Carl F Nathan

Summary

Affiliation: Cornell University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi Beyond oxidative stress: an immunologist's guide to reactive oxygen species
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 13:349-61. 2013
  2. pmc Fresh approaches to anti-infective therapies
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Sci Transl Med 4:140sr2. 2012
  3. pmc Secretory products of macrophages: twenty-five years on
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:1189-90. 2012
  4. pmc Reprogramming of the macrophage transcriptome in response to interferon-gamma and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: signaling roles of nitric oxide synthase-2 and phagocyte oxidase
    S Ehrt
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 194:1123-40. 2001
  5. doi Metchnikoff's Legacy in 2008
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:695-8. 2008
  6. pmc Nonredundant antioxidant defense by multiple two-cysteine peroxiredoxins in human prostate cancer cells
    Chuanlu Shen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Mol Med 8:95-102. 2002
  7. ncbi Immunology. Catalytic antibody bridges innate and adaptive immunity
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Graduate Programs in Immunology and Molecular Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 298:2143-4. 2002
  8. ncbi Points of control in inflammation
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Nature 420:846-52. 2002
  9. pmc Specificity of a third kind: reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in cell signaling
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Graduate Programs in Immunology and Molecular Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:769-78. 2003
  10. pmc Epidemic inflammation: pondering obesity
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
    Mol Med 14:485-92. 2008

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications54

  1. doi Beyond oxidative stress: an immunologist's guide to reactive oxygen species
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 13:349-61. 2013
    ..ROS chemistry and their pleiotropy make them difficult to localize, to quantify and to manipulate - challenges we must overcome to translate ROS biology into medical advances...
  2. pmc Fresh approaches to anti-infective therapies
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Sci Transl Med 4:140sr2. 2012
    ....
  3. pmc Secretory products of macrophages: twenty-five years on
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:1189-90. 2012
    ..Last fall's Nobel Prizes honored two of the few scientists who studied macrophages three decades ago. Now perhaps thousands do, and the subtypes they describe reflect ongoing discoveries of macrophages' extraordinary plasticity...
  4. pmc Reprogramming of the macrophage transcriptome in response to interferon-gamma and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: signaling roles of nitric oxide synthase-2 and phagocyte oxidase
    S Ehrt
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, NY 10021, USA
    J Exp Med 194:1123-40. 2001
    ....
  5. doi Metchnikoff's Legacy in 2008
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:695-8. 2008
  6. pmc Nonredundant antioxidant defense by multiple two-cysteine peroxiredoxins in human prostate cancer cells
    Chuanlu Shen
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Mol Med 8:95-102. 2002
    ..Because mammalian Prxs have not been experimentally deleted or inhibited, it is not known how much they contribute to antioxidant defense, nor whether the multiple isoforms afford redundant or additive protection...
  7. ncbi Immunology. Catalytic antibody bridges innate and adaptive immunity
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Graduate Programs in Immunology and Molecular Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 298:2143-4. 2002
  8. ncbi Points of control in inflammation
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Nature 420:846-52. 2002
    ....
  9. pmc Specificity of a third kind: reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in cell signaling
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Graduate Programs in Immunology and Molecular Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:769-78. 2003
  10. pmc Epidemic inflammation: pondering obesity
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
    Mol Med 14:485-92. 2008
    ..When we eat so much and work so little that we repeatedly generate reactive compounds at levels normally reserved for emergencies, we treat our own cells like invading microbes...
  11. ncbi The moving frontier in nitric oxide-dependent signaling
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Program in Immunology, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA
    Sci STKE 2004:pe52. 2004
    ....
  12. ncbi Aligning pharmaceutical innovation with medical need
    Carl Nathan
    Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Med 13:304-8. 2007
  13. pmc Reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates in the relationship between mammalian hosts and microbial pathogens
    C Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College and Program in Immunology, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8841-8. 2000
    ..Genetic and biochemical approaches have identified candidates for RNI-resistance genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens...
  14. ncbi Neutrophils and immunity: challenges and opportunities
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, Box 57, 1300 York Avenue, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:173-82. 2006
    ....
  15. doi A philosophy of anti-infectives as a guide in the search for new drugs for tuberculosis
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 88:S25-33. 2008
    ..We seek chemotherapeutics that turn Mtb's adversity to the host's advantage...
  16. doi Taming tuberculosis: a challenge for science and society
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 5:220-4. 2009
    ..Fortunately, the crisis is inspiring scientific and organizational creativity...
  17. doi Nonresolving inflammation
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 140:871-82. 2010
    ..This greatly complicates the development of anti-inflammatory therapies. The problem calls for conceptual, organizational, and statistical innovations...
  18. ncbi Is iNOS beginning to smoke?
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell 147:257-8. 2011
    ..Now Seimetz et al. (2011) make a case for inhibiting iNOS in an effort to treat one of the world's leading causes of death-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
  19. doi Making space for anti-infective drug discovery
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 9:343-8. 2011
    ..Appreciating the diverse axes of these spaces may encourage wider exploration...
  20. ncbi Outlook: the profit problem in antibiotic R&D
    Carl Nathan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nat Rev Drug Discov 4:887-91. 2005
    ....
  21. pmc Acid-susceptible mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis share hypersusceptibility to cell wall and oxidative stress and to the host environment
    Omar H Vandal
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Bacteriol 191:625-31. 2009
    ..Pathways utilized by M. tuberculosis for acid resistance and intrabacterial pH maintenance are potential targets for chemotherapy...
  22. pmc A membrane protein preserves intrabacterial pH in intraphagosomal Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Omar H Vandal
    Department of Microbiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nat Med 14:849-54. 2008
    ..Thus, Mtb is able to resist acid, owing in large part to Rv3671c, and this resistance is essential for virulence. Disruption of Mtb's acid resistance and intrabacterial pH maintenance systems is an attractive target for chemotherapy...
  23. pmc Role for nucleotide excision repair in virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    K Heran Darwin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 57, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Infect Immun 73:4581-7. 2005
    ..Thus, a gene predicted to encode a key element of DNA repair is required for resistance of M. tuberculosis to both reactive nitrogen and reactive oxygen species in mice...
  24. ncbi Characterization of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasomal ATPase homologue
    K Heran Darwin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Mol Microbiol 55:561-71. 2005
    ..The corresponding strain was attenuated in mice. Thus, Mpa is an ATPase whose enzymatic activity is necessary but not sufficient to protect against reactive nitrogen intermediates...
  25. pmc Genetic regulation of vesiculogenesis and immunomodulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Poonam Rath
    Departments of Immunology and Microbiology and Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E4790-7. 2013
    ..We propose that rv0431 be named "vesiculogenesis and immune response regulator." ..
  26. pmc Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene Rv2136c is dispensable for acid resistance and virulence in mice
    Crystal M Darby
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Tuberculosis (Edinb) 91:343-7. 2011
    ..Identification of the mutated gene will further our understanding of acid resistance mechanisms in Mtb and may offer a target for anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy...
  27. ncbi The proteasome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required for resistance to nitric oxide
    K Heran Darwin
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 302:1963-6. 2003
    ..Thus, the mycobacterial proteasome serves as a defense against oxidative or nitrosative stress...
  28. pmc Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitizes Mycobacterium tuberculosis to endogenous and exogenous antimicrobials
    Ben Gold
    Department of Microbiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16004-11. 2012
    ..Thus, conditions that block Mtb's replication modify OPB and enhance its cidal action. Modified OPB kills both replicating and NR Mtb and sensitizes both to host-derived and medicinal antimycobacterial agents...
  29. pmc S-nitroso proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Enzymes of intermediary metabolism and antioxidant defense
    Kyu Y Rhee
    Division of International Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:467-72. 2005
    ..Targeting of metabolic enzymes and antioxidant defenses by means of protein S-nitrosylation and mixed disulfide bonding may contribute to the antimycobacterial actions of RNIs...
  30. pmc Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis counterimmune (cim) mutants in immunodeficient mice by differential screening
    Katherine B Hisert
    Laboratory of Infection Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Infect Immun 72:5315-21. 2004
    ..We propose that these genes are involved in pathways that allow M. tuberculosis to counter IFN-gamma-dependent immune mechanisms other than iNOS...
  31. doi Killing of non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis by 8-hydroxyquinoline
    Crystal M Darby
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 65:1424-7. 2010
    ..To determine the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) on non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in comparison with its reported effect on replicating Mtb...
  32. pmc Nitrite produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages in physiologic oxygen impacts bacterial ATP consumption and gene expression
    Amy Cunningham-Bussel
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Genomics Resources Core Facility, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E4256-65. 2013
    ..Endogenous nitrite may slow Mtb's growth and prepare it to resist host stresses while the pathogen waits for immunopathology to promote its transmission. ..
  33. pmc Influence of allosteric regulators on individual steps in the reaction catalyzed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis 2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate synthase
    Anand Balakrishnan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:21688-702. 2013
    ..Thus, the two regulators act on different halves of the catalytic cycle in an unusual regulatory regime. ..
  34. pmc Genome-wide screen for Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes that regulate host immunity
    Aimee M Beaulieu
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15120. 2010
    ..The mutant list provides a platform for exploring the immunobiology of tuberculosis, for example, by combining immunoregulatory mutations in a candidate vaccine strain...
  35. pmc Role of the tyrosine kinase pyk2 in the integrin-dependent activation of human neutrophils by TNF
    M Fuortes
    Department of Cell Biology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York 10021, USA
    J Clin Invest 104:327-35. 1999
    ..Thus, pyk2 appears to play an essential role in the ability of neutrophils to integrate signals from beta(2) integrins and TNF receptors...
  36. pmc Efficacy of nitazoxanide against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Kristina Shigyo
    Center for Global Health, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:2834-7. 2013
    ..We found that NTZ's MIC against 50 clinical isolates ranged from 12 to 28 μg/ml with a median of 16 μg/ml and was unaffected by resistance to first- or second-line antituberculosis drugs or a diversity of spoligotypes...
  37. pmc Cytosolic phospholipase A2 enzymes are not required by mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages for the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro
    Omar H Vandal
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 57, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Infect Immun 74:1751-6. 2006
    ..Moreover, intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis was similar in cPLA2-IVA-deficient and wild-type macrophages. Our results demonstrate that the cytosolic PLA2s are not required by murine BMDMs to kill M. tuberculosis...
  38. ncbi Crystal structure and functional analysis of lipoamide dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Kanagalaghatta R Rajashankar
    Structural Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:33977-83. 2005
    ..Taken together, these data suggest protein surfaces that should be considered while developing strategies for inhibiting this enzyme...
  39. doi Nitrite impacts the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in response to isoniazid and hydrogen peroxide
    Amy Cunningham-Bussel
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York Graduate Program in Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Weill Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University, New York, New York
    Microbiologyopen 2:901-11. 2013
    ..To the extent that Mtb itself is the most relevant source of nitrite acting within Mtb, these findings suggest that inhibitors of Mtb's nitrate transporter or nitrate reductase could enhance the efficacy of isoniazid. ..
  40. ncbi Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase
    M U Shiloh
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York 10021, USA
    Immunity 10:29-38. 1999
    ..Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2...
  41. pmc Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase from Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis protects bacteria against oxidative damage from reactive nitrogen intermediates
    G St John
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate Program in Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9901-6. 2001
    ..coli by intracellular conversion to peroxynitrite, that intracellular Met residues in proteins constitute a critical target for peroxynitrite, and that MsrA can be essential for the repair of peroxynitrite-mediated intracellular damage...
  42. ncbi Traces of bacterial lipopolysaccharide suppress IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide synthase gene expression in primary mouse macrophages
    C Bogdan
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021
    J Immunol 151:301-9. 1993
    ..Regulation of iNOS in vivo may depend on the relative tempo with which the inflammatory and immune responses evolve...
  43. ncbi Cloning and characterization of inducible nitric oxide synthase from mouse macrophages
    Q W Xie
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021
    Science 256:225-8. 1992
    ..The macrophage enzyme is immunologically induced at the transcriptional level and closely resembles the enzyme in cytokine-treated tumor cells and inflammatory neutrophils...
  44. ncbi Altered responses to bacterial infection and endotoxic shock in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase
    J D MacMicking
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Cell 81:641-50. 1995
    ..Thus, there exist both iNOS-dependent and iNOS-independent routes to LPS-induced hypotension and death...
  45. ncbi Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells
    C Nathan
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021
    FASEB J 6:3051-64. 1992
    ..This article reviews how different forms of nitric oxide synthase help confer specificity and diversity on the effects of this remarkable signaling molecule...
  46. ncbi Complementary DNA sequence of human neutrophil azurocidin, an antibiotic with extensive homology to serine proteases
    R P Almeida
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 177:688-95. 1991
    ..However, azurocidin has Gly for Ser and Ser for His substitutions in the catalytic triad. Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA suggests the existence of a single azurocidin coding sequence...
  47. pmc Cloning of cDNA for proteinase 3: a serine protease, antibiotic, and autoantigen from human neutrophils
    D Campanelli
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021
    J Exp Med 172:1709-15. 1990
    ..Thus, proteinase 3 may share the role previously attributed to neutrophil elastase in tissue damage, and has the potential to function as an antimicrobial agent...
  48. ncbi Mechanism of suppression of nitric oxide synthase expression by interleukin-4 in primary mouse macrophages
    C Bogdan
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY 10021
    J Leukoc Biol 55:227-33. 1994
    ....
  49. ncbi Nitric oxide synthases: roles, tolls, and controls
    C Nathan
    Beatrice and Samuel Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021
    Cell 78:915-8. 1994
  50. ncbi Metabolic enzymes of mycobacteria linked to antioxidant defense by a thioredoxin-like protein
    R Bryk
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 295:1073-7. 2002
    ..AhpD thus represents a class of thioredoxin-like molecules that enables an antioxidant defense...
  51. ncbi Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor: a macrophage product induced by and antagonistic to bacterial lipopolysaccharide
    F Y Jin
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York 10021, USA
    Cell 88:417-26. 1997
    ..IFN gamma suppressed expression of SLPI and restored LPS responsiveness to SLPI-producing cells. Thus, SLPI is an LPS-induced IFN gamma-suppressible phagocyte product that serves to inhibit LPS responses...
  52. ncbi Inducible nitric oxide synthase requires both the canonical calmodulin-binding domain and additional sequences in order to bind calmodulin and produce nitric oxide in the absence of free Ca2+
    J Ruan
    Beatrice and Samuel A Seaver Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:22679-86. 1996
    ..Thus, both the canonical CaM-binding domain and additional residues within the region 484-726 are necessary for NOS2's ability to bind CaM and produce NO when Ca2+ levels approach zero...
  53. pmc New approaches to filling the gap in tuberculosis drug discovery
    Martina Casenghi
    Medecins Sans Frontieres, Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines, Geneva
    PLoS Med 4:e293. 2007
  54. pmc IFNgamma: issuing macrophages a license to kill
    Hema Bashyam
    J Exp Med 204:3. 2007
    ..In 1983, Carl Nathan proved that this start signal comes in the form of the secreted cytokine IFNgamma...

Research Grants26

  1. TARGETING DEFENSES OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
    Carl Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  2. ROLE OF NO SYNTHASE-2 IN MURINE ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    Carl Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  3. Dihydrolipoamide Acyltransferase:Target for Chemotherapy
    Carl Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  4. Targets in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: Stress Resistance & Repair
    Carl Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The fundamental novelty of this work is to broaden the range of targets to include enzymes of intermediary metabolism and DNA repair. ..
  5. MACROPHAGES, DENDRITIC CELLS AND PATHOGENS
    Carl Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Cores provide for BSL3 wet lab and mouse work; microarray analysis of gene expression; computation and comparison of gene expression results; and high throughput screening of chemical libraries. ..
  6. Targets in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: Stress Resistance & Repair
    Carl Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The fundamental novelty of this work is to broaden the range of targets to include enzymes of intermediary metabolism and DNA repair. ..
  7. MYCOBACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO REACTIVE NITROGEN/OXYGEN
    Carl Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  8. Biology of lipoamide dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate synthase in Mtb
    Carl F Nathan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Compounds developed here will inhibit two enzymes that are required by non-replicating Mtb (Lpd) or seem likely to be so (HOAS) and along with metabolomic studies will shed fundamental new light on Mtb's intermediary metabolism. ..