Richard L Ward

Summary

Affiliation: Children's Hospital Medical Center
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Possible mechanisms of protection elicited by candidate rotavirus vaccines as determined with the adult mouse model
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Viral Immunol 16:17-24. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Protection against rotavirus shedding after intranasal immunization of mice with a chimeric VP6 protein does not require intestinal IgA
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Virology 346:338-47. 2006
  3. pmc Association of gamma interferon and interleukin-17 production in intestinal CD4+ T cells with protection against rotavirus shedding in mice intranasally immunized with VP6 and the adjuvant LT(R192G)
    Kristi L Smiley
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, and Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Virol 81:3740-8. 2007
  4. pmc Mice develop effective but delayed protective immune responses when immunized as neonates either intranasally with nonliving VP6/LT(R192G) or orally with live rhesus rotavirus vaccine candidates
    John L VanCott
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Biostatistics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Virol 80:4949-61. 2006
  5. ncbi request reprint Intrarectal immunization of mice with VP6 and either LT(R192G) or CTA1-DD as adjuvant protects against fecal rotavirus shedding after EDIM challenge
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Vaccine 25:6224-31. 2007
  6. ncbi request reprint IFN-gamma is the only anti-rotavirus cytokine found after in vitro stimulation of memory CD4+ T cells from mice immunized with a chimeric VP6 protein
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Viral Immunol 20:571-84. 2007
  7. ncbi request reprint Identification of an immunodominant CD4+ T cell epitope in the VP6 protein of rotavirus following intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Virology 363:410-8. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint Intranasal or oral immunization of inbred and outbred mice with murine or human rotavirus VP6 proteins protects against viral shedding after challenge with murine rotaviruses
    Anthony H Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Vaccine 20:3310-21. 2002
  9. ncbi request reprint The level of protection against rotavirus shedding in mice following immunization with a chimeric VP6 protein is dependent on the route and the coadministered adjuvant
    Anthony H Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, The Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Vaccine 20:1733-40. 2002
  10. ncbi request reprint Intranasal administration of an Escherichia coli-expressed codon-optimized rotavirus VP6 protein induces protection in mice
    Anthony H C Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 38:205-16. 2004

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications40

  1. ncbi request reprint Possible mechanisms of protection elicited by candidate rotavirus vaccines as determined with the adult mouse model
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Viral Immunol 16:17-24. 2003
    ..The results of studies in the adult mouse model that appear to be most pertinent to the present vaccine candidates are presented and discussed...
  2. ncbi request reprint Protection against rotavirus shedding after intranasal immunization of mice with a chimeric VP6 protein does not require intestinal IgA
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Virology 346:338-47. 2006
    ..Therefore, protection induced by intranasal immunization of mice with VP6 and adjuvant does not depend on intestinal rotavirus IgA antibody but appears to be associated with CD4 T cells...
  3. pmc Association of gamma interferon and interleukin-17 production in intestinal CD4+ T cells with protection against rotavirus shedding in mice intranasally immunized with VP6 and the adjuvant LT(R192G)
    Kristi L Smiley
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, and Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Virol 81:3740-8. 2007
    ....
  4. pmc Mice develop effective but delayed protective immune responses when immunized as neonates either intranasally with nonliving VP6/LT(R192G) or orally with live rhesus rotavirus vaccine candidates
    John L VanCott
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Biostatistics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Virol 80:4949-61. 2006
    ....
  5. ncbi request reprint Intrarectal immunization of mice with VP6 and either LT(R192G) or CTA1-DD as adjuvant protects against fecal rotavirus shedding after EDIM challenge
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Vaccine 25:6224-31. 2007
    ..As was previously found after oral and intranasal immunization, intrarectal immunization with MBP::VP6 and adjuvant was associated with T cell responses (IFNgamma and IL-17) but not B cell (antibody) responses...
  6. ncbi request reprint IFN-gamma is the only anti-rotavirus cytokine found after in vitro stimulation of memory CD4+ T cells from mice immunized with a chimeric VP6 protein
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Viral Immunol 20:571-84. 2007
    ..Thus, IFN-gamma was the only cytokine identified in stimulated CD4+ T cells from immunized mice that directly inhibited rotavirus replication...
  7. ncbi request reprint Identification of an immunodominant CD4+ T cell epitope in the VP6 protein of rotavirus following intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Virology 363:410-8. 2007
    ..This was not observed but instead the only VP6 epitope identified was AA(242-259), the dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope previously reported after oral, live rotavirus immunization...
  8. ncbi request reprint Intranasal or oral immunization of inbred and outbred mice with murine or human rotavirus VP6 proteins protects against viral shedding after challenge with murine rotaviruses
    Anthony H Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Vaccine 20:3310-21. 2002
    ..n. immunization with EDIM or CJN VP6 was no different when the mice were challenged with McN, another strain of murine rotavirus. These results support further evaluation of VP6 as a vaccine...
  9. ncbi request reprint The level of protection against rotavirus shedding in mice following immunization with a chimeric VP6 protein is dependent on the route and the coadministered adjuvant
    Anthony H Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, The Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Vaccine 20:1733-40. 2002
    ..Thus, different adjuvants induced different degrees of protection and oral immunization was generally less effective then the i.n. route...
  10. ncbi request reprint Intranasal administration of an Escherichia coli-expressed codon-optimized rotavirus VP6 protein induces protection in mice
    Anthony H C Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Protein Expr Purif 38:205-16. 2004
    ..Thus, expression of complete rotavirus VP6 protein was greatly enhanced by codon optimization, and the protection elicited was not affected by denaturation of recombinant VP6...
  11. ncbi request reprint The role of interferons in rotavirus infections and protection
    John L VanCott
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 23:163-70. 2003
    ....
  12. pmc Protection of mice against rotavirus challenge following intradermal DNA immunization by Biojector needle-free injection
    Anthony H C Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Vaccine 25:3215-8. 2007
    ..05) protected. Intramuscular needle injection of VP6/LT(R192G)-plasmids also induced significant protection (66%)...
  13. ncbi request reprint Reductions in cross-neutralizing antibody responses in infants after attenuation of the human rotavirus vaccine candidate 89-12
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 194:1729-36. 2006
    ..Even so, the Rotarix vaccine developed from attenuated 89-12 was found to elicit excellent protection against non-G1 rotaviruses...
  14. ncbi request reprint Discovery of a new strain of murine rotavirus that is consistently shed in large quantities after oral inoculation of adult mice
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Virology 320:1-11. 2004
    ..Therefore, it is recommended that the EMcN strain be used for future challenge studies with mice on this background...
  15. pmc Prevention of the murine model of biliary atresia after live rotavirus vaccination of dams
    Alexander J Bondoc
    Department of Pediatric and Thoracic Surgery, ML 2023, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Pediatr Surg 44:1479-90. 2009
    ..We determined whether maternal postconception rotavirus vaccination could prevent the murine model of BA...
  16. ncbi request reprint Functional mapping of protective epitopes within the rotavirus VP6 protein in mice belonging to different haplotypes
    Anthony H C Choi
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Research Foundation, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 3039, USA
    Vaccine 21:761-7. 2003
    ..Together, these studies show that functional mapping is useful in locating epitopes that are relevant to the development of subunit rotavirus vaccines...
  17. pmc Development of a rotavirus-shedding model in rhesus macaques, using a homologous wild-type rotavirus of a new P genotype
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    J Virol 79:944-54. 2005
    ..Therefore, TUCH infection of macaques provides a useful nonhuman primate model for studies on rotavirus protection...
  18. doi request reprint VP6: A candidate rotavirus vaccine
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:S101-7. 2010
    ..In contrast to live rotavirus vaccines, CD4(+) T cells were found to be the only lymphocytes required for protection. If VP6 elicits comparable protection in humans, it would represent a potential second-generation vaccine candidate...
  19. ncbi request reprint Rotavirus immunoglobulin a responses stimulated by each of 3 doses of a quadrivalent human/bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 189:2290-3. 2004
    ..In total, 16, 19, and 15 vaccine recipients had increases after 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively, indicating that a 3-dose regimen increased the immune response elicited by this vaccine...
  20. doi request reprint Influence of potential protective mechanisms on the development of live rotavirus vaccines
    Richard L Ward
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Infect Dis 202:S72-9. 2010
    ..These candidates are composed of single rotavirus strains and include the other vaccine being licensed worldwide (Rotarix). Studies that provide the basis for each approach will be presented and discussed...
  21. ncbi request reprint Rotavirus deaths: rare or unrecognized?
    Mary Allen Staat
    University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Ohio 45229, USA
    Clin Pediatr (Phila) 44:535-7. 2005
  22. doi request reprint Rotavirus vaccines: how they work or don't work
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, 3333 Burnet Ave, ML 6014, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Expert Rev Mol Med 10:e5. 2008
    ..Immune effectors have overlapping functions, and protection against rotavirus by either live or non-living vaccines is probably enhanced by this redundancy...
  23. ncbi request reprint Estimating the rotavirus hospitalization disease burden and trends, using capture-recapture methods
    Mary Allen Staat
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:1083-6. 2010
    ..Our objective was to use capture-recapture methods to estimate rotavirus hospitalization rates and to examine trends over time...
  24. doi request reprint Rotarix: a rotavirus vaccine for the world
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 48:222-8. 2009
    ..This article describes the history of the development of the RIX4414 vaccine...
  25. ncbi request reprint Rotarix: development of a live attenuated monovalent human rotavirus vaccine
    David I Bernstein
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229, USA
    Pediatr Ann 35:38-43. 2006
  26. pmc CD4 T cells are the only lymphocytes needed to protect mice against rotavirus shedding after intranasal immunization with a chimeric VP6 protein and the adjuvant LT(R192G)
    Monica M McNeal
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    J Virol 76:560-8. 2002
    ..Together, these results establish CD4 T cells as effectors of protection against rotavirus after intranasal immunization of mice with VP6 and LT(R192G)...
  27. ncbi request reprint Second-year follow-up evaluation of live, attenuated human rotavirus vaccine 89-12 in healthy infants
    David I Bernstein
    Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1487-9. 2002
    ..001 for each). These encouraging results have led to continued evaluation, in several countries, of a vaccine candidate derived from strain 89-12...
  28. ncbi request reprint Rotavirus vaccines: is the second time the charm?
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Curr Opin Investig Drugs 6:798-803. 2005
    ..Human rotaviruses have also been developed as candidate vaccines and Rotarix, which is attenuated by passage in cell culture, has been launched in Mexico and may soon be available worldwide...
  29. ncbi request reprint Clinical presentations of rotavirus infection among hospitalized children
    Mary Allen Staat
    Division of Infectious Disease, Children s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:221-7. 2002
    ..Although rotaviruses (RVs) are the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, there is a lack of information detailing the spectrum of clinical manifestations of RV disease resulting in hospitalization...
  30. pmc Why does the world need another rotavirus vaccine?
    Richard L Ward
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center Cincinnati, OH, USA
    Ther Clin Risk Manag 4:49-63. 2008
    ..This review is intended to provide the history and present status of rotavirus vaccines as well as a perspective on the future development of candidate vaccines as a means of promulgating plans suggested at the Geneva meeting...
  31. ncbi request reprint Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in healthy infants of G1 and G2 human reassortant rotavirus vaccine in a new stabilizer/buffer liquid formulation
    H Fred Clark
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 22:914-20. 2003
    ..A refrigerator-stable rotavirus (RV) vaccine that withstands gastric acid is anticipated to permit more widespread use of RV vaccine...
  32. ncbi request reprint Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a live, quadrivalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine in healthy infants
    H Fred Clark
    University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, and Merck and Co, Inc, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    J Pediatr 144:184-90. 2004
    ..To investigate safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of live quadrivalent rotavirus vaccine (QRV) containing human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus serotypes G1, G2, G3, and P1a...
  33. ncbi request reprint Activated primary and memory CD8 T cells migrate to nonlymphoid tissues regardless of site of activation or tissue of origin
    David Masopust
    Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
    J Immunol 172:4875-82. 2004
    ..These observations will help refine our understanding of effector and memory CD8 T cell migration patterns...
  34. pmc Obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts by lymphocytes is regulated by IFN-gamma in experimental biliary atresia
    Pranavkumar Shivakumar
    Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center, Ohio 45229 3039, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:322-9. 2004
    ..Thus, IFN-gamma-driven obstruction of bile ducts is a key pathogenic mechanism of disease and may constitute a therapeutic target to block disease progression in patients with biliary atresia...
  35. ncbi request reprint Comparative evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of two dosages of an oral live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine
    Penelope H Dennehy
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Rhode Island Hospital and the Department of Pediatrics, Brown Medical School, Providence, 02903, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:481-8. 2005
    ..Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for more than 500,000 physician visits, 50,000 hospitalizations and 20 deaths in the United States each year...
  36. ncbi request reprint Development of candidate rotavirus vaccines derived from neonatal strains in India
    Roger I Glass
    Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:S30-5. 2005
    ..This unique project, which is developing a new rotavirus vaccine in India with the use of Indian strains, an Indian manufacturer, and an Indian clinical development program, aims to expedite introduction of rotavirus vaccines in India...
  37. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of rotavirus dsRNA load in specimens and body fluids from experimentally infected juvenile macaques by real-time PCR
    Wei Zhao
    Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA 70433, USA
    Virology 341:248-56. 2005
    ..Thus, the rhesus model of rotavirus infection can be exploited further in studies with vaccine candidates designed to prevent or abrogate rotavirus infection...
  38. ncbi request reprint Nonmedical costs associated with rotavirus disease requiring hospitalization
    Brian P Lee
    Children s Hospital and Research Center at Oakland, Oakland, CA, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:984-8. 2005
    ..Herein, we report the results from the largest prospective study in the United States determining the nonmedical costs of severe rotavirus infections...
  39. ncbi request reprint Safety and immunogenicity of two live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine candidates, 116E and I321, in infants: results of a randomised controlled trial
    Nita Bhandari
    Society for Applied Studies, New Delhi, India
    Vaccine 24:5817-23. 2006
    ..Vaccine virus was shed on days 3, 7 or 28 in 11/30 infants of the 116E and none in the other two groups. The 116E strain is attenuated, clinically safe and highly immunogenic with a single dose...
  40. ncbi request reprint Effects of the potency and composition of the multivalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine on efficacy, safety and immunogenicity in healthy infants
    Timo Vesikari
    University of Tampere Medical School, Tampere, Finland
    Vaccine 24:4821-9. 2006
    ....