Rino Rappuoli

Summary

Affiliation: Chiron Corporation
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint From Pasteur to genomics: progress and challenges in infectious diseases
    Rino Rappuoli
    Rino Rappuoli is at Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Med 10:1177-85. 2004
  2. pmc The region comprising amino acids 100 to 255 of Neisseria meningitidis lipoprotein GNA 1870 elicits bactericidal antibodies
    Marzia Monica Giuliani
    IRIS, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Infect Immun 73:1151-60. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Identification of a new OmpA-like protein in Neisseria gonorrhoeae involved in the binding to human epithelial cells and in vivo colonization
    Laura Serino
    Research Centre, Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina, 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 64:1391-403. 2007
  4. pmc Combined conjugate vaccines: enhanced immunogenicity with the N19 polyepitope as a carrier protein
    Karin Baraldo
    Research Center, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Infect Immun 73:5835-41. 2005
  5. pmc Adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces early CD4+ T cell response that predicts long-term persistence of protective antibody levels
    Grazia Galli
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena 53100, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3877-82. 2009
  6. pmc Identification of a universal Group B streptococcus vaccine by multiple genome screen
    Domenico Maione
    Chiron Srl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Science 309:148-50. 2005
  7. doi request reprint Epitope mapping of a bactericidal monoclonal antibody against the factor H binding protein of Neisseria meningitidis
    Maria Scarselli
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Mol Biol 386:97-108. 2009
  8. pmc A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus
    Marzia M Giuliani
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10834-9. 2006
  9. pmc Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen
    Enrico Malito
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Srl, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:3304-9. 2013
  10. ncbi request reprint Neisseria meningitidis NhhA is a multifunctional trimeric autotransporter adhesin
    Maria Scarselli
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 61:631-44. 2006

Detail Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint From Pasteur to genomics: progress and challenges in infectious diseases
    Rino Rappuoli
    Rino Rappuoli is at Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Med 10:1177-85. 2004
    ..Dozens of new infectious diseases are expected to emerge in the coming decades. Controlling these diseases will require a better understanding of the worldwide threat and economic burden of infectious diseases and a global agenda...
  2. pmc The region comprising amino acids 100 to 255 of Neisseria meningitidis lipoprotein GNA 1870 elicits bactericidal antibodies
    Marzia Monica Giuliani
    IRIS, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Infect Immun 73:1151-60. 2005
    ..Arginine in position 204 was identified as important for binding of the monoclonal antibody. The identification of the region containing bactericidal epitopes is an important step in the design of new vaccines against meningococci...
  3. ncbi request reprint Identification of a new OmpA-like protein in Neisseria gonorrhoeae involved in the binding to human epithelial cells and in vivo colonization
    Laura Serino
    Research Centre, Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina, 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 64:1391-403. 2007
    ..All together, these data suggest that the newly identified surface exposed protein Ng-OmpA represents a novel virulence factor of gonococcus...
  4. pmc Combined conjugate vaccines: enhanced immunogenicity with the N19 polyepitope as a carrier protein
    Karin Baraldo
    Research Center, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Infect Immun 73:5835-41. 2005
    ..Taken together, these data show that the N19 polyepitope represents a strong and valid option for the generation of improved or new combined glycoconjugate vaccines...
  5. pmc Adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces early CD4+ T cell response that predicts long-term persistence of protective antibody levels
    Grazia Galli
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena 53100, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3877-82. 2009
    ..We suggest that CD4(+) T cell priming might be used as an early predictor of the immunogenicity of prepandemic vaccines...
  6. pmc Identification of a universal Group B streptococcus vaccine by multiple genome screen
    Domenico Maione
    Chiron Srl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Science 309:148-50. 2005
    ..Multigenome analysis and screening described here represent a powerful strategy for identifying potential vaccine candidates against highly variable pathogens...
  7. doi request reprint Epitope mapping of a bactericidal monoclonal antibody against the factor H binding protein of Neisseria meningitidis
    Maria Scarselli
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Mol Biol 386:97-108. 2009
    ....
  8. pmc A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus
    Marzia M Giuliani
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10834-9. 2006
    ..The strain coverage could be increased to 90% and above by the addition of CpG oligonucleotides or by using MF59 as adjuvant. The vaccine has the potential to conquer one of the most devastating diseases of childhood...
  9. pmc Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen
    Enrico Malito
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Srl, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:3304-9. 2013
    ....
  10. ncbi request reprint Neisseria meningitidis NhhA is a multifunctional trimeric autotransporter adhesin
    Maria Scarselli
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 61:631-44. 2006
    ..Collectively, our results underline a putative role of NhhA in meningococcal pathogenesis and ascertain its structural and functional belonging to the emerging group of bacterial autotransporter adhesins with trimeric architecture...
  11. ncbi request reprint NarE: a novel ADP-ribosyltransferase from Neisseria meningitidis
    Vega Masignani
    IRIS, Chiron s r l, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 50:1055-67. 2003
    ..When present, the gene is 100% conserved in sequence and is inserted upstream of and co-transcribed with the lipoamide dehydrogenase E3 gene. Possible roles in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis are discussed...
  12. doi request reprint Genome-based vaccine development: a short cut for the future
    Danilo Gomes Moriel
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100, Siena, Italy
    Adv Exp Med Biol 655:81-9. 2009
    ..A lot of work must be done, but deciphering the information provided by genome sequences and using it to better understand the host-pathogen interactions has proved to be the key for protection...
  13. pmc Neisseria meningitidis is structured in clades associated with restriction modification systems that modulate homologous recombination
    Sonia Budroni
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4494-9. 2011
    ....
  14. doi request reprint Influence of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine antigens on growth and survival of the meningococcus in vitro and in ex vivo and in vivo models of infection
    Kate L Seib
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 28:2416-27. 2010
    ....
  15. doi request reprint Rational design of a meningococcal antigen inducing broad protective immunity
    Maria Scarselli
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s r l, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Sci Transl Med 3:91ra62. 2011
    ..We demonstrate that the structure-based design of multiple immunodominant antigenic surfaces on a single protein scaffold is possible and represents an effective way to create broadly protective vaccines...
  16. ncbi request reprint Ng-MIP, a surface-exposed lipoprotein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity and is involved in persistence in macrophages
    Rosanna Leuzzi
    IRIS, Chiron s r l, Via Fiorentina, 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 58:669-81. 2005
    ..We show that Ng-MIP promotes the intracellular survival of N. gonorrhoeae in macrophages, highlighting a possible role of this protein in promoting the persistence of gonococcal infection...
  17. doi request reprint Measuring antigen-specific bactericidal responses to a multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus
    Marzia M Giuliani
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena 53100, Italy
    Vaccine 28:5023-30. 2010
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Influence of sequence variability on bactericidal activity sera induced by Factor H binding protein variant 1.1
    Brunella Brunelli
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 29:1072-81. 2011
    ....
  19. pmc In vitro analysis of protein-operator interactions of the NikR and fur metal-responsive regulators of coregulated genes in Helicobacter pylori
    Isabel Delany
    Molecular Immunology Unit, Chiron Vaccines, Siena, Italy
    J Bacteriol 187:7703-15. 2005
    ..Finally, the importance of an interconnection between metal-responsive gene networks for homeostasis is discussed...
  20. pmc Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus subunits protect mice against lethal challenge
    Claudia Gianfaldoni
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics s r l, Research Center, Via Fiorentina 1, I 53100 Siena, Italy
    Infect Immun 75:1059-62. 2007
    ..Both active and passive immunization with recombinant pilus subunits afforded protection against lethal challenge with the S. pneumoniae serotype 4 strain TIGR4...
  21. ncbi request reprint Combination adjuvants for the induction of potent, long-lasting antibody and T-cell responses to influenza vaccine in mice
    Andreas Wack
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 26:552-61. 2008
    ..These observations have significant implications for the development of new and improved flu vaccines against pandemic and inter-pandemic influenza virus strains...
  22. ncbi request reprint Neisseria meningitidis NadA is a new invasin which promotes bacterial adhesion to and penetration into human epithelial cells
    Barbara Capecchi
    Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 55:687-98. 2005
    ..NadA is likely to improve the fitness of N. meningitidis contributing to the increased virulence of strains that belong to the hypervirulent lineages...
  23. pmc Vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis using three variants of the lipoprotein GNA1870
    Vega Masignani
    IRIS, Chiron Srl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Exp Med 197:789-99. 2003
    ..The novel antigen is a top candidate for the development of a new vaccine against meningococcus...
  24. ncbi request reprint Structural insight into the mechanism of DNA-binding attenuation of the Neisserial adhesin repressor NadR by the small natural ligand 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid
    Sébastien Brier
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100, Siena, Italy
    Biochemistry 51:6738-52. 2012
    ..Altogether our data suggest that the mechanism of regulation of NadR by 4-HPA mainly involves the stabilization of the dimer in a configuration incompatible with DNA binding...
  25. pmc NadA diversity and carriage in Neisseria meningitidis
    Maurizio Comanducci
    IRIS, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Infect Immun 72:4217-23. 2004
    ..The presence of NadA can therefore be used as a tool to study the dynamics of meningococcal infections and understand why this bacterium, which is mostly a commensal, can become a severe pathogen...
  26. ncbi request reprint Biotechnology and vaccines: application of functional genomics to Neisseria meningitidis and other bacterial pathogens
    Davide Serruto
    IRIS, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Biotechnol 113:15-32. 2004
    ..In addition, we describe the potential of these powerful technologies in understanding the pathogenesis of various bacteria...
  27. ncbi request reprint Microbial genomes and vaccine design: refinements to the classical reverse vaccinology approach
    Marirosa Mora
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Curr Opin Microbiol 9:532-6. 2006
    ..The practical consequence is that, in many cases, a universal vaccine is possible only by including a combination of antigens and this combination must take into account the pathogen population structure...
  28. ncbi request reprint Fur functions as an activator and as a repressor of putative virulence genes in Neisseria meningitidis
    Isabel Delany
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, IRIS, Chiron s r l, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 52:1081-90. 2004
    ..Deletion of the upstream operator in the norB promoter abolished activation of transcription in vivo in response to iron and in vitro in response to Fur. The role of such a dual mechanism of Fur regulation during infection is discussed...
  29. pmc Neisseria meningitidis GNA2132, a heparin-binding protein that induces protective immunity in humans
    Davide Serruto
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:3770-5. 2010
    ..We conclude that GNA2132 is an important protective antigen of N. meningitidis and we propose to rename it, Neisserial Heparin Binding Antigen (NHBA)...
  30. pmc Characterization of diverse subvariants of the meningococcal factor H (fH) binding protein for their ability to bind fH, to mediate serum resistance, and to induce bactericidal antibodies
    Kate L Seib
    Molecular Genetics Unit, Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina, 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Infect Immun 79:970-81. 2011
    ..Furthermore, cross-reactive bactericidal activity was seen within each variant group, although the degree of activity varied, suggesting that amino acid differences within each variant group influence the bactericidal antibody response...
  31. doi request reprint Distribution and genetic variability of three vaccine components in a panel of strains representative of the diversity of serogroup B meningococcus
    Stefania Bambini
    Novartis V and D, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 27:2794-803. 2009
    ..Sequencing each gene in the different strains will be important to evaluate antigen conservation and assortment and to allow a future prediction of potential vaccine coverage...
  32. ncbi request reprint The concomitant use of the LTK63 mucosal adjuvant and of chitosan-based delivery system enhances the immunogenicity and efficacy of intranasally administered vaccines
    Barbara C Baudner
    IRIS Research Center, Chiron SpA, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 21:3837-44. 2003
    ..These results demonstrate that the concomitant use of chitosan microparticles and the LTK63 mutant significantly enhances the immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of vaccines given intranasally...
  33. pmc Vaccines, reverse vaccinology, and bacterial pathogenesis
    Isabel Delany
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 3:a012476. 2013
    ....
  34. pmc Identification of an iron-sulfur cluster that modulates the enzymatic activity in NarE, a Neisseria meningitidis ADP-ribosyltransferase
    Mariangela Del Vecchio
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Biol Chem 284:33040-7. 2009
    ..This is the first observation suggesting that a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase family contains an Fe-S cluster implicated in catalysis. This observation may unravel novel functions exerted by this class of enzymes...
  35. pmc Effect of Neisseria meningitidis fur mutations on global control of gene transcription
    Isabel Delany
    Molecular Immunology Unit, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Bacteriol 188:2483-92. 2006
    ..We began to dissect the regulatory networks of Fur and the heat shock (stress) response in N. meningitidis, and the observed interlink between the two circuits is discussed...
  36. ncbi request reprint The impact of genomics on vaccine design
    Maria Scarselli
    Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Trends Biotechnol 23:84-91. 2005
    ..In this review, we describe how genomic approaches can be used to identify novel vaccine candidates or create safer live-attenuated vaccines...
  37. pmc N19 polyepitope as a carrier for enhanced immunogenicity and protective efficacy of meningococcal conjugate vaccines
    Karin Baraldo
    Research Center, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Infect Immun 72:4884-7. 2004
    ..N19-based conjugates are superior to CRM-based conjugates to induce protective immune responses to MenC conjugates...
  38. pmc Dual control of Helicobacter pylori heat shock gene transcription by HspR and HrcA
    Gunther Spohn
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, IRIS, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Bacteriol 186:2956-65. 2004
    ..The implications of these findings for the elucidation of the networks regulating heat shock gene expression in H. pylori are discussed...
  39. pmc Structure-based approach to rationally design a chimeric protein for an effective vaccine against Group B Streptococcus infections
    Annalisa Nuccitelli
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:10278-83. 2011
    ..In addition, this work describes a template procedure that can be followed to develop vaccines against other bacterial pathogens...
  40. pmc Qualitative and quantitative assessment of meningococcal antigens to evaluate the potential strain coverage of protein-based vaccines
    John Donnelly
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:19490-5. 2010
    ..This assay allows typing of large panels of strains and prediction of coverage of protein-based meningococcal vaccines. Similar assays may be used for protein-based vaccines against other bacteria...
  41. doi request reprint The factor H binding protein of Neisseria meningitidis interacts with xenosiderophores in vitro
    Daniele Veggi
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena, Italy
    Biochemistry 51:9384-93. 2012
    ..Our results indicated that the enterobactin binding site was distinct from the site involved in binding to human factor H and stimulates new hypotheses about possible multiple activities of fHbp...
  42. ncbi request reprint Pili in gram-positive pathogens
    John L Telford
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Srl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Rev Microbiol 4:509-19. 2006
    ....
  43. doi request reprint Seasonal influenza vaccine provides priming for A/H1N1 immunization
    Giuseppe Del Giudice
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Sci Transl Med 1:12re1. 2009
    ..The vaccine given without adjuvant significantly reduced viral load in the lungs but did not protect from infection. Only the vaccine with adjuvant completely prevented both pulmonary and nasal infection...
  44. pmc Vaccines with the MF59 adjuvant do not stimulate antibody responses against squalene
    Giuseppe Del Giudice
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:1010-3. 2006
    ..In conclusion, antisqualene antibodies are not increased by immunization with vaccines with the MF59 adjuvant. These data extend the safety profile of the MF59 emulsion adjuvant...
  45. ncbi request reprint An anti-repression Fur operator upstream of the promoter is required for iron-mediated transcriptional autoregulation in Helicobacter pylori
    Isabel Delany
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, IRIS, Chiron S rl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 50:1329-38. 2003
    ..We propose that its role is ensuring that Fur expression is not repressed below a minimum threshold level. Our data supports a novel promoter architecture and mechanism of regulation by Fur...
  46. pmc Identification of protective and broadly conserved vaccine antigens from the genome of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli
    Danilo Gomes Moriel
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:9072-7. 2010
    ..The gene encoding the most protective antigen was detected in most of the E. coli isolates, highly conserved in sequence and found to be exported by a type II secretion system which seems to be nonfunctional in nonpathogenic strains...
  47. ncbi request reprint The genome revolution in vaccine research
    Barbara Capecchi
    IRIS, Chiron s r l, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Curr Issues Mol Biol 6:17-27. 2004
    ..The concept of "Reverse Vaccinology" can be easily applied to all the pathogens for which vaccines are not yet available and can be extended to parasites and viruses...
  48. ncbi request reprint The pan-genome: towards a knowledge-based discovery of novel targets for vaccines and antibacterials
    Alessandro Muzzi
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Drug Discov Today 12:429-39. 2007
    ....
  49. doi request reprint Microbiology in the post-genomic era
    Duccio Medini
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Rev Microbiol 6:419-30. 2008
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint The quest for a vaccine against Helicobacter pylori: how to move from mouse to man?
    Paolo Ruggiero
    IRIS Research Center, Chiron Srl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Microbes Infect 5:749-56. 2003
    ..These studies are also needed for deciphering those aspects of the effector immune responses that correlate with protection against H. pylori infection and disease...
  51. ncbi request reprint Vaccines in the era of genomics: the pneumococcal challenge
    Michèle Anne Barocchi
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 25:2963-73. 2007
    ..Ultimately, the identification of immunogenic surface antigens and assessment of their efficacy will be imperative in the development of a vaccine with the ability to protect against invasive disease independent of serotype...
  52. ncbi request reprint Reverse vaccinology and genomics
    Rino Rappuoli
    IRIS, Chiron Vaccines, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Science 302:602. 2003
    ..The genomic revolution has had a dramatic effect on our ability to find new vaccine targets and develop effective vaccines...
  53. ncbi request reprint Genetic detoxification of bacterial toxins
    Mariagrazia Pizza
    IRIS, Chiron Srl, Via Fiorentina, Siena, Italy
    Methods Mol Med 87:133-52. 2003
  54. ncbi request reprint Genome analysis reveals pili in Group B Streptococcus
    Peter Lauer
    Chiron Srl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Science 309:105. 2005
    ..Immunogold electron microscopy revealed that the structures have a pilus-like form. These large structures have gone unrecognized in decades of studies of Group B Streptococcus...
  55. pmc CrgA is an inducible LysR-type regulator of Neisseria meningitidis, acting both as a repressor and as an activator of gene transcription
    Raffaele Ieva
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, Chiron Vaccines, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Bacteriol 187:3421-30. 2005
    ..The role of CrgA in the regulation of gene expression during the infectious cycle of N. meningitidis is discussed...
  56. ncbi request reprint Long-term solutions for the problem of vaccine shortages
    Maria Lattanzi
    Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Expert Opin Biol Ther 4:989-92. 2004
    ..This article will provide examples of how public-private partnerships both in developed and developing countries have been established to handle specific problems concerning vaccination...
  57. doi request reprint Neisseria gonorrhoeae PIII has a role on NG1873 outer membrane localization and is involved in bacterial adhesion to human cervical and urethral epithelial cells
    Rosanna Leuzzi
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, S, R, L, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena 53100, Italy
    BMC Microbiol 13:251. 2013
    ..The contribution of PIII in the membrane architecture and its role in the interaction with epithelial cells has never been investigated...
  58. ncbi request reprint Neisseria meningitidis App, a new adhesin with autocatalytic serine protease activity
    Davide Serruto
    IRIS, Chiron s r l, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 48:323-34. 2003
    ..The serine protease activity is localized at the amino-terminal domain, whereas the binding domain is in the carboxy-terminal region. The role of App in adhesion was confirmed also in N. meningitidis...
  59. pmc Structure and dynamics of the pan-genome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and closely related species
    Claudio Donati
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Genome Biol 11:R107. 2010
    ..Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of microbial diseases in humans. The genomes of 44 diverse strains of S. pneumoniae were analyzed and compared with strains of non-pathogenic streptococci of the Mitis group...
  60. pmc Human circulating influenza-CD4+ ICOS1+IL-21+ T cells expand after vaccination, exert helper function, and predict antibody responses
    Fabiana Spensieri
    Research Center, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, SRL, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:14330-5. 2013
    ..We propose that the expansion of antigen-specific ICOS1(+)IL-21(+) CD4(+) T cells in blood is an early marker of vaccine immunogenicity and an important immune parameter for the evaluation of novel vaccination strategies. ..
  61. ncbi request reprint Factor H-binding protein, a unique meningococcal vaccine antigen
    Mariagrazia Pizza
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 26:I46-8. 2008
    ..fHbp is important for survival in human blood, human sera, and in presence of antimicrobial peptides, independently of its expression level. All these properties make fHbp a unique vaccine antigen...
  62. ncbi request reprint Two years into reverse vaccinology
    Jeannette Adu-Bobie
    IRIS, Chiron SpA, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100, Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 21:605-10. 2003
    ..The Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B project, the first example of Reverse Vaccinology, as well as the application of this strategy to develop novel vaccines against other human pathogens are discussed...
  63. pmc Invariant NKT cells sustain specific B cell responses and memory
    Grazia Galli
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:3984-9. 2007
    ..Interestingly, the decay of circulating antibodies is faster in mice lacking iNKT cells. These findings point to a homeostatic role for iNKT cells on critical features of the antibody response such as immunity and B cell memory...
  64. ncbi request reprint Group B Streptococcus crosses human epithelial cells by a paracellular route
    Marco Soriani
    Immunobiological Research Institute of Siena IRIS, Chiron Vaccines, Siena, Italy
    J Infect Dis 193:241-50. 2006
    ..This process consisted of an active and transient opening of cell junctions. Indeed, GBS was preferentially found along the cell perimeter, where it colocalized with junctional protein complexes...
  65. doi request reprint Vaccines for the twenty-first century society
    Rino Rappuoli
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Srl, Via Fiorentina 5, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Rev Immunol 11:865-72. 2011
    ..Supported by the innovations derived from new technologies, vaccines will address the new needs of a twenty-first century society characterized by increased life expectancy, emerging infections and poverty in low-income countries...
  66. pmc The iron-responsive regulator fur is transcriptionally autoregulated and not essential in Neisseria meningitidis
    Isabel Delany
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, IRIS, Chiron s r l, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Bacteriol 185:6032-41. 2003
    ..The presence of two independently regulated fur promoters may allow meningococcus to fine-tune expression of this regulator controlling iron homeostasis, possibly during infection...
  67. pmc NadA, a novel vaccine candidate of Neisseria meningitidis
    Maurizio Comanducci
    Immunological Research Institute Siena, Chiron S p A, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Exp Med 195:1445-54. 2002
    ..NadA induces strong bactericidal antibodies and is protective in the infant rat model suggesting that this protein may represent a novel antigen for a vaccine able to control meningococcal disease caused by three hypervirulent lineages...
  68. pmc Growth phase-dependent regulation of target gene promoters for binding of the essential orphan response regulator HP1043 of Helicobacter pylori
    Isabel Delany
    Department of Molecular Biology, IRIS, Chiron SpA, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Bacteriol 184:4800-10. 2002
    ..The P(1043) and P(tlpB) promoters were demonstrated to be coordinately regulated in response to growth phase in H. pylori. The essential role of HP1043 in encoding a cell cycle regulator is discussed...
  69. doi request reprint Molecular mechanisms of complement evasion: learning from staphylococci and meningococci
    Davide Serruto
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Rev Microbiol 8:393-9. 2010
    ..This information is fundamental to our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and may facilitate the design of better vaccines...
  70. pmc Helicobacter pylori: after the genomes, back to biology
    Antonello Covacci
    IRIS, Chiron Vaccines Srl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    J Exp Med 197:807-11. 2003
  71. ncbi request reprint Expression and selective up-regulation of toxin-related mono ADP-ribosyltransferases by pathogen-associated molecular patterns in alveolar epithelial cells
    Enrico Balducci
    Department of Comparative Morphology and Biochemistry, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
    FEBS Lett 581:4199-204. 2007
    ..These results show that human ARTs possess a differential capacity to respond to bacteria cell wall components and might play a crucial role in innate immune response in airways...
  72. ncbi request reprint Vaccine manufacturing: challenges and solutions
    Jeffrey B Ulmer
    Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, 4560 Horton St, Mailstop 4 3, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 24:1377-83. 2006
    ..However, the increased cost of producing new vaccines and regulatory uncertainty remain challenges for vaccine manufacturers...
  73. ncbi request reprint Development of V2-deleted trimeric envelope vaccine candidates from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes B and C
    Susan W Barnett
    Vaccines Research Department, Chiron Corporation, 4560 Horton Street, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Microbes Infect 7:1386-91. 2005
    ....
  74. ncbi request reprint The safety of vaccines
    Derek T O'Hagan
    Chiron Vaccines, 4560 Horton Street M S 4 3, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Drug Discov Today 9:846-54. 2004
  75. ncbi request reprint An MF59-adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine containing A/Panama/1999 (H3N2) induced broader serological protection against heterovariant influenza virus strain A/Fujian/2002 than a subunit and a split influenza vaccine
    Giuseppe Del Giudice
    Chiron Vaccines, Research Center and Clinical Research, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 24:3063-5. 2006
    ..We conclude that MF59-adjuvanted vaccines confer protection also against influenza virus strains which are not fully matched with those included in the vaccine...
  76. ncbi request reprint Novel approaches to pediatric vaccine delivery
    Derek T O'Hagan
    Chiron Vaccines, 4560 Horton Street M S 4 3, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
    Adv Drug Deliv Rev 58:29-51. 2006
    ..Of particular interest for safer mass immunization are needle-free delivery devices, which would avoid problems due to needle re-use in many parts of the world, or needle-stick injuries...
  77. ncbi request reprint Novel approaches to vaccine delivery
    Derek T O'Hagan
    Chiron Vaccines, Emeryville, California 94608, USA
    Pharm Res 21:1519-30. 2004
    ..Of particular interest for safer mass immunization campaigns are needle-free delivery devices, which would avoid problems due to needle re-use in many parts of the world and would avoid needle-stick injuries...
  78. ncbi request reprint Anticipating crisis: towards a pandemic flu vaccination strategy through alignment of public health and industrial policy
    Rudi Daems
    Chiron Vaccines, Policy and Corporate Affairs, Oxford, UK
    Vaccine 23:5732-42. 2005
    ..In addition, we argue that innovative vaccination strategies, together with special vaccine formulations which may offer cross-protection against multiple flu pandemic strains might avert the worse effects of an influenza infection...
  79. ncbi request reprint Protective immune responses to meningococcal C conjugate vaccine after intranasal immunization of mice with the LTK63 mutant plus chitosan or trimethyl chitosan chloride as novel delivery platform
    Barbara C Baudner
    Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Drug Target 13:489-98. 2005
    ..Importantly, intranasal but not parenteral immunization, induced bactericidal antibodies at the nasal level, when formulated with both delivery system and adjuvant...
  80. ncbi request reprint Bridging the knowledge gaps in vaccine design
    Rino Rappuoli
    Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Biotechnol 25:1361-6. 2007
  81. ncbi request reprint Evolution of functional polymorphism in the gene coding for the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin
    Xuhuai Ji
    IRIS, Chiron SpA, Sienna, Italy
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 206:253-8. 2002
    ..The data indicate that the m2 m-region was acquired and spread through the population by horizontal transfer of DNA...
  82. doi request reprint The European effort towards the development of mucosal vaccines for poverty-related diseases
    Donata Medaglini
    Laboratorio di Microbiologia Molecolare e Biotecnologia LAMMB, Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Universita di Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 27:2641-8. 2009
    ....
  83. ncbi request reprint Reverse vaccinology
    Marirosa Mora
    IRIS, Chiron s r l, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Drug Discov Today 8:459-64. 2003
    ..This review focuses on some recent advances in the identification of vaccine candidates by mining the genomic sequences of pathogenic bacteria...
  84. ncbi request reprint Medicine. The intangible value of vaccination
    Rino Rappuoli
    IRIS, Chiron SpA, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Science 297:937-9. 2002
  85. ncbi request reprint Vaccinology at the beginning of the 21st century
    Andreas Wack
    Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Curr Opin Immunol 17:411-8. 2005
    ..Although work on the 'easy' vaccines has already been completed, it is hoped that a combination of conceptual and technical innovation will enable the development of more complex and sophisticated vaccines in the future...
  86. ncbi request reprint The microbial pan-genome
    Duccio Medini
    Immunobiological Research Institute of Siena IRIS, Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 15:589-94. 2005
    ..Given that the number of unique genes is vast, the pan-genome of a bacterial species might be orders of magnitude larger than any single genome...
  87. ncbi request reprint Previously unrecognized vaccine candidates against group B meningococcus identified by DNA microarrays
    Renata Grifantini
    Chiron SpA, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Nat Biotechnol 20:914-21. 2002
    ....
  88. ncbi request reprint The value of vaccines
    Vega Masignani
    IRIS, Chiron s r l, Via Fiorentina 1, I 53100 Siena, Italy
    Vaccine 21:S110-3. 2003
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint c-Src/Lyn kinases activate Helicobacter pylori CagA through tyrosine phosphorylation of the EPIYA motifs
    Markus Stein
    IRIS Chiron S p A, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
    Mol Microbiol 43:971-80. 2002
    ..Thus, CagA translocation followed by tyrosine phosphorylation at the EPIYA motifs promotes a growth factor-like response with intense cytoskeletal rearrangements, cell elongation effects and increased cellular motility...
  90. ncbi request reprint In silico identification of novel bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases
    Vega Masignani
    IRIS Chiron Vaccines Siena, Italy
    Int J Med Microbiol 293:471-8. 2004
    ..One of them, identified in Neisseria meningitidis has been extensively characterized and shown to possess the predicted enzymatic activity, suggesting a possible role of this protein in the virulence of Meningococcus...
  91. pmc Mucosal vaccination against serogroup B meningococci: induction of bactericidal antibodies and cellular immunity following intranasal immunization with NadA of Neisseria meningitidis and mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin
    Frances Bowe
    Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    Infect Immun 72:4052-60. 2004
    ....
  92. pmc Identification of iron-activated and -repressed Fur-dependent genes by transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis group B
    Renata Grifantini
    Chiron SpA, Siena, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:9542-7. 2003
    ..Microarray-generated gene expression profiling appears to be a very effective approach to define new regulons and regulatory pathways in pathogenic bacteria...
  93. ncbi request reprint Modulation of immune response to group C meningococcal conjugate vaccine given intranasally to mice together with the LTK63 mucosal adjuvant and the trimethyl chitosan delivery system
    Barbara C Baudner
    Research Center, Chiron Srl, Siena, Italy
    J Infect Dis 189:828-32. 2004
    ..These data could affect the design of efficacious mucosal vaccines and their safety...
  94. ncbi request reprint Adjuvant activity of Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing CRM197 on the immune response induced by BCG expressing tetanus toxin fragment C
    Rogerio P Mazzantini
    Centro de Biotecnologia, Instituto Butantan, Av Vital Brasil 1500, 05503 900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Vaccine 22:740-6. 2004
    ..Our results suggest reciprocal adjuvant effects of rBCG-FC and rBCG-CRM197, which may contribute to induction of a more effective immune response against both diseases...
  95. ncbi request reprint Transcutaneous immunization with tetanus toxoid and mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin as adjuvants elicits strong protective antibody responses
    Rob Tierney
    Division of Bacteriology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Potters Bar, United Kingdom
    J Infect Dis 188:753-8. 2003
    ..Overall, these findings demonstrate that mutants of enterotoxins with reduced toxicity are effective adjuvants for transcutaneous immunization...
  96. pmc A second pilus type in Streptococcus pneumoniae is prevalent in emerging serotypes and mediates adhesion to host cells
    Fabio Bagnoli
    Department of Cellular Microbiology and Bioinformatics, Novartis Vaccines, University of Siena, Siena 53100, Italy
    J Bacteriol 190:5480-92. 2008
    ..Thus, pneumococci encode at least two types of pili that play a role in the initial host cell contact to the respiratory tract and are potential antigens for inclusion in a new generation of pneumococcal vaccines...
  97. ncbi request reprint Mucosal delivery of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat protein in mice elicits systemic neutralizing antibodies, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and mucosal IgA
    Mariarosaria Marinaro
    Laboratory of Bacteriology and Medical Mycology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
    Vaccine 21:3972-81. 2003
    ..Furthermore, their splenocytes proliferated and secreted IFN-gamma and IL-6 in response to Tat. Finally, CTLs were also elicited and they recognized an epitope localized within aa 11-40 of Tat...
  98. ncbi request reprint Mutants of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin as safe and strong adjuvants for intranasal delivery of vaccines
    Samuele Peppoloni
    IRIS Research Center, Department of Hygiene, Microbiology and Biostatistical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2:285-93. 2003
    ..The fully nontoxic LTK63 mutant has now been successfully tested in human volunteers with a trivalent subunit influenza vaccine...
  99. ncbi request reprint Antibody to genome-derived neisserial antigen 2132, a Neisseria meningitidis candidate vaccine, confers protection against bacteremia in the absence of complement-mediated bactericidal activity
    Jo Anne Welsch
    Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California 94609, USA
    J Infect Dis 188:1730-40. 2003
    ..GNA2132 is thus a promising vaccine candidate for prevention of disease caused by N. meningitidis...
  100. pmc Protective levels of diphtheria-neutralizing antibody induced in healthy volunteers by unilateral priming-boosting intranasal immunization associated with restricted ipsilateral mucosal secretory immunoglobulin a
    Kingston H G Mills
    Immune Regulation Research Group, Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Infect Immun 71:726-32. 2003
    ..However, a restricted sIgA response suggests that care must be taken in the priming-boosting strategy and clinical sampling techniques when evaluating such vaccines for the induction of local mucosal immunity...
  101. ncbi request reprint An efficient method to make human monoclonal antibodies from memory B cells: potent neutralization of SARS coronavirus
    Elisabetta Traggiai
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Via Vela 6, CH 6500 Belllinzona, Switzerland
    Nat Med 10:871-5. 2004
    ..These results show that it is possible to interrogate the memory repertoire of immune donors to rapidly and efficiently isolate neutralizing antibodies that have been selected in the course of natural infection...