Richard Ward

Summary

Affiliation: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Reductions in cross-neutralizing antibody responses in infants after attenuation of the human rotavirus vaccine candidate 89-12
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:1729-36. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Rotavirus vaccines: is the second time the charm?
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 6:798-803. 2005
  3. doi request reprint Rotavirus vaccines: how they work or don't work
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, 3333 Burnet Ave, ML 6014, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 10:e5. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Rotavirus immunoglobulin a responses stimulated by each of 3 doses of a quadrivalent human/bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:2290-3. 2004
  5. doi request reprint Rotarix: a rotavirus vaccine for the world
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:222-8. 2009
  6. doi request reprint Mechanisms of protection against rotavirus infection and disease
    Richard Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:S57-9. 2009
  7. doi request reprint VP6: A candidate rotavirus vaccine
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:S101-7. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Influence of potential protective mechanisms on the development of live rotavirus vaccines
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:S72-9. 2010
  9. pmc Cholangiocyte expression of alpha2beta1-integrin confers susceptibility to rotavirus-induced experimental biliary atresia
    Mubeen Jafri
    Department of Pediatric and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295:G16-G26. 2008
  10. pmc Effector role of neonatal hepatic CD8+ lymphocytes in epithelial injury and autoimmunity in experimental biliary atresia
    Pranavkumar Shivakumar
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
    Gastroenterology 133:268-77. 2007

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. ncbi request reprint Reductions in cross-neutralizing antibody responses in infants after attenuation of the human rotavirus vaccine candidate 89-12
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:1729-36. 2006
    ..Even so, the Rotarix vaccine developed from attenuated 89-12 was found to elicit excellent protection against non-G1 rotaviruses...
  2. ncbi request reprint Rotavirus vaccines: is the second time the charm?
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 6:798-803. 2005
    ..Human rotaviruses have also been developed as candidate vaccines and Rotarix, which is attenuated by passage in cell culture, has been launched in Mexico and may soon be available worldwide...
  3. doi request reprint Rotavirus vaccines: how they work or don't work
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, 3333 Burnet Ave, ML 6014, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 10:e5. 2008
    ..Immune effectors have overlapping functions, and protection against rotavirus by either live or non-living vaccines is probably enhanced by this redundancy...
  4. ncbi request reprint Rotavirus immunoglobulin a responses stimulated by each of 3 doses of a quadrivalent human/bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:2290-3. 2004
    ..In total, 16, 19, and 15 vaccine recipients had increases after 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively, indicating that a 3-dose regimen increased the immune response elicited by this vaccine...
  5. doi request reprint Rotarix: a rotavirus vaccine for the world
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:222-8. 2009
    ..This article describes the history of the development of the RIX4414 vaccine...
  6. doi request reprint Mechanisms of protection against rotavirus infection and disease
    Richard Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:S57-9. 2009
    ..The results of further research to elucidate the immunologic mechanism of protection will provide insight into improving the efficacy of current vaccines...
  7. doi request reprint VP6: A candidate rotavirus vaccine
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:S101-7. 2010
    ..In contrast to live rotavirus vaccines, CD4(+) T cells were found to be the only lymphocytes required for protection. If VP6 elicits comparable protection in humans, it would represent a potential second-generation vaccine candidate...
  8. doi request reprint Influence of potential protective mechanisms on the development of live rotavirus vaccines
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:S72-9. 2010
    ..These candidates are composed of single rotavirus strains and include the other vaccine being licensed worldwide (Rotarix). Studies that provide the basis for each approach will be presented and discussed...
  9. pmc Cholangiocyte expression of alpha2beta1-integrin confers susceptibility to rotavirus-induced experimental biliary atresia
    Mubeen Jafri
    Department of Pediatric and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295:G16-G26. 2008
    ..Cell-surface expression of the alpha2beta1-integrin plays a role in the mechanism that confers cholangiocyte susceptibility to RRV infection...
  10. pmc Effector role of neonatal hepatic CD8+ lymphocytes in epithelial injury and autoimmunity in experimental biliary atresia
    Pranavkumar Shivakumar
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
    Gastroenterology 133:268-77. 2007
    ..Here, we investigate this question by examining the role of T lymphocytes in the destruction of extrahepatic bile ducts of neonatal mice using an experimental model of biliary atresia...
  11. ncbi request reprint MAPK signaling contributes to rotaviral-induced cholangiocyte injury and viral replication
    Mubeen Jafri
    Department of Pediatric and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Surgery 142:192-201. 2007
    ..The Mitogen Associated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway can be activated by viral binding to cell-surface receptors. We hypothesized that RRV infection of cholangiocytes results in activation of MAPK signaling...
  12. pmc The rhesus rotavirus gene encoding VP4 is a major determinant in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia in newborn mice
    Wei Wang
    Department of Pediatric and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    J Virol 85:9069-77. 2011
    ..RRV gene segment 4 plays a significant role in governing tropism for the cholangiocyte and the ability to induce murine BA. Gene segment 3 did not affect RRV infectivity in vitro but altered its in vivo effect...
  13. ncbi request reprint Rhesus rotavirus vaccine effectiveness and factors associated with receipt of vaccine
    Mary Allen Staat
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:1013-8. 2006
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the RotaShield vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization and to evaluate factors associated with vaccine receipt...
  14. pmc Effect of rotavirus strain on the murine model of biliary atresia
    Steven R Allen
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 2923, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Virol 81:1671-9. 2007
    ..These results indicate that strain-specific characteristics dictate tropism for cells of hepatobiliary origin which in turn impact the ability to induce the murine model of biliary atresia...
  15. ncbi request reprint Effects of the potency and composition of the multivalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine on efficacy, safety and immunogenicity in healthy infants
    Timo Vesikari
    University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland
    Vaccine 24:4821-9. 2006
    ....
  16. pmc Mice develop effective but delayed protective immune responses when immunized as neonates either intranasally with nonliving VP6/LT(R192G) or orally with live rhesus rotavirus vaccine candidates
    John L VanCott
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Biostatistics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Virol 80:4949-61. 2006
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint Safety and immunogenicity of two live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine candidates, 116E and I321, in infants: results of a randomised controlled trial
    Nita Bhandari
    Society for Applied Studies, New Delhi, India
    Vaccine 24:5817-23. 2006
    ..Vaccine virus was shed on days 3, 7 or 28 in 11/30 infants of the 116E and none in the other two groups. The 116E strain is attenuated, clinically safe and highly immunogenic with a single dose...
  18. ncbi request reprint Intrarectal immunization of mice with VP6 and either LT(R192G) or CTA1-DD as adjuvant protects against fecal rotavirus shedding after EDIM challenge
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Vaccine 25:6224-31. 2007
    ..As was previously found after oral and intranasal immunization, intrarectal immunization with MBP::VP6 and adjuvant was associated with T cell responses (IFNgamma and IL-17) but not B cell (antibody) responses...
  19. pmc Association of gamma interferon and interleukin-17 production in intestinal CD4+ T cells with protection against rotavirus shedding in mice intranasally immunized with VP6 and the adjuvant LT(R192G)
    Kristi L Smiley
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, and Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Virol 81:3740-8. 2007
    ....
  20. pmc Protection of mice against rotavirus challenge following intradermal DNA immunization by Biojector needle-free injection
    Anthony H C Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Vaccine 25:3215-8. 2007
    ..05) protected. Intramuscular needle injection of VP6/LT(R192G)-plasmids also induced significant protection (66%)...
  21. ncbi request reprint Identification of an immunodominant CD4+ T cell epitope in the VP6 protein of rotavirus following intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Virology 363:410-8. 2007
    ..This was not observed but instead the only VP6 epitope identified was AA(242-259), the dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope previously reported after oral, live rotavirus immunization...
  22. ncbi request reprint IFN-gamma is the only anti-rotavirus cytokine found after in vitro stimulation of memory CD4+ T cells from mice immunized with a chimeric VP6 protein
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Viral Immunol 20:571-84. 2007
    ..Thus, IFN-gamma was the only cytokine identified in stimulated CD4+ T cells from immunized mice that directly inhibited rotavirus replication...
  23. ncbi request reprint Functional mapping of protective epitopes within the rotavirus VP6 protein in mice belonging to different haplotypes
    Anthony H C Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Vaccine 21:761-7. 2003
    ..Together, these studies show that functional mapping is useful in locating epitopes that are relevant to the development of subunit rotavirus vaccines...
  24. ncbi request reprint Rotarix: development of a live attenuated monovalent human rotavirus vaccine
    David I Bernstein
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229, USA
    Pediatr Ann 35:38-43. 2006
  25. ncbi request reprint Protection against rotavirus shedding after intranasal immunization of mice with a chimeric VP6 protein does not require intestinal IgA
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Virology 346:338-47. 2006
    ..Therefore, protection induced by intranasal immunization of mice with VP6 and adjuvant does not depend on intestinal rotavirus IgA antibody but appears to be associated with CD4 T cells...
  26. ncbi request reprint The level of protection against rotavirus shedding in mice following immunization with a chimeric VP6 protein is dependent on the route and the coadministered adjuvant
    Anthony H Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, The Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Vaccine 20:1733-40. 2002
    ..Thus, different adjuvants induced different degrees of protection and oral immunization was generally less effective then the i.n. route...
  27. ncbi request reprint Intranasal or oral immunization of inbred and outbred mice with murine or human rotavirus VP6 proteins protects against viral shedding after challenge with murine rotaviruses
    Anthony H Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Vaccine 20:3310-21. 2002
    ..n. immunization with EDIM or CJN VP6 was no different when the mice were challenged with McN, another strain of murine rotavirus. These results support further evaluation of VP6 as a vaccine...
  28. ncbi request reprint Second-year follow-up evaluation of live, attenuated human rotavirus vaccine 89-12 in healthy infants
    David I Bernstein
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1487-9. 2002
    ..001 for each). These encouraging results have led to continued evaluation, in several countries, of a vaccine candidate derived from strain 89-12...
  29. ncbi request reprint The role of interferons in rotavirus infections and protection
    John L VanCott
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 23:163-70. 2003
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Possible mechanisms of protection elicited by candidate rotavirus vaccines as determined with the adult mouse model
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Viral Immunol 16:17-24. 2003
    ..The results of studies in the adult mouse model that appear to be most pertinent to the present vaccine candidates are presented and discussed...
  31. ncbi request reprint Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in healthy infants of G1 and G2 human reassortant rotavirus vaccine in a new stabilizer/buffer liquid formulation
    H Fred Clark
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:914-20. 2003
    ..A refrigerator-stable rotavirus (RV) vaccine that withstands gastric acid is anticipated to permit more widespread use of RV vaccine...
  32. ncbi request reprint Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a live, quadrivalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine in healthy infants
    H Fred Clark
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, and Merck and Co, Inc, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    J Pediatr 144:184-90. 2004
    ..To investigate safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of live quadrivalent rotavirus vaccine (QRV) containing human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus serotypes G1, G2, G3, and P1a...
  33. ncbi request reprint Discovery of a new strain of murine rotavirus that is consistently shed in large quantities after oral inoculation of adult mice
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Virology 320:1-11. 2004
    ..Therefore, it is recommended that the EMcN strain be used for future challenge studies with mice on this background...
  34. ncbi request reprint Activated primary and memory CD8 T cells migrate to nonlymphoid tissues regardless of site of activation or tissue of origin
    David Masopust
    Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    J Immunol 172:4875-82. 2004
    ..These observations will help refine our understanding of effector and memory CD8 T cell migration patterns...
  35. pmc Obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts by lymphocytes is regulated by IFN-gamma in experimental biliary atresia
    Pranavkumar Shivakumar
    Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:322-9. 2004
    ..Thus, IFN-gamma-driven obstruction of bile ducts is a key pathogenic mechanism of disease and may constitute a therapeutic target to block disease progression in patients with biliary atresia...
  36. ncbi request reprint Nonmedical costs associated with rotavirus disease requiring hospitalization
    Brian P Lee
    Children s Hospital and Research Center at Oakland, Oakland, CA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:984-8. 2005
    ..Herein, we report the results from the largest prospective study in the United States determining the nonmedical costs of severe rotavirus infections...
  37. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of rotavirus dsRNA load in specimens and body fluids from experimentally infected juvenile macaques by real-time PCR
    Wei Zhao
    Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA
    Virology 341:248-56. 2005
    ..Thus, the rhesus model of rotavirus infection can be exploited further in studies with vaccine candidates designed to prevent or abrogate rotavirus infection...
  38. ncbi request reprint Development of candidate rotavirus vaccines derived from neonatal strains in India
    Roger I Glass
    Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:S30-5. 2005
    ..This unique project, which is developing a new rotavirus vaccine in India with the use of Indian strains, an Indian manufacturer, and an Indian clinical development program, aims to expedite introduction of rotavirus vaccines in India...
  39. pmc CD4 T cells are the only lymphocytes needed to protect mice against rotavirus shedding after intranasal immunization with a chimeric VP6 protein and the adjuvant LT(R192G)
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Virol 76:560-8. 2002
    ..Together, these results establish CD4 T cells as effectors of protection against rotavirus after intranasal immunization of mice with VP6 and LT(R192G)...
  40. ncbi request reprint Comparative evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of two dosages of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine
    Penelope H Dennehy
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital and the Department of Pediatrics, Brown Medical School, Providence, 02903, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:481-8. 2005
    ..Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for more than 500,000 physician visits, 50,000 hospitalizations and 20 deaths in the United States each year...
  41. pmc Development of a rotavirus-shedding model in rhesus macaques, using a homologous wild-type rotavirus of a new P genotype
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Virol 79:944-54. 2005
    ..Therefore, TUCH infection of macaques provides a useful nonhuman primate model for studies on rotavirus protection...
  42. ncbi request reprint Intranasal administration of an Escherichia coli-expressed codon-optimized rotavirus VP6 protein induces protection in mice
    Anthony H C Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 38:205-16. 2004
    ..Thus, expression of complete rotavirus VP6 protein was greatly enhanced by codon optimization, and the protection elicited was not affected by denaturation of recombinant VP6...
  43. pmc Infectious agent and immune response characteristics of chronic enterocolitis in captive rhesus macaques
    Karol Sestak
    Division of Microbiology and Immunolgy, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, Louisiana 70433, USA
    Infect Immun 71:4079-86. 2003
    ..The data also suggest that chronic colitis in rhesus macaques may have potential as a model of inflammatory bowel disease in humans...
  44. ncbi request reprint Clinical presentations of rotavirus infection among hospitalized children
    Mary Allen Staat
    Division of Infectious Disease, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:221-7. 2002
    ..Although rotaviruses (RVs) are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, there is a lack of information detailing the spectrum of clinical manifestations of RV disease resulting in hospitalization...
  45. ncbi request reprint Rotavirus deaths: rare or unrecognized?
    Mary Allen Staat
    University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ohio 45229, USA
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 44:535-7. 2005