P G Chu

Summary

Affiliation: City of Hope National Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Determining the site of origin of mucinous adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of 175 cases
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 35:1830-6. 2011
  2. pmc An overview of the rare parotid gland cancer
    Kimberley Ho
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Head Neck Oncol 3:40. 2011
  3. ncbi request reprint Utility of CD10 in distinguishing between endometrial stromal sarcoma and uterine smooth muscle tumors: an immunohistochemical comparison of 34 cases
    P G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Mod Pathol 14:465-71. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Intraneural synovial sarcoma: two cases
    Peiguo G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Mod Pathol 17:258-63. 2004
  5. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical staining in the diagnosis of pancreatobiliary and ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma: application of CDX2, CK17, MUC1, and MUC2
    Peiguo G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 29:359-67. 2005
  6. doi request reprint Keratin expression in endocrine organs and their neoplasms
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Endocr Pathol 20:1-10. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Hepatocyte antigen as a marker of intestinal metaplasia
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 27:952-9. 2003
  8. doi request reprint Intestinal type of mucinous borderline tumor arising from mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Virchows Arch 455:389-94. 2009
  9. ncbi request reprint Hepatocyte antigen as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma: an immunohistochemical comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen, CD10, and alpha-fetoprotein
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:978-88. 2002
  10. pmc No direct role for Epstein-Barr virus in American hepatocellular carcinoma
    P G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Am J Pathol 159:1287-92. 2001

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. doi request reprint Determining the site of origin of mucinous adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of 175 cases
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 35:1830-6. 2011
    ..As is the case in appendiceal MAs, the upper GI tract MAs may also be heterogenously positive for CDX-2. Breast MAs are positive for ER and WT-1, whereas gynecologic MAs are positive for PAX-8 and negative for WT-1...
  2. pmc An overview of the rare parotid gland cancer
    Kimberley Ho
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Head Neck Oncol 3:40. 2011
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Utility of CD10 in distinguishing between endometrial stromal sarcoma and uterine smooth muscle tumors: an immunohistochemical comparison of 34 cases
    P G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Mod Pathol 14:465-71. 2001
    ..We conclude that in combination with SMA, MSA, and desmin, CD10 is a useful immunohistochemical marker in the differential diagnosis of ESS versus UCL or ULS...
  4. ncbi request reprint Intraneural synovial sarcoma: two cases
    Peiguo G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Mod Pathol 17:258-63. 2004
    ..Molecular studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue in both cases and revealed the known characteristic t(X;18)(SYT-SSX) translocation...
  5. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical staining in the diagnosis of pancreatobiliary and ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma: application of CDX2, CK17, MUC1, and MUC2
    Peiguo G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 29:359-67. 2005
    ..MUC2+/CDX2+ can be used as positive markers for the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma of duodenal papillary origin with a positive predictive value of 82%...
  6. doi request reprint Keratin expression in endocrine organs and their neoplasms
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Endocr Pathol 20:1-10. 2009
    ..In this review article, we will first briefly review the molecular biology and protein chemistry of the keratins. We will then review the expression patterns of keratins in normal endocrine tissue and endocrine neoplasms...
  7. ncbi request reprint Hepatocyte antigen as a marker of intestinal metaplasia
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 27:952-9. 2003
    ..The specificity and sensitivity of Hep for intestinal metaplasia were higher than that of keratin 7 and keratin 20, or MUC2. We conclude that Hep may be used as a single diagnostic marker for intestinal metaplasia...
  8. doi request reprint Intestinal type of mucinous borderline tumor arising from mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Virchows Arch 455:389-94. 2009
    ..There was no invasive mucinous tumor identified. We believe that this case represents the first reported example of mucinous borderline tumor arising from a MESTK...
  9. ncbi request reprint Hepatocyte antigen as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma: an immunohistochemical comparison to carcinoembryonic antigen, CD10, and alpha-fetoprotein
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 26:978-88. 2002
    ..Our study demonstrates that Hep is a relatively specific marker for HCC. It is useful in differentiating HCC from primary hepatic cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic tumors when combined with other immunomarkers...
  10. pmc No direct role for Epstein-Barr virus in American hepatocellular carcinoma
    P G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Am J Pathol 159:1287-92. 2001
    ..Our study indicates that rare cases of American HCC may contain EBV-infected cells, but it is unlikely that EBV plays a major role in the carcinogenesis of HCC...
  11. pmc No significant association of Epstein-Barr virus infection with invasive breast carcinoma
    P G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Pathol 159:571-8. 2001
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Incidental and concurrent malignant lymphomas discovered at the time of prostatectomy and prostate biopsy: a study of 29 cases
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 29:693-9. 2005
    ..The diagnosis was usually easily established in these cases. Of 11 cases, 4 were SLL/CLL, 4 were follicular lymphoma, 2 were mantle cell lymphoma, and 1 was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...
  13. doi request reprint Assessment of low prostate weight as a determinant of a higher positive margin rate after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a prospective pathologic study of 1,500 cases
    Peiguo G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Surg Endosc 23:1058-64. 2009
    ..The assessment of prostate weight as a determinant of a high prostate margin rate after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has not been studied...
  14. ncbi request reprint Association of intratubular seminoma and intratubular embryonal carcinoma with invasive testicular germ cell tumors
    Sean K Lau
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 31:1045-9. 2007
    ..The low incidence of intratubular embryonal carcinoma supports the theory that most nonseminomatous germ cell tumors evolve initially as seminomas, rather than directly from a differentiated intratubular neoplastic lesion...
  15. doi request reprint Immunohistochemical expression of Langerin in Langerhans cell histiocytosis and non-Langerhans cell histiocytic disorders
    Sean K Lau
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 32:615-9. 2008
    ..Immunohistochemical evaluation of Langerin expression may have utility in substantiating a diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and separating this disorder from other non-Langerhans cell histiocytic proliferations...
  16. ncbi request reprint D2-40 immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma: a comparative immunohistochemical study with KIT (CD117) and CD30
    Sean K Lau
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Mod Pathol 20:320-5. 2007
    ..Although a highly sensitive marker for seminomas, D2-40 positivity was also observed in a subset of embryonal carcinomas, thus limiting the utility of this antibody for discriminating between these two malignancies...
  17. ncbi request reprint Lineage determination of CD20- B-Cell neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study
    Peiguo G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 126:534-44. 2006
    ..If negative, OCT.2 or BOB.1 may be useful. The newly identified B-lineage markers, OCT.2 and BOB.1, may be the most useful for the B-lineage determination of CD20- plasmablastic or primary effusion subtypes of DLBCL...
  18. ncbi request reprint Bacteria-induced intestinal cancer in mice with disrupted Gpx1 and Gpx2 genes
    Fong Fong Chu
    Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics Research, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, California, USA
    Cancer Res 64:962-8. 2004
    ..The sensitivity exhibited in these mice suggests that peroxidative stress plays an important role in ileal and colonic pathology and inflammation, which can lead to tumorigenesis...
  19. doi request reprint Phase II study of oxaliplatin in patients with unresectable, metastatic, or recurrent hepatocellular cancer: a California Cancer Consortium Trial
    Y Yen
    Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutic Research, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010 3000, USA
    Am J Clin Oncol 31:317-22. 2008
    ..Oxaliplatin has recently demonstrated activity in HCC. The objective of this study was to determine the response rate, survival, time to progression, and toxicity in patients with poor prognosis HCC when treated with oxaliplatin...
  20. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor in pulmonary adenocarcinoma
    Sean K Lau
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 14:83-7. 2006
    ..In the context of an ER-positive lung neoplasm, strong and extensive TTF-1 immunoreactivity can be regarded as strong supportive evidence for a primary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma...
  21. doi request reprint Myopericytoma of the kidney
    Sean K Lau
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Hum Pathol 41:1500-4. 2010
    ..The present case serves to expand the anatomical distribution of myopericytoma and also broadens the spectrum of primary mesenchymal neoplasms that may be encountered in the kidney...
  22. doi request reprint Myxoid solitary fibrous tumor: a clinicopathologic study of three cases
    Sean K Lau
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA
    Virchows Arch 454:189-94. 2009
    ..The data suggest that myxoid solitary fibrous tumors are associated with an indolent clinical course and favorable prognosis...
  23. ncbi request reprint Cytokeratin 14 expression in epithelial neoplasms: a survey of 435 cases with emphasis on its value in differentiating squamous cell carcinomas from other epithelial tumours
    P G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA
    Histopathology 39:9-16. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: CK14 protein is a useful marker in differential diagnosis of squamous cell carcinomas...
  24. ncbi request reprint CD79: a review
    P G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 9:97-106. 2001
    ..In this review, the authors discuss the molecular biology of CD79 and the frequency and usefulness of CD79 expression in these neoplasms...
  25. ncbi request reprint Cytokeratin 14 immunoreactivity distinguishes oncocytic tumour from its renal mimics: an immunohistochemical study of 63 cases
    P G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Histopathology 39:455-62. 2001
    ..CONCLUSION: The homogeneous, cytoplasmic, and granular CK14 immunoreactivity is sensitive and specific for oncocytic tumours, whereas CK14 immunoreactivity in renal mimics is light and sporadic with peripheral accentuation...
  26. ncbi request reprint Clinical outcome of incidental pelvic node malignant B-cell lymphomas discovered at the time of radical prostatectomy
    Huiying He
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Leuk Lymphoma 48:1976-80. 2007
    ..Strong consideration should be given to withholding further treatment in patients diagnosed with pelvic low-grade B-cell lymphoma at the time of radical prostatectomy until disease progression occurs...
  27. doi request reprint Distinction of hepatocellular carcinoma from benign hepatic mimickers using Glypican-3 and CD34 immunohistochemistry
    Wanda M P Coston
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 32:433-44. 2008
    ..GPC3 immunoreactivity, in combination with a complete CD34 immunostaining pattern, greatly facilitates the accuracy of distinguishing between malignant hepatic lesions and benign mimickers...
  28. ncbi request reprint Production of a monoclonal antibody against the hRRM2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and immunohistochemistry study of human cancer tissues
    Bingsen Zhou
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California
    Hybridoma (Larchmt) 25:264-70. 2006
    ..We propose that IHC with this monoclonal anti-hRRM2 antibody may be useful for ribonucleotide reductase research and as a biomarker for tumorgenesis...
  29. ncbi request reprint Epstein-Barr virus plays no role in the tumorigenesis of small-cell carcinoma of the lung
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Mod Pathol 17:158-64. 2004
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with a component of acinar/tubular type differentiation simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma
    Qin Huang
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Hum Pathol 35:769-73. 2004
    ..Although bladder carcinomas composed of mixed morphologic patterns are not uncommon, to our knowledge, the presence of acinar/tubular type features simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma in such tumors has not been described elsewhere...
  31. ncbi request reprint Expression of cytokeratin 5/6 in epithelial neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study of 509 cases
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Mod Pathol 15:6-10. 2002
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Pancreatic tumors in patients with lung malignancies: a spectrum of clinicopathologic considerations
    Roderich E Schwarz
    Department of General Oncologic Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA
    South Med J 97:811-5. 2004
    ..To elucidate possible clinical interrelationships, the authors reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients treated for both pulmonary and pancreatic neoplasms...
  33. pmc Down-regulation of growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45beta expression is associated with human hepatocellular carcinoma
    Weihua Qiu
    Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutic Research, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pathology, and Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA
    Am J Pathol 162:1961-74. 2003
    ..05). Thus, the results of our study suggest that GADD45beta, which is down-regulated in most cases of HCC, remains an ideal candidate for development as a molecular marker in the diagnosis of HCC and as a potential therapeutic target...
  34. ncbi request reprint Keratin expression in human tissues and neoplasms
    P G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Histopathology 40:403-39. 2002
    ..In this article, we first briefly review the molecular and cell biology of keratin filaments. We then focus on the expression patterns of keratin filaments in various human neoplasms...
  35. ncbi request reprint Expression of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (P504s) in various malignant neoplasms and normal tissues: astudy of 761 cases
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Hum Pathol 34:792-6. 2003
    ..Our data provide important baseline information for using AMACR in clinical practice and also are valuable in furthering understanding of the pathogenic role of AMACR in malignant neoplasms...
  36. ncbi request reprint Expression of T/NK-cell and plasma cell antigens in nonhematopoietic epithelioid neoplasms. An immunohistochemical study of 447 cases
    Peiguo G Chu
    Dept of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 120:64-70. 2003
    ..Virtually all tumor types studied were CD138+ with a variable positivity rate. The negative staining of CD138 in malignant mesothelioma may be useful for separating mesothelioma from metastatic adenocarcinoma...
  37. doi request reprint CC chemokine receptor 9 enhances proliferation in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic cancer cells
    Xiaoming Shen
    Department of Oncologic Surgery, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    J Gastrointest Surg 13:1955-62; discussion 1962. 2009
    ..There are little data, however, regarding their role in premalignant lesions. Our objective was to determine the role of CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN)...
  38. doi request reprint TCL1 protein expression in testicular germ cell tumors
    Sean K Lau
    Dept of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 133:762-6. 2010
    ..Immunohistochemical evaluation of TCL1 expression may have usefulness in substantiating a diagnosis of IGCNU or seminoma and in the separation of seminoma from nonseminomatous germ cell tumors...
  39. ncbi request reprint A dietary enzyme: alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase/P504S is overexpressed in colon carcinoma
    Zhong Jiang
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Room H2 436, 55 Lake Avenue, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
    Cancer Detect Prev 27:422-6. 2003
    ..AMACR may also serve as a molecular marker for colon cancers and its precursor lesions...
  40. ncbi request reprint Over-expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma
    Wei hua Qiu
    City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    World J Gastroenterol 11:5266-72. 2005
    ..To describe the significant over-expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which is a signal transduction and cell proliferation related gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  41. doi request reprint Frequent expression of glypican-3 in Merkel cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study of 55 cases
    Huiying He
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 17:40-6. 2009
    ..All cases of MCC and SCNC were negative for CD23. In conclusion, GPC3 is frequently expressed in SCNC of various origins, in particular in MCC, which, in combination with CK20, may represent another useful marker in the diagnosis of MCC...
  42. pmc Hypermethylation of growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45 beta promoter in human hepatocellular carcinoma
    Weihua Qiu
    Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutic Research, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA 91010 3000, USA
    Am J Pathol 165:1689-99. 2004
    ..Thus, our results provided a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanism of GADD45beta down-regulation in HCC...
  43. ncbi request reprint CD163: a specific marker of macrophages in paraffin-embedded tissue samples
    Sean K Lau
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 122:794-801. 2004
    ..However, immunohistochemical evaluation of CD163 expression does not seem to be a sensitive means of determining monocytic differentiation in AMLs in paraffin sections or establishing a diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma...
  44. pmc The induction of growth arrest DNA damage-inducible gene 45 beta in human hepatoma cell lines by S-adenosylmethionine
    Weihua Qiu
    Department of Clinical and Molecular Pharmacology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010 3000, USA
    Am J Pathol 171:287-96. 2007
    ..Thus, our results suggest that GADD45beta induction by SAMe via NF-kappaB may represent a novel mechanism of SAMe-mediated hepatoprotection, with p53 playing an important role...
  45. ncbi request reprint Differential expression of MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC in carcinomas of various sites: an immunohistochemical study
    Sean K Lau
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 122:61-9. 2004
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint Paraneoplastic syndromes in cancer: Case 3. Parathyroid hormone-related hypercalcemia in cholangiocarcinoma
    Yun Yen
    Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics Research, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA
    J Clin Oncol 22:2244-5. 2004
  47. doi request reprint Overlapping features between dedifferentiated liposarcoma and undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma
    Lawrance Chung
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 33:1594-600. 2009
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Recurrent B-cell neoplasms after Rituximab therapy: an immunophenotypic and genotypic study
    Peiguo G Chu
    Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Leuk Lymphoma 43:2335-41. 2002
    ..Seven of ten pairs of recurrent CD20-negative cases showed identical Ig heavy chain and Igkappa gene rearrangements by PCR assay, strongly suggesting that the pre- and post-Rituxan treated B cell neoplasms are clonally-related...
  49. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical characterization of signet-ring cell carcinomas of the stomach, breast, and colon
    Peiguo G Chu
    Division of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 121:884-92. 2004
    ..About half of the cases of gastric SRCC expressed MUC2 and MUC5AC, whereas virtually all cases of colon SRCC expressed them...
  50. ncbi request reprint Prostatic tissue ectopia within the seminal vesicle: a potential source of confusion with seminal vesicle involvement by prostatic adenocarcinoma
    Sean K Lau
    Virchows Arch 449:600-2. 2006