Yasmine Belkaid

Summary

Affiliation: Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The role of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in Leishmania infection
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Molecular Immunology, MLC 7021, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 3:875-85. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 420:502-7. 2002
  3. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 signaling by RP105/MD-1
    Senad Divanovic
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    J Endotoxin Res 11:363-8. 2005
  4. pmc Role for CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells in reactivation of persistent leishmaniasis and control of concomitant immunity
    Susana Mendez
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 200:201-10. 2004
  5. pmc Commensal DNA limits regulatory T cell conversion and is a natural adjuvant of intestinal immune responses
    Jason A Hall
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 29:637-49. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Optimization of DNA vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Susana Mendez
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Room 126, Building 4, Center Dr MSC 0425, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
    Vaccine 20:3702-8. 2002
  7. pmc Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim promotes persistent infection and limits protective immunity
    Stacie Reckling
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Infect Immun 76:1179-85. 2008
  8. ncbi request reprint IL-10 and TGF-beta control the establishment of persistent and transmissible infections produced by Leishmania tropica in C57BL/6 mice
    Charles F Anderson
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
    J Immunol 180:4090-7. 2008
  9. pmc Expression of Helios, an Ikaros transcription factor family member, differentiates thymic-derived from peripherally induced Foxp3+ T regulatory cells
    Angela M Thornton
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 184:3433-41. 2010
  10. pmc Acute gastrointestinal infection induces long-lived microbiota-specific T cell responses
    Timothy W Hand
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 337:1553-6. 2012

Detail Information

Publications67

  1. ncbi request reprint The role of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in Leishmania infection
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Molecular Immunology, MLC 7021, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 3:875-85. 2003
    ..The mechanisms and consequences of such control in both susceptible or resistant mouse strains are discussed...
  2. ncbi request reprint CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 420:502-7. 2002
    ....
  3. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 signaling by RP105/MD-1
    Senad Divanovic
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    J Endotoxin Res 11:363-8. 2005
    ....
  4. pmc Role for CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells in reactivation of persistent leishmaniasis and control of concomitant immunity
    Susana Mendez
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 200:201-10. 2004
    ....
  5. pmc Commensal DNA limits regulatory T cell conversion and is a natural adjuvant of intestinal immune responses
    Jason A Hall
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 29:637-49. 2008
    ..Together, these data point to gfDNA as a natural adjuvant for priming intestinal responses via modulation of Treg/Teff cell equilibrium...
  6. ncbi request reprint Optimization of DNA vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis
    Susana Mendez
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Room 126, Building 4, Center Dr MSC 0425, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
    Vaccine 20:3702-8. 2002
    ..These results establish intradermal vaccination using DNA encoding multiple Leishmania antigens as a way to optimize priming of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells necessary for potent and durable protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  7. pmc Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim promotes persistent infection and limits protective immunity
    Stacie Reckling
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Infect Immun 76:1179-85. 2008
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Bim limits protective immunity and that the absence of Bim allows the host to bypass antigen persistence for maintenance of immunity against reinfection...
  8. ncbi request reprint IL-10 and TGF-beta control the establishment of persistent and transmissible infections produced by Leishmania tropica in C57BL/6 mice
    Charles F Anderson
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
    J Immunol 180:4090-7. 2008
    ..Thus, chronic infection with L. tropica appears to be established via multiple suppressive factors, which together maintain the host as a long-term reservoir of infection for vector sand flies...
  9. pmc Expression of Helios, an Ikaros transcription factor family member, differentiates thymic-derived from peripherally induced Foxp3+ T regulatory cells
    Angela M Thornton
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 184:3433-41. 2010
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that Helios is potentially a specific marker of thymic-derived Treg cells and raises the possibility that a significant percentage of Foxp3(+) Treg cells are generated extrathymically...
  10. pmc Acute gastrointestinal infection induces long-lived microbiota-specific T cell responses
    Timothy W Hand
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 337:1553-6. 2012
    ....
  11. pmc Antigen requirements for efficient priming of CD8+ T cells by Leishmania major-infected dendritic cells
    Sylvie Bertholet
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 73:6620-8. 2005
    ..The ability of L. major transgenic parasites to activate OT-I CD8(+) T cells in vivo will permit the analysis of parasite-driven T-cell expansion, differentiation, and recruitment at the clonal level...
  12. pmc GATA3 controls Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cell fate during inflammation in mice
    Elizabeth A Wohlfert
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Clin Invest 121:4503-15. 2011
    ..Overall, our work reveals what we believe to be a new facet in the complex role of GATA3 in T cells and highlights what may be a fundamental role in controlling Treg physiology during inflammation...
  13. ncbi request reprint A role for CD103 in the retention of CD4+CD25+ Treg and control of Leishmania major infection
    Isabelle Suffia
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Immunol 174:5444-55. 2005
    ..Thus, CD103, by controlling T(reg) retention, can contribute to the outcome of chronic infection by Leishmania...
  14. ncbi request reprint The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is controlled by cooperating IL-10-producing innate effector and regulatory T cells
    Matthias Hesse
    Laboratories of Parasitic Diseases and Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 172:3157-66. 2004
    ..Thus, innate effectors and regulatory T cells producing IL-10 cooperate to reduce morbidity and prolong survival in schistosomiasis...
  15. pmc Coinjection with CpG-containing immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides reduces the pathogenicity of a live vaccine against cutaneous Leishmaniasis but maintains its potency and durability
    Susana Mendez
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Infect Immun 71:5121-9. 2003
    ..Our results suggest that immune modulation using CpG ODNs might be a practical approach to improving the safety of a highly effective live vaccine that has already been widely applied...
  16. pmc Conditions influencing the efficacy of vaccination with live organisms against Leishmania major infection
    Khaled S Tabbara
    NIAID, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Bldg 4, Rm 126, Center Dr MSC 0425, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
    Infect Immun 73:4714-22. 2005
    ..A delicate balance of effector and regulatory T cells may be required to optimize the potency and durability of vaccines against Leishmaniasis and other intracellular pathogens...
  17. pmc Generation of pathogenic T(H)17 cells in the absence of TGF-β signalling
    Kamran Ghoreschi
    Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 467:967-71. 2010
    ..These data indicate an alternative mode for T(H)17 differentiation. Consistent with genetic data linking IL23R with autoimmunity, our findings re-emphasize the importance of IL-23 and therefore may have therapeutic implications...
  18. pmc Infected site-restricted Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells are specific for microbial antigens
    Isabelle J Suffia
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 203:777-88. 2006
    ..Further, we showed that parasite-specific natural T reg cells are restricted to sites of infection and that their survival is strictly dependent on parasite persistence...
  19. pmc Microbe-dendritic cell dialog controls regulatory T-cell fate
    John R Grainger
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Immunol Rev 234:305-16. 2010
    ..In this review, we discuss some new findings associating dendritic cells from defined compartments with the induction and control of regulatory T cells in the context of exposure to both commensal and pathogenic microbes...
  20. pmc Compartmentalized control of skin immunity by resident commensals
    Shruti Naik
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 337:1115-9. 2012
    ..These findings underscore the importance of the microbiota as a distinctive feature of tissue compartmentalization, and provide insight into mechanisms of immune system regulation by resident commensal niches in health and disease...
  21. pmc Decrease of Foxp3+ Treg cell number and acquisition of effector cell phenotype during lethal infection
    Guillaume Oldenhove
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 31:772-86. 2009
    ..These data reveal a mechanism for Th1 cell pathogenicity that extends beyond their proinflammatory program to limit Treg cell survival...
  22. pmc T-cell-expressed proprotein convertase furin is essential for maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance
    Marko Pesu
    Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute for Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 455:246-50. 2008
    ..Targeting furin has emerged as a strategy in malignant and infectious disease. Our results suggest that inhibiting furin might activate immune responses, but may result in a breakdown in peripheral tolerance...
  23. pmc Distinct requirements for T-bet in gut innate lymphoid cells
    Giuseppe Sciumè
    Lymphocyte Cell Biology Section, Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 209:2331-8. 2012
    ..Thus, T-bet has a general importance for ILC in the gut and plays a selective and critical role in the generation of NKp46+ ILC22...
  24. pmc Small intestine lamina propria dendritic cells promote de novo generation of Foxp3 T reg cells via retinoic acid
    Cheng Ming Sun
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Exp Med 204:1775-85. 2007
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that the intestinal immune system has evolved a self-contained strategy to promote T reg cell neoconversion...
  25. doi request reprint The Transcription Factors Thpok and LRF Are Necessary and Partly Redundant for T Helper Cell Differentiation
    Andrea C Carpenter
    Laboratory of Immune Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 37:622-33. 2012
    ..These findings identify the Thpok-LRF pair as a core node of Th cell differentiation and function...
  26. ncbi request reprint Association of CTLA4 polymorphism with regulatory T cell frequency
    Sowsan F Atabani
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Eur J Immunol 35:2157-62. 2005
    ..These data implicate CTLA4 in regulatory T cell development, and provide a mechanism to account for the link between polymorphisms at this locus and the biological outcome of adaptive immune responses to self and to pathogens...
  27. pmc Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by the Toll-like receptor homolog RP105
    Senad Divanovic
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:571-8. 2005
    ..Finally, RP105 regulated TLR4 signaling in dendritic cells as well as endotoxin responses in vivo. Thus, our results identify RP105 as a physiological negative regulator of TLR4 responses...
  28. pmc The role of retinoic acid in tolerance and immunity
    Jason A Hall
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 35:13-22. 2011
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Regulatory T cells in the control of host-microorganism interactions (*)
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 27:551-89. 2009
    ....
  30. ncbi request reprint Regulation of TLR4 signaling and the host interface with pathogens and danger: the role of RP105
    Senad Divanovic
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 82:265-71. 2007
    ..This overview outlines current knowledge and controversies about the immunobiology of the RP105/MD-1 complex, a modulator of the most robustly signaling TLR, TLR4...
  31. pmc Tuning microenvironments: induction of regulatory T cells by dendritic cells
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA
    Immunity 29:362-71. 2008
    ..Various populations of dendritic cells (DCs) are central to the orchestration of this control. In this review, we will discuss some new findings associating DCs from defined compartments with the induction of antigen-specific Treg cells...
  32. pmc Inflammatory monocytes regulate pathologic responses to commensals during acute gastrointestinal infection
    John R Grainger
    Program in Barrier Immunity and Repair, Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Med 19:713-21. 2013
    ..Collectively, our results place inflammatory monocyte-derived PGE2 at the center of a commensal-driven regulatory loop required to control host-commensal dialog during pathogen-induced inflammation...
  33. pmc Regulatory T cells selectively control CD8+ T cell effector pool size via IL-2 restriction
    Wolfgang Kastenmuller
    Laboratory of Systems Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 187:3186-97. 2011
    ....
  34. pmc Stromal-derived IL-6 alters the balance of myeloerythroid progenitors during Toxoplasma gondii infection
    David B Chou
    Mucosal Immunology, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 92:123-31. 2012
    ..Finally, direct ex vivo sorting revealed that VCAM(+)CD146(lo) BM stromal fibroblasts significantly increase IL-6 secretion after infection. These data suggest that BMSCs regulate the hematopoietic changes during inflammation via IL-6...
  35. pmc Role of endogenous and induced regulatory T cells during infections
    Elizabeth Wohlfert
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Room 4 126, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Clin Immunol 28:707-15. 2008
    ..OBJECTIVE: In this review, we discuss current hypotheses and points of polemic associated with the origin, mode of action, and antigen specificity of both endogenous and induced regulatory T cells during infections...
  36. pmc CD4+CD25+ T cells protect against experimentally induced asthma and alter pulmonary dendritic cell phenotype and function
    Ian P Lewkowich
    Division of Immunobiology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Exp Med 202:1549-61. 2005
    ..These data suggest that resistance to allergen-driven AHR is mediated in part by CD4+CD25+ T reg cell suppression of DC activation and that the absence of this regulatory pathway contributes to susceptibility...
  37. ncbi request reprint Mice deficient in LRG-47 display increased susceptibility to mycobacterial infection associated with the induction of lymphopenia
    Carl G Feng
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Room 6148, Building 50, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 172:1163-8. 2004
    ..These findings establish a role for LRG-47 in host control of mycobacteria and demonstrate that in the context of the IFN-gamma response to persistent infection, LRG-47 can have downstream regulatory effects on lymphocyte survival...
  38. pmc Essential role for retinoic acid in the promotion of CD4(+) T cell effector responses via retinoic acid receptor alpha
    Jason A Hall
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 34:435-47. 2011
    ....
  39. pmc Microbial control of regulatory and effector T cell responses in the gut
    Timothy Hand
    NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, 4 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 22:63-72. 2010
    ..In this review we will focus on recent findings associating microbes that colonize or invade the gut, specialized mucosal DCs, and induction of effector or regulatory response in the GI tract...
  40. ncbi request reprint CD8+ T cells are required for primary immunity in C57BL/6 mice following low-dose, intradermal challenge with Leishmania major
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Dermatology Branch, Division of Clinical Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Immunol 168:3992-4000. 2002
    ..The low dose, intradermal challenge model reveals that CD8(+) T cells play an essential role in both pathogenesis of and immunity to primary infection with L. major in the skin...
  41. pmc Intestinal microbiota: shaping local and systemic immune responses
    Michael J Molloy
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Room 4 243, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Semin Immunol 24:58-66. 2012
    ....
  42. ncbi request reprint Natural regulatory T cells and parasites: a common quest for host homeostasis
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunol Rev 212:287-300. 2006
    ..We discuss the hypothesis that parasites have evolved means to manipulate the host's natural Treg population, thereby generating conditions that secure survival in their vertebrate host for an extended period of time...
  43. ncbi request reprint Small numbers of residual tumor cells at the site of primary inoculation are critical for anti-tumor immunity following challenge at a secondary location
    Takashi Kakinuma
    Dermatology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, Bldg 10 Rm12N246, 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20892 1908, USA
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 56:1119-31. 2007
    ..These studies suggest that small numbers of tumor cells (possibly regulated by CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells expressing Foxp3) are required for effective host anti-tumor responses at alternate inoculation sites...
  44. ncbi request reprint Natural regulatory T cells in infectious disease
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Nat Immunol 6:353-60. 2005
    ..We describe here various situations in which the balance between natural T(reg) cells and effector immune functions influences the outcome of infection and discuss how manipulating this equilibrium might be exploited therapeutically...
  45. pmc Effector and memory T cell responses to commensal bacteria
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, NIH, Bethesda 20892, USA
    Trends Immunol 34:299-306. 2013
    ..This review discusses the circumstances controlling the fate of commensal specific T cells and how dysregulation of these responses could lead to severe pathological outcomes...
  46. pmc Dietary and commensal derived nutrients: shaping mucosal and systemic immunity
    Sean P Spencer
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 24:379-84. 2012
    ..In addition, dietary derived AHR ligands and commensal derived metabolites are now emerging as important players in mucosal immunity. Thus nutrition, commensal microflora and the mucosal immune system are all intimately connected...
  47. doi request reprint Regulatory ripples
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Immunol 11:1077-8. 2010
    ..Data now show that interleukin 35, an immunomodulatory cytokine secreted by regulatory T cells, and interleukin 10 induce so-called 'iTR35 cells', which may have an important role in the phenomenon of infectious tolerance...
  48. doi request reprint Role of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells during infection
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Eur J Immunol 38:918-21. 2008
    ..In this review, I discuss current hypotheses and points of polemic associated with the origin, mode of action and antigen specificity of Foxp3+ Treg during infection...
  49. pmc miRNA signature of mouse helper T cell hyper-proliferation
    Connie L Sommers
    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e66709. 2013
    ..Future experiments that modulate levels of the miRNAs identified in this study may reveal the roles of these miRNAs in T cell proliferation and/or lymphoproliferative disease. ..
  50. doi request reprint Compartmentalized and systemic control of tissue immunity by commensals
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Immunol 14:646-53. 2013
    ....
  51. pmc Signaling via the IL-20 receptor inhibits cutaneous production of IL-1β and IL-17A to promote infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Ian A Myles
    Bacterial Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Immunol 14:804-11. 2013
    ..Our findings identify an immunosuppressive role for IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 during infection that could be therapeutically targeted to alter susceptibility to infection. ..
  52. doi request reprint A degrading view of regulatory t cells
    Arian Laurence
    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 39:201-3. 2013
    ..These are interesting developments that point to unappreciated mechanisms by which inflammatory signals can impact expression of FOXP3 and possibly the stability of Treg cell phenotypes. ..
  53. pmc Paradoxical roles of Foxp3+ T cells during infection: from regulators to regulators
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Room 4 126, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 3:341-3. 2008
    ..In a recent issue of Science, Lund et al. support the idea that these cells can also coordinate the early entrance of innate cells at the effector site and therefore positively contribute to protective immunity...
  54. ncbi request reprint Parasites and immunoregulatory T cells
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Curr Opin Immunol 18:406-12. 2006
    ..Recent findings implicate various populations of regulatory T cells in this homeostatic regulation...
  55. doi request reprint Arming Treg cells at the inflammatory site
    Yasmine Belkaid
    Mucosal Immunology Unit, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Immunity 30:322-3. 2009
    ..In this issue of Immunity, Zhang et al. (2009) propose that Treg cells, in order to efficiently control alloimmune response, need to be educated first in the target tissue before entering the draining lymph node...
  56. ncbi request reprint CD4+CD25+ T cells in skin lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis exhibit phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural regulatory T cells
    Ana P Campanelli
    Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    J Infect Dis 193:1313-22. 2006
    ..These findings suggest that functional Treg cells accumulate at sites of Leishmania infection in humans and possibly contribute to the local control of effector T cell functions...
  57. pmc IL-10 from CD4CD25Foxp3CD127 adaptive regulatory T cells modulates parasite clearance and pathology during malaria infection
    Kevin N Couper
    Immunology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000004. 2008
    ..In summary, we have identified a population of induced Foxp3- regulatory (Tr1) T cells, characterised by production of IL-10 and down regulation of IL-7Ralpha, that modulates the inflammatory response to malaria...
  58. pmc A functionally specialized population of mucosal CD103+ DCs induces Foxp3+ regulatory T cells via a TGF-beta and retinoic acid-dependent mechanism
    Janine L Coombes
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK
    J Exp Med 204:1757-64. 2007
    ..These results newly identify RA as a cofactor in T reg cell generation, providing a mechanism via which functionally specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue DCs can extend the repertoire of T reg cells focused on the intestine...
  59. ncbi request reprint Systemic immune responses induced by mucosal administration of lipopeptides without adjuvant
    Lbachir BenMohamed
    Biomedical Parasitology Unit, Pasteur Institute, Paris, France
    Eur J Immunol 32:2274-81. 2002
    ....
  60. ncbi request reprint Skin-derived macrophages from Leishmania major-susceptible mice exhibit interleukin-12- and interferon-gamma-independent nitric oxide production and parasite killing after treatment with immunostimulatory DNA
    Esther von Stebut
    Department of Dermatology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
    J Invest Dermatol 119:621-8. 2002
    ..In addition, CpG-containing immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides may also act locally on skin macrophages to facilitate Leishmania clearance by inducing nitric oxide production...
  61. pmc Interleukin 1alpha promotes Th1 differentiation and inhibits disease progression in Leishmania major-susceptible BALB/c mice
    Esther von Stebut
    Department of Dermatology, University of Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany
    J Exp Med 198:191-9. 2003
    ..Differential production of IL-1 by C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice may provide a partial explanation for the disparate outcomes of infection in these mouse strains...
  62. ncbi request reprint Immunomodulatory effects associated with a live vaccine against Leishmania major containing CpG oligodeoxynucleotides
    Wenhui Wu
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington DC, USA
    Eur J Immunol 36:3238-47. 2006
    ..Transfer of vaccine-primed dendritic cells into IL-6-deficient mice mitigated lesion development, indicating that IL-6 reconstitution limited pathology in the vaccination site...
  63. pmc CCR5-dependent homing of naturally occurring CD4+ regulatory T cells to sites of Leishmania major infection favors pathogen persistence
    Ekaterina Yurchenko
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, H3A 2B4, Canada
    J Exp Med 203:2451-60. 2006
    ..Thus, this study shows that CCR5 directs the homing of CD4+CD25+ nTreg cells to L. major-infected dermal sites where they promote the establishment of infection and long-term survival of the parasite in the immune host...
  64. ncbi request reprint Tyk2 negatively regulates adaptive Th1 immunity by mediating IL-10 signaling and promoting IFN-gamma-dependent IL-10 reactivation
    Michael H Shaw
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02906, USA
    J Immunol 176:7263-71. 2006
    ..Thus, Tyk2 can be viewed as a dual-function Jak, mediating both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses...
  65. pmc Uptake of Leishmania major by dendritic cells is mediated by Fcgamma receptors and facilitates acquisition of protective immunity
    Florian Woelbing
    Department of Dermatology and 2Section for Pathophysiology, First Department of Internal Medicine, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz 55131, Germany
    J Exp Med 203:177-88. 2006
    ..major with different outcomes, and indicate that B cell-derived, parasite-reactive IgG and DC FcgammaRI and FcgammaRIII are essential for optimal development of protective immunity...
  66. pmc Incomplete depletion and rapid regeneration of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells following anti-CD25 treatment in malaria-infected mice
    Kevin N Couper
    Immunology Unit, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, U K
    J Immunol 178:4136-46. 2007
    ....
  67. ncbi request reprint I-Tim-izing the pathways of counter-regulation
    Marsha Wills-Karp
    Nat Immunol 4:1050-2. 2003