Louis Anthony Tony Cox

Summary

Affiliation: Cox Associates
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Quantifying human health risks from virginiamycin used in chickens
    Louis A Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 24:271-88. 2004
  2. ncbi request reprint Quantifying potential health impacts of cadmium in cigarettes on smoker risk of lung cancer: a portfolio-of-mechanisms approach
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, 503 Franklin St, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 26:1581-99. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Re-examining the causes of campylobacteriosis
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 6:3S26-35; discussion 3S36, 3S53-8. 2002
  4. ncbi request reprint Evaluating and improving risk formulas for allocating limited budgets to expensive risk-reduction opportunities
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Risk Anal 32:1244-52. 2012
  5. pmc Universality of J-shaped and U-shaped dose-response relations as emergent properties of stochastic transition systems
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Dose Response 3:353-68. 2005
  6. doi request reprint Some limitations of frequency as a component of risk: an expository note
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 29:171-5. 2009
  7. doi request reprint Overcoming confirmation bias in causal attribution: a case study of antibiotic resistance risks
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, CO, USA
    Risk Anal 28:1155-72. 2008
  8. doi request reprint A mathematical model of protease-antiprotease homeostasis failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA
    Risk Anal 29:576-86. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Improving risk-based decision making for terrorism applications
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, USA
    Risk Anal 29:336-41; discussion 342-3. 2009
  10. doi request reprint Human health risk assessment of penicillin/aminopenicillin resistance in enterococci due to penicillin use in food animals
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates
    Risk Anal 29:796-805. 2009

Detail Information

Publications31

  1. ncbi request reprint Quantifying human health risks from virginiamycin used in chickens
    Louis A Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 24:271-88. 2004
    ..Sensitivity analyses indicate that this conclusion is robust to key data gaps and uncertainties, e.g., about the extent of resistance transfer from chickens to people...
  2. ncbi request reprint Quantifying potential health impacts of cadmium in cigarettes on smoker risk of lung cancer: a portfolio-of-mechanisms approach
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, 503 Franklin St, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 26:1581-99. 2006
    ..Conservative estimates and assumptions made in this calculation suggest that the true impact could be greater for some smokers. This conclusion appears to be robust to many scientific uncertainties about Cd and smoking effects...
  3. ncbi request reprint Re-examining the causes of campylobacteriosis
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 6:3S26-35; discussion 3S36, 3S53-8. 2002
    ....
  4. ncbi request reprint Evaluating and improving risk formulas for allocating limited budgets to expensive risk-reduction opportunities
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Risk Anal 32:1244-52. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc Universality of J-shaped and U-shaped dose-response relations as emergent properties of stochastic transition systems
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Dose Response 3:353-68. 2005
    ..With cytotoxicity present, U-shaped as well as J-shaped dose-response curves can emerge. These results are universal, i.e., independent of specific biological details represented by the stochastic transition networks...
  6. doi request reprint Some limitations of frequency as a component of risk: an expository note
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 29:171-5. 2009
    ..quot; More flexible descriptions of risky processes, such as point process models can avoid these limitations...
  7. doi request reprint Overcoming confirmation bias in causal attribution: a case study of antibiotic resistance risks
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, CO, USA
    Risk Anal 28:1155-72. 2008
    ....
  8. doi request reprint A mathematical model of protease-antiprotease homeostasis failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA
    Risk Anal 29:576-86. 2009
    ..These and other predictions of the model are consistent with limited available human data...
  9. doi request reprint Improving risk-based decision making for terrorism applications
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, USA
    Risk Anal 29:336-41; discussion 342-3. 2009
    ..These limitations of present scoring methods present exciting technical challenges and opportunities for risk analysts to develop improved methods for protecting facilities and infrastructure against terrorist threats...
  10. doi request reprint Human health risk assessment of penicillin/aminopenicillin resistance in enterococci due to penicillin use in food animals
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates
    Risk Anal 29:796-805. 2009
    ..These calculations suggest that current penicillin usage in food animals in the United States presents very low (possibly zero) human health risks...
  11. doi request reprint Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Risk Anal 30:432-57. 2010
    ..QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen...
  12. ncbi request reprint Symmetry, identifiability, and prediction uncertainties in multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) models of carcinogenesis
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 27:1441-53. 2007
    ..From epidemiological data alone, only a set of equally likely alternative predictions can be made for the effects on risk of such interventions...
  13. ncbi request reprint Some limitations of aggregate exposure metrics
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates, Inc, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 27:439-45. 2007
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Does concern-driven risk management provide a viable alternative to QRA?
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 27:27-43. 2007
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Bayesian Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis of human health risks from animal antimicrobial use in a dynamic model of emerging resistance
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 24:1153-64. 2004
    ..S. population. Such quantitative estimates complement more qualitative assessments that discuss the possibility of future "resistance epidemics" (or endemics) without quantifying their probabilities...
  16. ncbi request reprint Potential human health benefits of antibiotics used in food animals: a case study of virginiamycin
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, Denver 80218, United States
    Environ Int 31:549-63. 2005
    ..This qualitative conclusion appears to be robust to several scientific and modeling uncertainties...
  17. ncbi request reprint Some limitations of qualitative risk rating systems
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates, Inc, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 25:651-62. 2005
    ..These limitations suggest that it is important to continue to develop and apply practical quantitative risk assessment methods, since qualitative ones are often unreliable...
  18. ncbi request reprint Optimal tracking and testing of U.S. and Canadian herds for BSE: a value-of-information (VOI) approach
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 25:827-40. 2005
    ..If aggressive tracking and testing can win back lost exports, then the VOI of a tracking program may increase to over half a billion dollars per year...
  19. ncbi request reprint Quantifying potential human health impacts of animal antibiotic use: enrofloxacin and macrolides in chickens
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218 3623, USA
    Risk Anal 26:135-46. 2006
    ..This potentially important aspect of human health risk assessment for animal antibiotics has not previously been quantified...
  20. ncbi request reprint Some limitations of a proposed linear model for antimicrobial risk management
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 25:1327-32. 2005
    ..quot;..
  21. doi request reprint Why reduced-form regression models of health effects versus exposures should not replace QRA: livestock production and infant mortality as an example
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 29:1664-71. 2009
    ..Sound risk management requires the extra work needed to identify and model valid causal relations...
  22. doi request reprint What's wrong with hazard-ranking systems? An expository note
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, USA
    Risk Anal 29:940-8. 2009
    ..Applying portfolio optimization methods instead of risk prioritization ranking, rating, or scoring methods can achieve greater risk-reduction value for resources spent...
  23. doi request reprint Hormesis without cell killing
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, 503 Franklin St, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 29:393-400. 2009
    ..In addition, the examples presented emphasize the role of time in hormesis: exposures that monotonically increase risks at younger ages may nonetheless produce a U-shaped or J-shaped dose-response relation for lifetime risk of cancer...
  24. doi request reprint Causal versus spurious spatial exposure-response associations in health risk analysis
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 43:26-38. 2013
    ..Hence, extreme caution and careful application of spatial statistical methods are warranted before interpreting proximity-based exposure-response relations as evidence of a possible or probable causal relation...
  25. doi request reprint Could removing arsenic from tobacco smoke significantly reduce smoker risks of lung cancer?
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 29:3-17. 2009
    ..At present, this fraction is unknown (and could be as low as zero), but the possibility that it could be high (close to 1) cannot be ruled out without further data...
  26. ncbi request reprint Estimating preventable fractions of disease caused by a specified biological mechanism: PAHs in smoking lung cancers as an example
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates, 503 Franklin St, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 26:881-92. 2006
    ....
  27. doi request reprint Clarifying types of uncertainty: when are models accurate, and uncertainties small?
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, 503 Franklin St, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 31:1530-3; discussion 1538-42. 2011
    ....
  28. doi request reprint A causal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 31:38-62. 2011
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Why risk is not variance: an expository note
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 28:925-8. 2008
    ..Unlike some previous analyses of limitations of variance as a risk metric, this expository note uses only simple mathematics and does not require the additional framework of von Neumann Morgenstern utility theory...
  30. doi request reprint What's wrong with risk matrices?
    Louis Anthony Cox
    Cox Associates and University of Colorado, 503 Franklin St, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 28:497-512. 2008
    ..These limitations suggest that risk matrices should be used with caution, and only with careful explanations of embedded judgments...
  31. doi request reprint An exposure-response threshold for lung diseases and lung cancer caused by crystalline silica
    Louis Anthony Tony Cox
    Cox Associates, 503 Franklin Street, Denver, CO 80218, USA
    Risk Anal 31:1543-60. 2011
    ..Applying this new model to epidemiological data, we conclude that current permissible exposure levels, on the order of 0.1 mg/m³, are probably below the threshold for triggering lung diseases in humans...