombine and initiate a spreading infection in vitro
    D C St Louis
    The Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine and Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    J Virol 72:3991-8. 1998
    ..Our studies indicate that the nonhomologous DIS sequences found in different HIV-1 subtypes are not a primary obstacle to intersubtype recombination...
  11. ncbi request reprint Precise mapping of recombination breakpoints suggests a common parent of two BC recombinant HIV type 1 strains circulating in China
    F E McClutchan
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:1135-40. 2002
    ..Both CRFs are broadly distributed from north to south in western China and have maintained low interpatient diversity...
  12. ncbi request reprint Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Argentina
    Jesse Hierholzer
    U S Military HIV Research Program, Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:1339-50. 2002
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Development and application of a high-throughput HIV type 1 genotyping assay to identify CRF02_AG in West/West Central Africa
    Gustavo H Kijak
    The Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:521-30. 2004
    ..Together with other regional genotyping assays MHAcrf02 will contribute to the development of a global picture of HIV-1 diversity and geographic distribution, providing a strong foundation for intervention, including vaccine development...
  14. ncbi request reprint Detection of high frequencies of HIV-1 cross-subtype reactive CD8 T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected Kenyans
    Jeffrey R Currier
    US Military HIV Research Program, Suite 200, 13 Taft Court, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    AIDS 17:2149-57. 2003
    ..To quantitate rapidly the frequency of HIV-1 subtype-specific and broadly HIV-1 cross-subtype-reactive CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals from a geographical region of multiple subtype endemicity...
  15. ncbi request reprint Immigration status and HIV-risk related behaviors among female sex workers in South America
    Christian T Bautista
    US Military HIV Research Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1 Taft Court, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    AIDS Behav 12:195-201. 2008
    ..HIV-related sexual and drug use behaviors were more common among immigrant FSW in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Uruguay. Country-specific HIV/STI prevention and control programs should be developed for immigrant FSW populations in South America...
  16. ncbi request reprint A new circulating recombinant form, CRF15_01B, reinforces the linkage between IDU and heterosexual epidemics in Thailand
    Sodsai Tovanabutra
    Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:561-7. 2003
    ..These recombinants must be considered in ongoing or projected efficacy evaluations of HIV-1 vaccines and antiviral therapies...
  17. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 infection among civilian applicants for US military service, 1985 to 2000: epidemiology and geography
    Warren B Sateren
    Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, U S Military HIV Research Program, 1 Taft Court, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 32:215-22. 2003
    ..This study examined demographic and geographic correlates of HIV-1 prevalence among civilian applicants for US military service...
  18. ncbi request reprint Trends in HIV prevalence among white and African-American civilian applicants for United States Military Service, 1985 to 2003
    Christian T Bautista
    US Military HIV Research Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and the Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42:68-74. 2006
    ..These data suggest that despite the overall consistent decreases in HIV prevalence from the 1980s to the late 1990s, an increase in HIV prevalence has taken place older African-American and white subgroups in more recent years...
  19. ncbi request reprint HIV type 1 strains from East and West Africa are intermixed in Sudan
    Matthew Hierholzer
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:1163-6. 2002
    ..The intermixing of HIV-1 subtypes previously separated in Africa may be occurring there, with the potential to generate novel new strains by recombination...
  20. pmc Seroprevalence of and risk factors for HIV-1 infection among South American men who have sex with men
    C T Bautista
    US Military HIV Research Program and Henry M Jackson Foundation, 1 Taft Court, Suite 250, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Sex Transm Infect 80:498-504. 2004
    ..Seeking better understanding of risk behaviours in this region, we determined the seroprevalence, potential risk factors, and geographic distribution of HIV-1 among groups of men who have sex with men (MSM)...
  21. ncbi request reprint First case of HIV Type 1 subtype F among men who have sex with men in Colombia
    Lindsay Eyzaguirre
    U S Military HIV Research Program at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and the Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement Military Medicine, Inc, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:808-11. 2006
    ..The specimen that is subtype F in pol and subtype B in env is likely to be is either a recombinant or a dual infection. In this study, we identify the HIV F subtype for the first time in Colombia...
  22. ncbi request reprint Genetic characterization of HIV-1 strains circulating in Kazakhstan
    Lindsay M Eyzaguirre
    US Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and the Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Rockville, MD, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:19-23. 2007
    ..The HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan is predominantly in IDUs and is indigenous to the geographic region, and most of the strains are genetically similar to those circulating in the FSU and other parts of Central Asia...
  23. ncbi request reprint Identification of a novel clade of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Democratic Republic of Congo
    John L K Mokili
    Henry M Jackson Foundation, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:817-23. 2002
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Genetic forms of HIV Type 1 in the former Soviet Union dominate the epidemic in Azerbaijan
    Magdi D Saad
    United States Naval Medical Research Unit No 3, Cairo Egypt
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:796-800. 2006
    ..Of the 41 sequenced strains, 95% were close genetic relatives of HIV strains in IDU networks in the FSU...
  25. doi request reprint Identification of a possible ancestor of the subtype A1 HIV Type 1 variant circulating in the former Soviet Union
    Chiara Riva
    Department of Clinical Sciences Luigi Sacco, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:1319-25. 2008
    ..The identification of this distinct A1 variant may support the origin of the Russian A epidemic from West Africa...
  26. ncbi request reprint High HIV prevalence and risk factors among injection drug users in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2003-2004
    Jose L Sanchez
    The Anteon Corporation, 321 Ballenger Center Drive, Suite 200, Frederick, MD 21703, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 82:S15-22. 2006
    ..To determine HIV prevalence and potential associations with sociodemographic and behavioral factors among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tashkent, Uzbekistan...
  27. pmc First report of an HIV-1 triple recombinant of subtypes B, C and F in Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Maria A Pando
    Centro Nacional de Referencia para el SIDA, Departamento de Microbiologia, Parasitologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155, Piso 11, C1121ABG, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Retrovirology 3:59. 2006
    ..This study reported for the first time the full genome analysis of a triple recombinant between subtypes B, C and F, that combines in one virus the three most common subtypes in South America...
  28. ncbi request reprint Utilization of contraception and abortion and its relationship to HIV infection among female sex workers in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
    Catherine S Todd
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Contraception 74:318-23. 2006
    ..This study aimed to describe reported contraceptive and abortion utilization and their relationship to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among female sex workers (FSW) in Tashkent, Uzbekistan...
  29. ncbi request reprint Association of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection among men who have sex with men in Peru
    Javier R Lama
    Asociacion Civil Impacta Salud y Educacion, Ministry of Health of Peru, Lima, Peru
    J Infect Dis 194:1459-66. 2006
    ..We evaluated associations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru...
  30. ncbi request reprint Short report: HIV infection among commercial sex workers and injecting drug users in the Czech Republic
    Marie Bruckova
    National Reference Laboratory on AIDS, Prague, The Czech Republic
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:1017-20. 2006
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Frequency of CCR5 variants among rural populations with low HIV-1 prevalence in Cameroon
    Judith N Torimiro
    Walter Reed Johns Hopkins Cameroon Program, Yaounde, Cameroon
    AIDS 21:527-8. 2007
    ..No individual was identified with the CCR5Delta32 allele, but homozygotes for the CCR5 promoter variant -2459G (27.5%) were relatively common. A seroprevalence of 3.1% of HIV-1 was reported...
  32. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of HIV Type 1 in preparation for a Phase III prime-boost vaccine trial in Thailand and a new approach to HIV Type 1 genotyping
    Veerachai Watanaveeradej
    Department of Pediatrics, Phramongkutklao Hospital School of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:801-7. 2006
    ....
  33. pmc Exposure to wild primates among HIV-infected persons
    Matthew LeBreton
    Johns Hopkins Cameroon Program, Yaounde, Cameroon
    Emerg Infect Dis 13:1579-82. 2007
    ..Immunosuppression among persons exposed to body fluids of wild nonhuman primates could favor the process of adaptation and subsequent emergence of zoonotic pathogens...
  34. doi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis in Argentina: prevalence, genotypes and risk factors
    Maria A Pando
    Centro Nacional de Referencia para el SIDA, Departamento de Microbiologia, Parasitologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155, Piso 11, C1121ABG, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Med Microbiol 57:190-7. 2008
    ..Collaboration between TB and HIV programmes seems to be the best approach to decrease the incidence of these diseases, especially in high-prevalence HIV settings...
  35. ncbi request reprint Buenos Aires cohort of men who have sex with men: prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and molecular genotyping of HIV type 1
    Marcela Segura
    Centro Nacional de Referencia para el SIDA, Departamento de Microbiologia, Parasitologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:1322-9. 2007
    ..Retention rates and HIV incidence rate were high. These data should be considered as a promising potential population for HIV vaccine trials...
  36. pmc High genetic variability of HIV-1 in female sex workers from Argentina
    Maria A Pando
    Centro Nacional de Referencia para el SIDA CNRS, Departamento de Microbiologia, Parasitologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay, Piso 11, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Retrovirology 4:58. 2007
    ..A cross-sectional study on 625 Female Sex Workers (FSWs) was conducted between 2000 and 2002 in 6 cities in Argentina. This study describes the genetic diversity and the resistance profile of the HIV-infected subjects...
  37. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 genetic diversity and genotypic drug susceptibility in the Republic of Georgia
    Maia Zarandia
    Georgian Infectious Diseases, AIDS and Clinical Immunology Research Center, Tbilisi 38600, Georgia
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:470-6. 2006
    ..The use of these parental strains in the analysis revealed an additional segment of subtype A in CRF03_AB. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Georgia was composed of a mixture of subtype A(FSU) and subtype B...
  38. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Medellin, Colombia
    Gloria I Sanchez
    Grupo Infección y Cáncer, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 74:674-7. 2006
    ..The predominance of subtype B genotypes of HIV-1 strains in Medellín resembles what is seen in the nearby countries of Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela...
  39. ncbi request reprint Forty-one near full-length HIV-1 sequences from Kenya reveal an epidemic of subtype A and A-containing recombinants
    William E Dowling
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, USA
    AIDS 16:1809-20. 2002
    ..To further define the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Kenya using approaches that clearly distinguish subtypes from inter-subtype recombinants...
  40. ncbi request reprint Detection of HIV-1 subtypes, recombinants, and dual infections in east Africa by a multi-region hybridization assay
    Michael Hoelscher
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
    AIDS 16:2055-64. 2002
    ..To enable more rapid and efficient genotyping of HIV-1 in East Africa, where subtypes A, C, and D and their recombinants are co-circulating...
  41. ncbi request reprint Sequence variability of the integrase protein from a diverse collection of HIV type 1 isolates representing several subtypes
    Cara Carthel Burns
    Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:1031-41. 2002
    ..The high degree of genetic homogeneity among the virus isolates representing several subtypes indicates that a single drug targeted against IN might be effective for all HIV-1 infections...
  42. ncbi request reprint Heterosexually acquired CRF01_AE/B recombinant HIV type 1 found in Thailand
    Kwanjai Viputtijul
    Thai Component, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:1235-7. 2002
    ..Studies are underway to determine whether either recombinant is circulating widely...
  43. ncbi request reprint Subtype C/CRF01_AE recombinant HIV-1 found in Thailand
    Veerachai Watanaveeradej
    AIDS 17:2138-40. 2003
  44. ncbi request reprint Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other viral co-infections among young heterosexual men and women in Argentina
    María de los Angeles Pando
    Centro Nacional de Referencia para el SIDA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 71:153-9. 2004
    ..The IDU-related and sexual transmission of hepatitis viruses constitute a significant problem among young, HIV-infected, heterosexuals in Argentina...
  45. ncbi request reprint Drug resistance testing provides evidence of the globalization of HIV type 1: a new circulating recombinant form
    Manuel Gomez-Carrillo
    Centro Nacional de Referencia para el SIDA, Departamento de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1121ABG Buenos Aires, Argentina
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:885-8. 2004
    ..Its presence on three continents shows that CRF16_A2D has a global distribution...
  46. ncbi request reprint Two HIV-1 epidemics in Argentina: different genetic subtypes associated with different risk groups
    Maria M Avila
    National Reference Center for AIDS, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 29:422-6. 2002
    ..One, in heterosexual men and women, is dominated by env subtype F whereas the other, in homosexual men, is dominated by env subtype B, as determined by env HMA...
  47. ncbi request reprint Seroincidence and phylogeny of human immunodeficiency virus infections in a cohort of commercial sex workers in Montevideo, Uruguay
    Jose Vinoles
    HIV AIDS National Control Program, and Department of Laboratories of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Montevideo, Uruguay
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:495-500. 2005
    ..Male transvestite CSWs sustained a high rate of HIV infection. Larger prospective studies are required to better define subtypes and associated sexual and drug-related risk factors...
  48. ncbi request reprint Prevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus infection among female sex workers in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
    Catherine S Todd
    Division of International Health and Cross Cultural Medicine, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0622, USA
    Sex Transm Dis 33:496-501. 2006
    ..To assess prevalence of and correlates to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among female sex workers in Tashkent, Uzbekistan...
  49. pmc Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters
    Nathan D Wolfe
    Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:7994-9. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint HIV type 1 strains common in Europe, Africa, and Asia cocirculate in Yemen
    Magdi D Saad
    United States Naval Medical Research Unit No 3, Cairo, Egypt
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:644-8. 2005
    ..The HIV epidemic in Yemen is extremely complex, with strains of HIV-1 that have originated in East and West Africa, Europe, and India...
  51. ncbi request reprint Prevalences, genotypes, and risk factors for HIV transmission in South America
    Silvia M Montano
    US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment Lima, Peru
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:57-64. 2005
    ..A renewed effort in controlling STIs, especially among MSM groups, could significantly lessen the impact of the HIV epidemic in South America...
  52. ncbi request reprint HIV type 1 CRF13_cpx revisited: identification of a new sequence from Cameroon and signal for subsubtype J2
    Ming Zhang
    Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 87545, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:955-60. 2005
    ..This suggests that subtype J may need to be reclassified into subsubtypes J1 and J2. The CRF13 genome consists of fragments from subtypes A1, G, and both J1 and J2 as well as CRF01 and one region that was left unclassified...
  53. ncbi request reprint Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus, viral hepatitis (B and C), treponema pallidum, and human T-cell lymphotropic I/II virus among men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Maria A Pando
    Centro Nacional de Referencia para el SIDA, Departamento de Microbiologia, Parasitologia e Inmunologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Sex Transm Dis 33:307-13. 2006
    ..Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) are prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM)...
  54. pmc Protocol for nearly full-length sequencing of HIV-1 RNA from plasma
    Yuka Nadai
    Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e1420. 2008
    ..This protocol provides a useful tool for molecular analysis to understand the HIV epidemic and pathogenesis, as well as diagnosis, therapy and future vaccine strategies...
  55. ncbi request reprint Seroprevalence of human T cell leukemia virus in HIV antibody-negative populations in rural Cameroon
    Ana Machuca
    Division Diagnosticos, Quimica Farmaceutica Bayer, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Infect Dis 40:1673-6. 2005
    ..Of the 88 serum samples that the enzyme immunoassay found to be repeatedly reactive, the HTLV status of 49 samples was confirmed by Western blot assay to be HTLV type I, and the status of 6 samples was confirmed to be HTLV type II...
  56. pmc Exposure to nonhuman primates in rural Cameroon
    Nathan D Wolfe
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:2094-9. 2004
    ..The study demonstrates that exposure is not limited to small groups of hunters. A high percentage of rural villagers report exposure to nonhuman primate blood and body fluids and risk acquiring infectious diseases...