F D Malone

Summary

Affiliation: Columbia University
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Is there a nuchal translucency millimeter measurement above which there is no added benefit from first trimester serum screening?
    Christine H Comstock
    Division of Fetal Imaging, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI 48073, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:843-7. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint First-trimester nasal bone evaluation for aneuploidy in the general population
    Fergal D Malone
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 104:1222-8. 2004
  3. ncbi request reprint Anomalies peculiar to multiple gestations
    F D Malone
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sloane Hospital for Women, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    Clin Perinatol 27:1033-46, x. 2000
  4. ncbi request reprint First-trimester sonographic screening for Down syndrome
    Fergal D Malone
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 102:1066-79. 2003
  5. doi request reprint Prediction of patient-specific risk for fetal loss using maternal characteristics and first- and second-trimester maternal serum Down syndrome markers
    Lorraine Dugoff
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado at Denver Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:290.e1-6. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint First-trimester screening for aneuploidy
    Karlla W Brigatti
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, PH16, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 31:v, 1-20. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Threatened abortion: A risk factor for poor pregnancy outcome, a population-based screening study
    Joshua L Weiss
    Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:745-50. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Assisted reproductive technology and pregnancy outcome
    Tracy Shevell
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Whittingham Pavilion, Stamford Hospital, 30 Shelburne Road, Stamford, CT 06904, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 106:1039-45. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of oxytocin at the beginning versus the end of the third stage of labor for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage
    Warner K Huh
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tufts University School of Medicine Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass 02111, USA
    Gynecol Obstet Invest 58:72-6. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint First-trimester or second-trimester screening, or both, for Down's syndrome
    Fergal D Malone
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2001-11. 2005

Detail Information

Publications55

  1. ncbi request reprint Is there a nuchal translucency millimeter measurement above which there is no added benefit from first trimester serum screening?
    Christine H Comstock
    Division of Fetal Imaging, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI 48073, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:843-7. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there is a nuchal translucency (NT) measurement, independent of gestational age, above which immediate diagnostic testing should be offered without waiting for first trimester serum markers...
  2. ncbi request reprint First-trimester nasal bone evaluation for aneuploidy in the general population
    Fergal D Malone
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 104:1222-8. 2004
    ..To evaluate the role of fetal nasal bone imaging at 10 3/7 to 13 6/7 weeks as a screening tool for aneuploidy, in a prospective multicenter trial...
  3. ncbi request reprint Anomalies peculiar to multiple gestations
    F D Malone
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sloane Hospital for Women, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    Clin Perinatol 27:1033-46, x. 2000
    ..These unique anomalies include twin-twin transfusion syndrome, twin-reversed-arterial-perfusion syndrome, and conjoined twinning. This article reviews and describes each of these unique abnormal conditions in detail...
  4. ncbi request reprint First-trimester sonographic screening for Down syndrome
    Fergal D Malone
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 102:1066-79. 2003
    ..Additionally, a detailed description of practical problems that might limit the implementation of this form of screening is presented...
  5. doi request reprint Prediction of patient-specific risk for fetal loss using maternal characteristics and first- and second-trimester maternal serum Down syndrome markers
    Lorraine Dugoff
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado at Denver Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:290.e1-6. 2008
    ..To develop and evaluate a method of estimating patient-specific risk for fetal loss by combining maternal characteristics with serum markers...
  6. ncbi request reprint First-trimester screening for aneuploidy
    Karlla W Brigatti
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, PH16, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 31:v, 1-20. 2004
    ..This article reviews the current status of first-trimester screening for Down syndrome and other aneuploidies and explores the issues related to implementing first-trimester screening into mainstream prenatal care in the United States...
  7. ncbi request reprint Threatened abortion: A risk factor for poor pregnancy outcome, a population-based screening study
    Joshua L Weiss
    Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:745-50. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with first-trimester threatened abortion are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcome...
  8. ncbi request reprint Assisted reproductive technology and pregnancy outcome
    Tracy Shevell
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Whittingham Pavilion, Stamford Hospital, 30 Shelburne Road, Stamford, CT 06904, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 106:1039-45. 2005
    ..To determine whether the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with an increase in chromosomal abnormalities, fetal malformations, or adverse pregnancy outcomes...
  9. ncbi request reprint A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of oxytocin at the beginning versus the end of the third stage of labor for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage
    Warner K Huh
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tufts University School of Medicine Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass 02111, USA
    Gynecol Obstet Invest 58:72-6. 2004
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the administration of oxytocin at the beginning and end of the third stage of labor for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage...
  10. ncbi request reprint First-trimester or second-trimester screening, or both, for Down's syndrome
    Fergal D Malone
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA
    N Engl J Med 353:2001-11. 2005
    ..It is uncertain how best to screen pregnant women for the presence of fetal Down's syndrome: to perform first-trimester screening, to perform second-trimester screening, or to use strategies incorporating measurements in both trimesters...
  11. ncbi request reprint Impact of gestational age at delivery of the economics of triplet pregnancy
    F D Malone
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    J Matern Fetal Med 8:256-61. 1999
    ..To establish the charges associated with triplet pregnancies managed at a single tertiary center, over a 5-year time period, and to evaluate the impact of prematurity on these charges...
  12. doi request reprint Maternal thyroid hypofunction and pregnancy outcome
    Jane Cleary-Goldman
    Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 112:85-92. 2008
    ..To estimate whether maternal thyroid hypofunction is associated with complications...
  13. doi request reprint Contingent screening for Down syndrome--results from the FaSTER trial
    Howard S Cuckle
    Columbia University, New York, USA
    Prenat Diagn 28:89-94. 2008
    ..Comparison of contingent, step-wise and integrated screening policies...
  14. ncbi request reprint Pregnancy loss rates after midtrimester amniocentesis
    Keith A Eddleman
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 108:1067-72. 2006
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Screening for Down syndrome: practice patterns and knowledge of obstetricians and gynecologists
    Jane Cleary-Goldman
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 107:11-7. 2006
    ..To assess obstetricians' practice patterns and knowledge regarding screening for Down syndrome...
  16. ncbi request reprint Nuchal translucency and the risk of congenital heart disease
    Lynn L Simpson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:376-83. 2007
    ..To estimate whether nuchal translucency assessment is a useful screening tool for major congenital heart disease (CHD) in the absence of aneuploidy...
  17. ncbi request reprint Early access to prenatal care: implications for racial disparity in perinatal mortality
    Andrew J Healy
    Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, PH 16, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 107:625-31. 2006
    ..To investigate racial disparities in perinatal mortality in women with early access to prenatal care...
  18. ncbi request reprint First-trimester septated cystic hygroma: prevalence, natural history, and pediatric outcome
    Fergal D Malone
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 106:288-94. 2005
    ..To estimate prevalence, natural history, and outcome of septated cystic hygroma in the first trimester in the general obstetric population, and to differentiate this finding from simple increased nuchal translucency...
  19. ncbi request reprint Impact of maternal age on obstetric outcome
    Jane Cleary-Goldman
    Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:983-90. 2005
    ..To estimate the effect of maternal age on obstetric outcomes...
  20. ncbi request reprint Radiofrequency ablation in a monochorionic twin discordant for fetal anomalies
    Tracy Shevell
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:575-6. 2004
    ..We report a case in which radiofrequency ablation was used to selectively reduce a monochorionic twin discordant for an abnormality...
  21. ncbi request reprint Maternal complications associated with multiple pregnancy
    Patricia C Devine
    New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10023, USA
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 47:227-36. 2004
  22. ncbi request reprint Management of obstetric hemorrhage
    Tracy Shevell
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Semin Perinatol 27:86-104. 2003
    ..Application of medical and surgical principles combined with recent technologic advances will help the obstetrician avoid disastrous outcomes for both mother and fetus...
  23. ncbi request reprint Obesity, obstetric complications and cesarean delivery rate--a population-based screening study
    Joshua L Weiss
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Columbia Presbytrian Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 190:1091-7. 2004
    ..This study was undertaken to determine whether obesity is associated with obstetric complications and cesarean delivery...
  24. ncbi request reprint Nuchal translucency-based screening
    Karlla K Welch
    Division of Maternal Fetal, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Presbiterian Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 46:909-22. 2003
  25. pmc Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study
    Radek Bukowski
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    BMJ 334:836. 2007
    ..To determine if first trimester fetal growth is associated with birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant...
  26. ncbi request reprint Quad screen as a predictor of adverse pregnancy outcome
    Lorraine Dugoff
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 106:260-7. 2005
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint The effect of low body mass index on the development of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia
    Victoria Belogolovkin
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 6574, USA
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 20:509-13. 2007
    ..To evaluate the relationship between low maternal body mass index (BMI) as calculated in the first trimester and the risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension...
  28. ncbi request reprint Noncardiac thoracic anomalies
    P C Devine
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sloane Hospital for Women, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA
    Clin Perinatol 27:865-99. 2000
    ..Persistent hydrothorax can usually be treated with noninvasive measures in the newborn period...
  29. ncbi request reprint Isolated clubfoot diagnosed prenatally: is karyotyping indicated?
    F D Malone
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia Presbyterian Medial Center, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 95:437-40. 2000
    ..To evaluate the appropriateness of fetal karyotyping after prenatal sonographic diagnosis of isolated unilateral or bilateral clubfoot...
  30. doi request reprint Maintaining quality assurance for sonographic nuchal translucency measurement: lessons from the FASTER Trial
    M E D'Alton
    Columbia University, New York, USA
    Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 33:142-6. 2009
    ..To evaluate nuchal translucency measurement quality assurance techniques in a large-scale study...
  31. doi request reprint Individualized norms of optimal fetal growth: fetal growth potential
    Radek Bukowski
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 111:1065-76. 2008
    ..To demonstrate that individualized optimal fetal growth norms, accounting for physiologic and pathologic determinants of fetal growth, better identify normal and abnormal outcomes of pregnancy than existing methods...
  32. ncbi request reprint Down syndrome screening in twins
    Melissa C Bush
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California, Irvine, 101 The City Drive, Orange, CA 92868, USA
    Clin Perinatol 32:373-86, vi. 2005
    ..Patients accepting screening should be aware of all options should a diagnosis of fetal aneuploidy be confirmed, including pregnancy continuation, termination of the entire pregnancy, and selective termination of an aneuploid fetus...
  33. ncbi request reprint Maternal and neonatal outcome of 100 consecutive triplet pregnancies
    P C Devine
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York 10032-3784, USA
    Am J Perinatol 18:225-35. 2001
    ..Pregnancy outcome did not vary with birth order or mode of conception. Triplet pregnancy is associated with a high rate ofantenatal complications. Favorable neonatal outcome can be obtained without the use of prophylactic interventions...
  34. pmc Second-stage labor duration in nulliparous women: relationship to maternal and perinatal outcomes
    Dwight J Rouse
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 201:357.e1-7. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess maternal and perinatal outcomes as a function of second-stage labor duration...
  35. ncbi request reprint Human sexual size dimorphism in early pregnancy
    Radek Bukowski
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1062, USA
    Am J Epidemiol 165:1216-8. 2007
    ..009; spontaneous conception = 120 g, 95% CI: 107, 132, p < 0.00001). These data demonstrate that human fetuses exhibit sexual size dimorphism in the first trimester of pregnancy...
  36. ncbi request reprint First- and second-trimester screening: detection of aneuploidies other than Down syndrome
    Fionnuala M Breathnach
    Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
    Obstet Gynecol 110:651-7. 2007
    ..To evaluate the performance of first- and second-trimester screening methods for the detection of aneuploidies other than Down syndrome...
  37. pmc First- and second-trimester thyroid hormone reference data in pregnant women: a FaSTER (First- and Second-Trimester Evaluation of Risk for aneuploidy) Research Consortium study
    Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian
    Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:62.e1-6. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to calculate first and second trimester reference ranges and within-woman correlations for TSH, free T4, and thyroid antibodies...
  38. doi request reprint The use of nuchal translucency in contemporary obstetric practice
    Soha Said
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Rotunda Hospital, Parnell Square, Dublin 1, Republic of Ireland
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 51:37-47. 2008
    ..This method can also identify more than 90% of fetuses with trisomies 18 and 13, Turner syndrome, and triploidy for a screen-positive rate of 1%...
  39. doi request reprint Screening for fetal abnormalities with ultrasound
    Karen Flood
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 20:139-45. 2008
    ..This review serves to explore literature published during the past year that has focussed on sonographic screening for fetal abnormalities...
  40. pmc Variability in thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression by human chorionic [corrected] gonadotropin during early pregnancy
    James E Haddow
    The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:3341-7. 2008
    ..The objective of the study was to further explore relationships between human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), TSH, and free T4 in pregnant women at 11 through 18 wk gestation...
  41. doi request reprint Sequential first- and second-trimester TSH, free thyroxine, and thyroid antibody measurements in women with known hypothyroidism: a FaSTER trial study
    Monica R McClain
    Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:129.e1-6. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine how closely hypothyroidism management in the general pregnancy population satisfies recently issued guidelines and to determine whether improvements are indicated...
  42. ncbi request reprint The contribution of birth defects to preterm birth and low birth weight
    Siobhan M Dolan
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine Montefiore Medical Center, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 110:318-24. 2007
    ..To assess the impact of birth defects on preterm birth and low birth weight...
  43. ncbi request reprint Sequential pathways of testing after first-trimester screening for trisomy 21
    Fergal D Malone
    Obstet Gynecol 105:438; author reply 438-9. 2005
  44. ncbi request reprint Nuchal translucency-based Down syndrome screening: barriers to implementation
    Fergal D Malone
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
    Semin Perinatol 29:272-6. 2005
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint First trimester uterine artery Doppler abnormalities predict subsequent intrauterine growth restriction
    Lorraine Dugoff
    Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:1208-12. 2005
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between uterine artery Doppler velocimetry performed between 10 and 14 weeks gestation and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)...
  46. ncbi request reprint First-trimester maternal serum PAPP-A and free-beta subunit human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations and nuchal translucency are associated with obstetric complications: a population-based screening study (the FASTER Trial)
    Lorraine Dugoff
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:1446-51. 2004
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal serum levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, free-beta subunit human chorionic gonadotropin, or nuchal translucency size are associated with obstetric complications...
  47. ncbi request reprint Stability of first- and second-trimester serum markers after storage and shipment
    Geralyn M Lambert-Messerlian
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University and Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA
    Prenat Diagn 26:17-21. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of first- and second-trimester maternal serum markers used in Down syndrome screening in relation to the time between sample collection and arrival at the laboratory...
  48. ncbi request reprint Monochorionic pregnancy--where have we been? Where are we going?
    Fergal D Malone
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1308-9. 2003
  49. ncbi request reprint Comparison of serum markers in first-trimester down syndrome screening
    Jacob A Canick
    Women and Infants Hospital and Brown Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 108:1192-9. 2006
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint The second trimester genetic sonogram
    Fionnuala M Breathnach
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 145:62-72. 2007
    ..This review serves to describe the key components of the second trimester genetic sonogram and to illustrate how these markers are integrated into risk assessment for aneuploidy...
  51. ncbi request reprint Screening for aneuploidy in first and second trimesters: is there an optimal paradigm?
    Fionnuala M Breathnach
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 19:176-82. 2007
    ..This review serves to explore the recent literature regarding aneuploidy screening in both first and second trimesters. We aim to construct a comparative analysis of a range of proposed strategies for screening for trisomy 21...
  52. ncbi request reprint Proteomic analysis of maternal serum in down syndrome: identification of novel protein biomarkers
    Srinivasa R Nagalla
    Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA
    J Proteome Res 6:1245-57. 2007
    ..Further characterization and quantification of these markers in a larger cohort of subjects may provide the basis for new tests for improved DS screening...
  53. ncbi request reprint First- and second-trimester evaluation of risk for Down syndrome
    Robert H Ball
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94143 0132, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 110:10-7. 2007
    ..To investigate the differences in costs and outcomes of Down syndrome screening using data from the First and Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk (FASTER) Trial...
  54. ncbi request reprint Procedure-related complications of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling
    Fergal D Malone
    Obstet Gynecol 110:1425-6; author reply 1426. 2007
  55. pmc A randomized, controlled trial of magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy
    Dwight J Rouse
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA
    N Engl J Med 359:895-905. 2008
    ..Research suggests that fetal exposure to magnesium sulfate before preterm birth might reduce the risk of cerebral palsy...